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r ATKSKOVim-iA'n . 


London t 

Printed by A. SporniwooDS, 
Kew-Streefc-Square. • 


In my larger Grammar I have endeavoured methodically 
to put together everything which relates to the Latin 
language in its best period, and serves to explain the 
la;nguage of the Roman classics. Although I have 
abstained from accxmiulating examples which only con- 
firm the rules, and which the pupil, with much more 
pleasure and profit, may collect for himself, still the 
size of the work has become larger than is commonly 
thought desirable for schools. Youthfiil beginners are 
easily frightened by the sight of voluminous school- 
books, although the intention may be that the pupils 
diould go through only part of them : the eye and 
mind of beginners are often attracted by those parts 
which, for the time, should not engage their atten- 
tion, and fill them with unnecessary alarm. The price 
of a school-book, too, is a matter of some consider- 
ation ; for only a small number of those who learn the 
elements of Latin continue the study of it with a view 
to acquire a perfect knowledge of it. 

For these reasons it was found necessary in Germany, 
after the publication of the third edition of the larger 
Grammar, to prepare an abridgment for tha \safc ^*^ 
schools ; and I have ever Bmc^ Ao^^tl ^-vsAsiaN^^wxai^ \» 

A. 2 


comprise in each of the two works^ in agreement with 
each other^ the matter which appeared to me necessary 
for the acquisition of the Latin language^ in the differ- 
ent stages of the beginner and of the reader of classical 
authors. The sixth edition of this abridgment, corre- 
sponding with the ninth of the larger work, has recently 
appeared in Germany, and is now presented to the 
English public I take this opportunity of making a 
few observations respecting the principles on which the 
abridgment is made, and the n^anner in which it should 
be used. 

Intelligent teachers have always been of opinion, that 
it is desirable for a beginner, in learning a language or 
a science, to adhere to one and the same book, that he 
may gradually become acquainted with the whole and 
all its parts, and thus make it, as it were, his own. In 
laying down such, a rule, it is, of course, assumed that 
the book is based upon a profound and correct knowledge 
of the subject it treats of, and that it is methodically 
arranged ; and if such is the case, the habit acquired by 
the learner, of referring for all the particulars he meets 
with to certain parts of his manual, is the best assist- 
ance for his memory, and insures an easy, regular, and 
continuous progress: the unavoidable difficulties con- 
nected with the subject itself or the terminology of the 
rules are removed, by frequent recurrence to and con- 
sideration of them ; and the knowledge, once acquired, 
thus takes firm root and becomes easy in its application. 
Different books on the same science for each particular 
stage of the pupil, produce confusion. Setting aside 
the fact that different authors entertain different views 
on the same subject, the mere difference of expression 
is quite enough to puzzle the youthful mind ; and no- 


thing Is worse than to compel a pupil to learn the same 
thing twice or three times in different ways. 

Knowledge is acquired step by step : in every science 
the elements must be set forth first, and be impressed 
upon the memory ; and in Grammar in particular the 
pupil has first to learn the paradigms of the declensions 
and conjugations, the rules about gender and the irre- 
gular conjugation, next the formation of derivative and 
compound words ; then the r^ular syntax ; and lastly, 
the special peculiarities of syntax and their rhetorical 
application, or the syntaxis omata. These different 
stages are distinguished in every grammar by different 
sections or chapters; and, in mine, in particular, the 
division is carried on further by the system of text and 
notes, printed in larger and smaller types, by which 
means the more important parts are separated from 
those of less importance. If, therefore, the study of a 
beginner is directed by an intelligent teacher, there can 
be no danger of a pupil being overwhelmed by the 
quantity of the materials contained in the granunar. 
But if, nevertheless, a smaller book is to be put into 
his hands, it is evident from the foregoing remarks, 
that the main difference between it and the larger 
work must consist in omissions. For this reason 
the division into chapters and the paragraphs are the 
same in the Grammar and in the present Abridgment ; 
so that the two books may be used by the side of each 
other, and the pupil who has commenced his studies in 
the School Grammar, will at once find himself at home 
in the larger work ; and by recognising that which he 
hafi already learned, he will be inspired with confidence 
that he can acquire the rest also, onA. V\!Ci\s5vyX. \ss»s3£i^ 
difficulty. The parts omitted 'm t^i^ «»d5ioo\ GR^sasfiaaaa 

A. 51 


are the Syntaxis Omata, all specialities and peculiarities 
in the idioms of particular authors^ and everything that 
is poetical and unclassical^ which is noticed^ even in the 
larger Grammar, for the most part only in notes. By 
this means the Syntax is reduced to the simplest funda- 
mental rules concerning the use of cases^ tenses, and 
moods. The part containing the Accidence may, per- 
haps, still appear to be rather full ; but I believe that 
the vague manner in which many persons are acquainted 
with Latin is, for the most part, owing to the neglect 
of this very portion in Latin grammars. That which 
actually exists in the classical language must be stated 
with proper minuteness and systematically; the rest 
may be left to the teacher, who has to select what is 
necessary in every particular instance. 

The list of the Irregular Verbs contains the very 
essence of the language, but has been very much 
abridged in regard to particulars and to compound 
verbs. The section on Etymology can be clear and 
iastructive only when the pupil is in possession of a 
sufficient number of analogies. 

. It may, perhaps, be said that the style of the syn- 
tactical rules is not sufficiently easy and concise for 
boys ; and though it may be admitted that it is per- 
fectly appropriate for the larger Grammar, some persons 
perhaps may still demand for the School Grammar 
a different mode of expression ad captum puerorumy 
even if it should be at the expense of correctness 
and accuracy. But on this point I am of a different 
opinion. A grammatical rule must be simple and concise, 
but accurate, and ought not to contain either one word 
too much or too little ; and in this respect there should 
be no difference between a larger and a smaller grammar; 

• • 


a puerile plaiimess and a superficiality which is half 
true and half fabe, are in direct opposition to the ob- 
jects of grammatical instruction. A grammar is not a 
thing to be put into the hands of helpless children^ but 
a school of training for the understanding : it requires a 
teacher who explains and illustrates by examples that 
which, from its nature, is difficult ; and, after such illus- 
trations, the pupil himself will see that the rule could 
not have been expressed more plainly and concisely. 
I have not neglected to give such illustrations in some 
of the notes. For this purpose the examples of the 
larger Grammar have, on the whole, not been curtailed, 
for they are intended to give the teacher an opportunity 
of showing the application of the rules, and they are, 
at the same time, a treasure for the memory of the 
pupil, from which he may derive pleasure even in the 
latest years of his life. With regard to Latin Metres, I 
have added an Appendix, containing the most necessary 
elements, the metrical feet, the structure of the iambic 
senarius and of the dactylic hexameter and pentameter ; 
and this will, I think, be sufficient for those who read 
Phaedrus, Ovid, or Virgil, provided it is combined 
with the rules about the length and shortness of sylla- 
bles, which form an indispensable part of grammar. 

In conclusion, I may be permitted to express my wish 
that this work also may contribute towards a prosper- 
ous and successful study of language, the influence of 
which on the cultivation of the understanding, and, if 
properly directed, also on the cultivation of the feelings, 
is universally acknowledged. 


Berlin, July, 1846. 




Int&oductiok - - - - - 1 

I. Of the Vowels and Consonants - - - 2 

II. Of SyUables 5 

III. Of the Length and Shortness of SyUables - - 6 

IV. Of the Accent of Words - - - - 13 


V. Division of Words according to their l^gnification - 15 

VI. Nouns Substantive. — General Rules of Gender - 16 

VII. Number, Case, and Declension - - - 19 

VIII. First Declension - - - - - 20 

IX. Greek Words in ?, &, and &- - - - 21 

X. Gender of the Nouns of the First Declension - 21 

XI. Second Declension - • - - - 22 

XII. Greek Words of the Second Declension - - 24 

XIII. Gender of the Nouns of the Second Declension - 24 

XIV, Third Declension. — Genitive - - - 25 
XV. The remaining Cases of the Third Declension - SI 

Appendix - - - - - - 37 

XVI. Greek Words of the Third Declension - - 39 
XVII. Gender of Words of the Third Declension. — 

Masculines - - - - 40 

XVIIL Feminmes 41 

XIX. Neuters - - - - - 43 

XX. Fourth Declension - - - - - 44 

XXI. Fifth Declension - - - . - 45 

XXII. Irregular Declension. — Indeclinables. — Defectives - 46 

XXIII. Heteroclita. — Heterogenea - 50 

XXIV. Nouns Adljective. — Terminations. — Declension - 53 
Appendix - - - - - - 54 

XXV. Comparison of Adljectives - - - - 5a 

XXVI. Comparison of Adverbs' and increased Cota^«r\aoti - t>^ 

XXVII. Irregular and defective Compaxisoti • - - «» 


Chap. Page 

XXVIII. Numerals. — I. Cardinal Numerals - - - 62 

XXIX. II. Ordinal Numerals - - - '65 

XXX. III. Distributive Numerals - - - - 67 

XXXI. IV. Multiplicative Numerals . - - 68 

XXXII. V. Proportional Numerals - - - - 68 

XXXIII. VI. Numeral Adverbs - - - - 69 

XXXIV. Pronouns and Adjective Pronouns - - - 70 
XXXV. Declension of Pronouns - - - - 72 

XXXVI. Declension of the Possessive Pronouns and of Pro- 

nominals - - - - - - 75 

XXXVII. The Verb 76 

XXXVIII. Moods.— Tenses - - - - - 78 

XXXIX. Numbers.— Persons- - - - - 79 

XL. Formation of the Tenses - - - - 80 

f XLI. The Verb esse - - - - - 84 

XLII. The four Conjugations - - - - 86 

XLIII. Remarks on the Conju^tions . . . loi 

List of Vskbs which are ir&xoular ih the Formation of 

THEIR Perfect and Svfine. 

XLIV. First Conjugation - - - - - i04 

XLV. Second Conjugation - - - . . 106 

XLVL Third Conjugadoii«-i-l. Verbs which have a Vowel 

before o including those invo - - -113 

XLVII. 2. Verbs in db and to - - - - - 116 

XLVIII. 3. Verbs in bo and |» - - - - 120 

XLIX. 4. Verbs with a Palatal Letter, ^, c, cty h, qu, and gu 

(in which u is not considered as a vowel) before o - 121 

L. 5. Verbs which have l^mffitr "before o - - 124 

LI. 6. Verbs in 40 and xo .... 127 

LI I. Inchoatives - * - - - -129 

LIII. Fourth Conjugation - - - - -131 

LIV. List of Deponent Verbs of the First Conjugation - 132 

L V. Deponents of the Second Coi^ugation - - 1 35 

LVI. Deponents of the Third Conjugation - - - 135 

LVII. Deponents of the Fourth Conjugation - - 137 

LVIIL Irregular Verbs - - - - - 138 

LIX. Defective Verbs - - - - . - 145 

LX. Impersonal Verbs - - - - - 148 

LXI. Etymology of Nouns and Verbs - - - 150 

LXII. Etymology of Particles - - - - 165 

LXIIL Primitive Adverbs - - - - - 168 

LXIV. Comparison of Adverbs - - - - 172 

LX V. Prepositions - - -. - - -172 

LXVI. Prepositions in Compound Words - - - 175 

LXVII. Conjunctions - - - - - 178 

LXVIIL Interjections- - - - - - 181 




Ch«>. Page 

LXIX. Subject and Predicate . - - - 182 

II. Ok the Use of Cases. 

LXX. Nominative Case - - - - - 186 

LXXI. Accusative Case - - - - - 186 

LXXII. Dative Case - - - - - - 191 

LXXIII. Genitive Case - - - - - 196 

LXXIV. Ablative Case 203 

LXXV. Vocative Case 212 

III. Use of the Tenses. 
LXXVI. The Tenses - - - - - - 212 

IV. Of the Moods. 

LXXVII. Indicative Mood - . - - - 220 

LXXVIIL Subjunctive Mood - - - - - 221 

LXXIX. Imperative Mood ..... 235 

LXXX. Infinitive Mood 237 

LXXXI. Use of the Participles - - - -248 

LXXXII. Use of the Gerund . - - - -253 

LXXXIII. Use of the Supine - - - - -256 





ThC Latin language was once spoken bj the Bomans, at 
first only in a part of Middle Italy, but subsequently in all 
Italy and in other countries subject to the Romans. At 
present it can be learnt only from books and the monumental 
inscriptions of that people. 

The earliest Latin writings that we possess, were com- 
posed about 200 years before the birth of Christ, and in the 
sixth century after Christ Latin, as a spoken language, died 
entirely away. It had then become quite corrupted through 
the influence of the foreign nations which had settled in the 
Roman dominions, and it became so mixed up with the lan- 
guages of the invaders that a number of new languages 
(ItflJian, French, Spanish, Portuguese,) were gradusdly 
formed out of it. All persons who wrote Latin in later 
times had learnt it as a dead language. 

During the long period in which the Latin language was 
spoken, it underwent various changes, not only in the num- 
ber of its words and their meanings, in their forms and 
combinations, but, to some extent, in its pronunciation also. 
We shall in this Grammar describe the language, though 
not exclusively, such as it was spoken and written during 
the most important period of Roman literature, that is, about 
the time of Julius Caesar and Cicero, till shortly after the 
l>irUi of Christ. That period is commonly calk4^^ 9o\A««> 



age, and the subsequent one, till about A. d. 120, the silver 
age of the Latin language. 

The Latin language in its origin is nearest akin to the 
Greek, and at the time when the Romans became acquainted 
with the literature, arts, and institutions of Greece, they 
adopted a great many single words, as well as constructions, 
from the Greek, Both languages, moreover, belong to the 
same family from which the English, German, northern, and 
many other languages have (^rung. 



[§ 1.] 1. The Vowels of the Langui^e are A, a; Ey e) 
X i; 0,o; Uf u {Yy y) : and the diphthongs, AE, ae ; OE, 
oe; AZfy au; and EU, eu. Their ancient pronunciation 
did not differ in any essential point from that of the modem 
Italian or German; but the modem pronunciation varies 
in the different countries of Europe, though the length 
and shortness of the vowels are and ought to be observed 
everywhere. (See Chap. III.) The Latin language has no 
signs to distinguish a long from a short vowel. 

Note. The vowel y (called y psUon) occurs only in words which were 
introduced into the Latin language from or through the Greek, at a time 
when the former was already developed, such as ayUabOf pyramis, Cyrus ; 
whereas other words, the Greek origin of which leads us back to more 
ancient times, or has been obscured by changes of sound, have lost their 
original y ; such as miw (from the Greek fivs), sUva (from 0X9}), and 
IcLcrima (from SdKpvoy). The word stilus, too, is better written with t, since 
practice did not acknowledge its identity with the Greek orvKos. 
The diphthong eu, if we except Greek words, occurs only in heu, heus, seu, 
neu, and in neuter and neuiiquam. The diphthongs et, ot, and «t, occur 
only in interjections, such as hei, eia, oiH, and hui, and in cases where dein, 
proifh huic, or cui, are contracted into one syllable, as is commonly done 
in poetry. 

[§ 3.] 2. The Consonants are, B^ b; C, c; Z>, d; F, f; 
G, g: H, h;{K, h;) Z, /; M, m; N, n; P, p; Q, q; 
Rf T9 8, s; T, t\ X x; {Zy z). With regard to their 


classification, it is only necessary here to observe that ^ m, 
tt, Ty are called liquids (liquidae), and the rest mutes (mutae), 
with the exception of 5, which, being a sibilant (littera 
sibUans), is of a peculiar nature. The mutes may again be 
classified, with reference to the organ by which they are 
pronounced, into labials (v, 6, p, f), palatals {g, c, ky qu)^ and 
Unguals {dy t), Xand z (called zetd) are double consonants. 

Na^. Z occurs only in words borrowed from the Greek ; j and « 
were expressed by the Latins by the same signs as the vowels i and « ; 
but m pronunciation they were distinguished ; but we who have two 
distinct signs, ought to distinguish them also in writing. But in Greek 
words, we must every where write % and u : lamhus, Jones, Lotus, Agaue, 
and not Jonia, Agave, for the Greeks had neither a^ nor a v, 

K became a superfluous letter in Latin, as its place was generally 
supplied by c ; w can be used only when modem words are introduced into 
the Latin language without undergoing any change in their orthography. 
jETis only an aspiration, whence it does not make position. [§ SO.] 

[§6.] 3. Respecting the/7ro92t«ncta^u>n of the consonants, 
it must be observed, that the rule with the Latins was to 
pronounce them just as they were written. Every modern 
nation has its own peculiar way of pronouncing them ; and 
among the many corruptions of the genuine pronunciation 
there are two which have become firmly rooted, and which it 
is, perhaps, impossible to banish from the language. We 
pronounce c, when followed by c, iy y, acy or oe, both in Latin 
and Greek words, like our «, and when followed by other 
vowels or by consonants like a k. The Romans on the other 
hand, as far as we can^ascertain, always pronounced c like k; 
and the Greeks, in their intercourse with the Romans, did 
not hear any other pronunciation. A similar corruption is 
observed in the pronunciation of ti like shiy when followed 
by a vowel, as in jtistitiay otium. It would, however, be 
quite wrong to pronounce the ti in toHtis in the same manner, 
since the i in this word is long. But there are some cases 
in which the short tiy even in our common pronunci- 
ation, retains its proper sound: 1) in Greek words, such as 
Miltiadesy BoeoHay Aegyptitis ; 2) when the t is preceded by 
another ty by s or a?, e. g. Bruttiiy ostiumy mixtio ; and 3) 
when it is followed by the termination of the infinitive passive 
eTy as in nitieVy quatier. 

Note 1. The conjunction cum (when, as) is commonly written quum, 
to distinguish it from the preposition cum (with), although guum is always 
pronounced like cum, and not like qwum, 

B 3 


[§ 8.] Note 2. The meeting of two vowels, one of which forms the ending 
and the other the beginning of a word, causes an hiatus or yawning which 
is usually avoided in yerse by the former of the vowels being thrown out 
(disio). As the m at the end of a word was not audibly uttered when the 
next word began with a vowel, the vowel preceding the m is likewise 
passed over in reading verse. The verse muUum iUe et terris jactatus et 
akOf is therefore read mult* iff et terriSf &c. 

[§ 12.] 4. There is no necessity for giving any special 
rules about the orthography in Latin, since there is absolutely 
nothing arbitrary in the spelling of words that requires to be 
learned : but there are a great many separate words, of which 
neither the pronunciation nor the spelling is established, and 
with regard to which the ancients themselves were uncertain, 
as we see from the monuments still extant. We spell and 
pronounce, e. g. anultts^ belua, litusy paultiSy better with one 
consonant than with two ; whereas immOy nummus, sollemnis, 
sollers, sollicitusy Juppiter, and quattuor are more correctly 
spelled with two consonants than one. It is not certain 
whether we ought to write litera or littera. The words 
saeculum, saepire are better with the diphthong than with 
the simple vowel e ; whereas in heres, fetus^ and fenus, the 
simple vowel is better than the diphthong. In general it 
may be said, that the mode of spelling now adopted in the 
best editions of Latin writers is the correct one. 

[§ 13.1 5. The Romans had no other point than the full 
stop, and our whole artificial system of punctuation was un- 
known to them : but, to facilitate the understanding of their 
works, we now use in Latin the sam^ signs which have be- 
come established in our own language : viz. the comma (,), 
colon (:), semicolon (;), sign of exclamation (!), sign of inter- 
rogation (?), and the parenthesis ( ). 

6. With regard to the use of capital and small letters, it 
must be observed, that the Romans, generally speaking, wrote 
only in capital letters {littera^ undales), until in the latest 
period of antiquity, the small letters came into use, which are 
now employed in writing Latin. Capital initials are at 
present used : a) at the beginning of a verse or at least of 
a strophe ; b) at the beginning of a new sentence, both in 
prose and in verse, after a fuU stop, and after a colon when 
a person's own words are quoted ; c) in proper names, and in 
adjectives and adverbs which are derived from them, e. g., 
Latium, ermos Latinus, Latine loqui; d) in words which 
express a title or office, such as Corisul^ Tribunes, and Sena" 
tus, but not in their derivatives. 


. 7. The diaeresis (puncta diaereseos) is a sign to facilitate 
reading ; it is put upon a vowel which is to be pronounced 
separately, and which is not to be combined with the pre- 
ceding one into a diphthong, as in aer, aeris, poeta. The 
signs to indicate the length or shortness of a vowel or syl- 
lable (- and w) were sometimes used by the ancients them- 

CHAP. n. 


[§ 14.] 1. A VOWEL or a diphthong may by itself form a 
syllable, as in u-va^ me-^ ; all other syllables arise from a 
combination of consonants and vowels. The Latin language 
allows only two consonants to stand at the end of a syllable, 
and three only in those cases where the last is s. At the 
beginning of a syllable, also» there can be no more than two 
consonants, except when the first is a c, p, or 5, followed by 
muta cum Uquida ; and at the beginning of u word there 
never are three consonants, except in the case of se, spy and 
St being followed by an r or Z ; for example, dO'CtrinOf cor- 

2. It often appears doubtful as to how a word is to be 
divided into syllables, and where the division is to be made 
at the end of a line, when the space does not suffice. The 
. following rules, however, which are founded on the structure 
of the language, should be observed: — 1) A consonant 
which stands between two vowels belongs to the latter, as in 
master. 2) Those consonants which, in Latin or Greek, 
may together begin ,a word, go together in the division of 
syllables ; e. g., pa-tris, and not pat-ris, as tr occurs at the 
beginning of tres. Li like manner, li-bri (brevis), i-gnis 
(gnomon), o-mnis, da-mnum (/ivdo/xai), a-cttis, pun-ctum 
(icr^/ia\ ra-ptuSy scri-ptus, pro-pter {Ptolemaetis\ Ca-dmus 
{lnwto), re-gnum (yvowc), va-fre {fretus), a-thleta (^Xt'^oi), 
i'pse, scri-psi (\pav(a), Le-sbos (erCcVrvjut), e-sca, po-sco 
(scando), a'SperyhO'Spes{spes\pa'Stor,fau-stus, i-ste (stare). 

3) In compound words, the division must be ixiad& ^^ ^^\f^ 

B 3 


keep the parts distinct, as inter-eram (not inte-reram), be- 
cause the word is composed of inter and eram. So also 
ab'Utor, ab-rado, abS'Condo, diS'^uiro, et'ianiy ob-latum ; 
and red-eo, red-undo, prod-eo, and sed-itio, for the d, here 
inserted to prevent hiatus, must go with the preceding 
voweL But when the component parts of a word are doubt- 
ful, or when the first word has dropped its termination to 
prevent hiatus, the syllables are divided as if the word were 
not a compound ; e. g., po-tes (from pote or potis es\ anU 
madverto and not anim-adverto. ve-neo (from venum eo), 
ma-gnanimuSy am-bages. 



[5 15«] Syllables are long or short, either by the nature 
of the vowel they contain, or they become long by their 
short vowel being followed by two or more consonants, that 
is, by their position. We shall first speak of the natural 
length and shortness of vowels. 

1. All Diphthongs are long, and also all those single vowels 
which have arisen from the contraction of two into one, such 
as cogo (from coago), malo (from mav6lo\ tibicen (from 
tibiicen and tibia, but tubtcen from tuha), bigae (from btjii' 
gae\ bubus and bobus (from bdvibus), and so also dis for 
diis, gratis for gratiis, and nil for nihil, 

[§ 16.] 2. A Vowel is short, when it is followed by an- 
other vowel ( Vocalis ante vocalem brevis est), as in deus, 
Jllius, plus, rOo, corruo ; and, as A is not considered as a 
consonant, also in such words as tr&ho, contraho, veho, and 

Note, Exceptions. 1) The vowel e in eheu is always long, and 
the o in ohe is frequently long. 2) The e in the termination of the 
genitive and dative of the fifth declension is long when it is preceded 
by a vowel, as in cUSh speeiSL S) a and e are long in the vocative ter- 
minations Si and €i of words ending in ajtia and efus; e. g., Gai, 
Vultei. (See Chap. XL note 3.) 4) All the genitives in ius, except 
alterius, have the i commonly long ; the poets however use the t in t//ttf«, 
iUiut, tp8tu8, uniuSf totittSf vUita, and virius, sometimes as a long and some- 
times as a short vowel; but oZIim, being a contraction for o/tttM, can never 


tie made short .<^«r{ttf on the other hand, is sometimes made long. 5) The 
yerhjio has the t long, except when an r occurs in it, as in Ovid : Omnia jam 
flentt fieri quae poste negabam, 6) Greek words retain their own original 
quantity, and we therefore say Jer, ^o«, (^<6s), Amphlon, AgetUSus, and 
Mundane, The e and t in the terminations ea and eiw, or ia and tu^ 
therefore, are long when they represent the Greek cia and etos (the 
Homans, not having the diphthong et in their language, represent the 
Greek ci sometimes by e and sometimes by t, but these vowels, of course, 
are always long); e. g., GakUSa, Media, ^ngas, Dargus, or Darius, 
fykigenla Alexandria, Antiochla, Nicomedia, Samaria, Seleucia, ThaHa, 
Ariue, Basttius, crocodilus, and the adjectives EpicurSua, Pgthagorgus, 
ipondgua : but when the Greek is ca or m the e and i are short, as in 
idia, phUowphia, thedlogia. The same is the case with the patronymic 
words in ides, since the Greek may be tSi^s, as in Priamides and 
JEactdes ; or ct8i}s, as in Atrieks, Pdides, which are derived from Atreus 
and Peleus* 

[§ ^^O 3* Usage (auetoritas) alone makes the vowel in 
the first syllable of mater, f rater, pravus, mano (I flow), 
dico, ducOy miror, nitor, scrtbo, dono, pono, utor, muto, sumo, 
cura, &c. long; and short in pater, cado, rego, tego, htbo, 
minor, colo, moror, probo, domus, soror, and others. It 
must be presumed that the student makes himself acquainted 
with the quantity of such words as these by practice, for 
rules can here be given only with regard to derivatives. It 
must further be observed, that the t in the following words 
is long : formica, leetica, lorica, vesica, urtica, saUva, 
aastigo, Kud/ormido, 

a) Derivative words retain the quantity of their root, as 
is the case also in declension and conjugation : thus the a in 
amor and amo is short, and therefore also in amoris, dmat, 
amabam, amavi, &c. ; except when the consonants after the 
vowel of the root produce a difference. New words formed 
from roots likewise retain the quantity ; as from amo — 
amor, amicus, amabilis ; from lux, lOcis — luceo, lUcidus; 
from mater — mdtemus, matertera ; and from pater — 
pdtrius, patemus. 

[§ 18.] With r^ard to Conjugation, however, the following rules also 
must be observed. 

1. The perfect and supine, when they consist of two syllables, and the 
tenses formed from them, have the first syllable long, even when in the 
present tense it is short, e. g., video, vldi ; f&gio, fiigi ; Hgo, Ugi, Ugisse, 
Ugeram, &c. ; video, visum ; mdveo, mUtum, mOtus, mOturus (except, however, 
when one vowel stands before another, in which case the general rule 
remains in force, as in rtto, rHi, dtrHi). Seven dissyllabic perfects, how- 
ever, and nine dissyllabic supines together with their compounds make 
their penultima short; viz. biin, didi, fidt(from findo), stiti^ «tttstaja.^ 

B 4 


and M^UK (firom icindo), and ddtum, rdtum, sUtwn, Uum, lUumf eUum, quUunit 
sUunif and rUtum. Sitto makes its supine stdttaiif whence stdtu$, a, tern, 
and the compounds €ubdtum, deHitum, rettUum. 

2. Perfects which are formed by reduplication, as iundo, iStiidi ; cano, 
eidni, ; peUo, pipuU, have the first two syllables short : but the second 
sometimes becomes long by position, as in mordeo^ mdtnordi,; tendo, 
titendi, Pedo and eaedo are the only two words which retain the long 
vowel in the syllable which forms the root, pq)Sdi, ceeidi; whereas cddo, 
in accordance with the rule, has eiddi, 

S. The perfect posui and the supine potiium have the o short, although 
in pono it is long. 

With regard to Declension, we must notice the exception that the 
words I3r, pdr, sdl, and pis shorten their vowel throughout their declen- 
sion : sdlis, pidis, &c. 

[§ '^*] ^^ ^^® formation of new words by Derivation, there are several 
exceptions to the above rule. The following words make the short vowel 
long: mdcer, mdeero; UfgOj lex iSgiSi ligarei rSgOi rex, rSgu, rigtUa ; tigo, 
tSgtdai sideo, sSdes; sifro, semen, sEmentis ; suspicor, tusplcio ; persdno, 
persCna ; vdco, vox, vOcis ; hdmo, humanus, and a few others. The fol- 
lowing words have a short vowel, although it is long in the root : Idbare 
from l(U)i ; ndtare from ndre; pdciacor from pax, pacts; ambitus and 
ambitio from ambire, mnbStum ; dicax from dlcere ; fides and perfidus from 
fido and fldus (but we regularly find infidus)', mdlestus from mdles ; 
ndta and ndtare from nOtusi ddium from ikU s sdpor from sOpire; dux, 
dUcis, and redux, rediicis, from djlco ; liicema from luceo, 

[§ so.] The Terminations or final syUables, by means of which 
adjectives are formed from substantives, are of a different kind. Among 
these (dis, arts, anus, ivus and osus, have a long vowel ; but idus and icus, 
a short one ; e. g., letdlis, vulgdris, montdnus, aestlvus, vindsus ; aridus, 
avidus, cupidus, modlcus, pubUcus, rusttcus, heUicus. A long i, however, occurs 
in amicus, apricus,pudicus, and posticus, and in the substantives mendicus and 
umbilicus. The terminations iUs and bilis have the i short when they make 
derivatives from verbs, but long when firom substantives; e.g., facUis 
and amabiUs, ^omfado and amo ; but civUis, puerUis, from clvis axidpuer. 
The only exceptions are humVis and /xiHf/t«, from humuszndpar. The tin the 
termination inus may be long or short : it is long in adjectives derived 
firom names of animals and places, as asinlnus, canlnus, Latlnus, and a few 
others, such as divlnus, genulnus, clande^lnus, intestlnus, marlnus, and otci* 
nusj it is short in most adjectives which express time, as crastinus, diuHnus^ 
pristinus, and in those which indicate a material or substance, as crys- 
taOinus, el^hanAnus, cedrinus, oleaginus. Some adjectives expressive of 
time, however, have the t long, viz. matutlnus, vespertinus, and repentlnug, 

[§ 21.] b) Compound words retain the quantity of the 
vowels of their elements : thus from avus and nepos we 
make abavus and abnepos, from probus improbtis, from Jus 
(juris) perjurus, from lego (I read) perlego, and from kgo 
(I despatch), ablego, delego, collega. Even when the vowel 
is changed, its quantity remains the same : e. g., laedo, Ulido; 
caedOf incido; aequuSy iniquus; fauces, suffoco ; daudo^ 


recludo ; /acta, efftdo; cadOy inctdo ; ratus^ irrttus; regOy 
ertgo ; lego, eligo. We may therefore infer from compound 
words the quantity of those of which they consist ; e. g., from 
admxror and abutor we conclude that miror and utor have 
the first syllable long ; and from commoror and desuper, that 
the first syllable in moror and super is short, which is not 
always accurately distinguished in pronunciation, because 
these syllables have the accent. (See Chap. IV.) 

But there are some exceptions, and the following compound words 
change the long vowel into a short one: dgiro and pejiro from juro ; cau- 
tidicuSf fatidicus, maledScus, veridicus, from dfeere ; agnitua and cogntttis 
from nliiu8i tfin«f&(tM), -a, and jMKm«&(tw), »a, from nSbo. The case is 
reversed in tmi^ctZ^ from hdmdug, 

[§ S8.] In respect to Composition with Prepositions, it is to be re- 
marked, that prepositions of one syUable which end in a vowel are long, 
' and those which end in a consonant are short : dSduco, dbdeo, p&rimo. Tfa 
(formed from trans), as in trSdo, is long ; but the o (for 6b) in dmitto and 
dperior is short. Pro, in Greek words, is short, as in prdpheta, but in 
Latin words it is long ; e. g. prOdo, prOmitto : in many however it is short ; 
prdfuguM, prdfiUor, prdfanus, prdJieUcor, prdfundus, and a few others. Se 
and di (for dia) are long ; the only exceptions are dirimo and disertus. Re 
is short ; it is long only in the impersonal verb r€fert, being compounded 
of rem and fert : in aU other cases where it appears long, the consonant 
which follows it must be doubled (in verse), as in reppuli, repperi, retttUi, 
reccido, redduco, reJUgio, The termination a in prepositions of two syl- 
lables is long, as in corUrdcUcoi all the others are short, as antefero, 

[§ S3.] When the first part of a compound is not a preposition, it is 
necessary to determine the quantity of the final vowel (a, e, s, o, u, y) of 
the first word. 1 ) a is long, as in qudre and quSproj^er, except in qudsi. 
2) e is mostly short, as in ctdSfado (notice especially nSque, niqueo, 
t^fas, nifastus, n^fartwf^ nifandus), but long in niqtianif nSquidquarh, 
nSquaquam and nSmo (which is contracted from ne and homo) ; also in sg- 
decim and the pronouns mSmet, tMcum, tScum, and sScum ; in venSJicvs, 
vidSUcet, vicors, and vSsanu9, 3) t is short, e. g. significo, mcrilegus, 
eomicen, tubicen, omnlpotens, uruRque ; but long in compound pronouns, 
as quilibet, tariquey in ibidem, ubiqtte, uiroblque, Uicet and scilicet ; also in 
the compounds of dies, as blduum, triduum, meridies ; and lastly, in all 
those compounds of which the parts may be separated, such as lufrifcuiio, 
agrieuUurct, siquis, because the i at the end of the first word is naturally 
long, and remains so. 4)o is short, hddie, duddedm, sacrdsanctus ; but 
long in compounds with contro, iiUro, retro, and qiiando {quanddquidem 
alone forms an exception) ; it is long in aliOqui, ceterGqui, tUrOque, and in 
those Greek words in which the o represents the Greek », as in 
geOmetria, 5) u and y are short, as in quadrHpes, Polpphemus* 

4. In regard to the quantity of Final Syllables, the follow- 
ing special rules must be observed : — 




[§ 24.] 1) All monosyllables ending in a Towel are long; 
except the particles which are attached to other words : que, 
re, ce, ne, te (tute), pse (reapse), and pte (sttapte), 

2) Of the monosyllables ending in a consonant, the sub- 
stantives are long, as sol, ver, fur, jus ; and all those are 
short which are not substantives, as ut, et, in, an, ad, quid, 
sed, quis, quot The following substantives however are 
short: cor, fel, mil, vtr, and os (gen. ossis), and probably 
also mas, a male being, and va^, a surety, since they have 
the a short in the genitive : maris, vadis. Some words, on 
the other hand, are long, although they are not substantives ; 
as en, non, quln, sin, eras, plus, cur, and par with its com- 
pounds, and also the adverbs in ic or to;, as sic, hie, hue. 
The monosyllabic forms of declension and conjugation follow 
the general rules about the quantity of final syllables, and 
das, fles, and sets accordingly are long, while dat, flet, and 
scU are short ; his, hos, quos, quas are long, like the termi- 
nations is, OS, and as in declension. So also the ablatives 
singular hoc and hoc. The nominative hie and the neuter 
hoe, on the other hand, although the vowel is naturally short, 
are commonly used as long, because the ancient form was 
hice, hoce. The abridged imperatives retain the quantity of 
the root, so that die and due are long, while foe and fer 
are short. 

Note, Ne, the interrogative particle, is always short, being attached to 
other words as an enclitic, as in videsne. The conjunction ne (lest, that 
not) is long. (See § 24. 1.) 

B. Final Syllables in Words of Two or more Syllables. 

[§ 25.] 1) Such as terminate in a Vowel, 

A is short in nouns, except in the ablative singular of the 
first declension and in the vocative of Greek proper names 
in as, e. g. ^nea, PalUu A is long in verbs and indeclinable 
words, such as ama, frustrd, ergo, anted, and posted (unless 
it be separated into post ea), except ita, quia, tja. In the 
indeclinable numerals, as triginta and quadraginta, the a is 
sometimes long and sometimes short. 

E is short, as in patre, curre, nempe; but long in the 
ablative of the fifth declension and in the imperative of the 


second conjugation. Adverbs in e formed £rom adjectives 
of the second declension are likewise long, as docte^ recti; 
also yjjrc, fermey and ohe (but bene and male are always 
short), and Greek wc»rds of the first declension terminating 
in e, as Circey Tempi, 

[§ 26.] I is long. It is short only in the vocative of 
Greek words in is^ e. g. Aleociy and in nisi^ quasty and cuty 

when it is used as a dissyllable. The t is common or doubt- 

\^ \^ \^ \j \j 

fulin mihi, tibly sibi, ibi and ubi; in compounds we com- 
monly find ibidem and ubiquey whereas in tAtvis and ubinam 
the t is always short. In uti for ut the t is long, but short 
in the compounds utinam and uttque. ^ v^ 

O is common in the present tense, as rogo, candy audidy 
and in the nominative of the third declension, as in sermoy 
virgo; the Greek words in o (w, G^n. ovq) however remain 
long in Latin, as /5, Dido. But o is long in the second 
declension, as in lectOy and in adverbs formed from nouns 
and pronouns by means of this termination, e. g.falsOy meritOy 
pauloy eOy qudy and also ergdy iccircdy quando and retro. 
The adverbs mddd (with all its compounds), citOy illicdy and 
immdy and also cedo (in the sense of die or da), ego, du6y 
and odd are always short, whereas ambo is generally long. 

U is always longy as in diUy vultUy comu. 

Y in Greek words is always short. 

2) Such as terminate in a Consonant. 

[§ 27.] All final syllables ending in a consonant are shorty 
and special rules are required only for those ending in the 
sibilant s 

Note, Greek words retain their original quantity in their final syl- 
lables, except those in or, as Hector, Nestor, which are short in Latin, 
although in Greek they end in up, 

[§ 28.] As is long in Latin words, with the exception of 
anasy anatis; but the Greek nominatives in o^, which moke 
their genitives in aloq and in Latin in adisy such as llia^y 
PallaSy and the Greek accusatives plural of the third declen- 
sion, are always short, as in heroas. 

Es is long, e. g. ameSy legesy audUsy patres. But Latin 
nominatives in esy which increase in the genitive, and have 
their penultima short, are themselves short : e. g. miles^ 
nUlitis ; except abiiSy ariis, paries, Ceres^ and iVxa ^wsi^^nhAs. 

B 6 


oipes. The preposition penes and the second person of the 
verb sum, es, have the es short ; but the es (for edis) from 
edo is long. 

[§ 29.] Is is generally short, but long in all the cases of 
the plural, as armis, vobls; and also in the second person 
singular of verbs whose second plural is Itis, that is, in the 
fourth conjugation, and in possis, veils, noils, malls, and vis 
(thou wilt), with its compounds, mavis, quivls, quamvls. 

Os is long, as in nepos, honos, viros, nos ; it is short only 
in compds and impds, and in Greek words in oq, e. g. Delos. 

Us is short in verbs and nouns except monosyllables, but 
long in the genitive singular, in the nominative, accusative, 
and vocative plural of the fourth declension, and in the 
nominatives of the thirds which have u in the genitive, as 
virtus, utis; palus, udis, 

Vs in Greek words is short, as Halys, chlamps, 

[§ 3oJ 5. Syllables (as was remarked in the beginning 
of this (Jhapter) may become long by their vowel being fol- 
lowed by two or more consonants, that is, by their position: 
X and z are accounted as two consonants. Aposition may be 
formed in three ways: — 1. When a syllable ends in two or 
three consonants, as in est, vult, mens, rex, — 2. When the 
first syllable ends in a consonant and the second begins with 
one, as in vel-le, ar-ma, vul-tis, or in two distinct words, as 
in silvis, et populus, — By these two kinds of position, a 
syllable is always lengthened, although its vowel may be 
naturally short. — 3. When the first syllable ends in a vowel, 
and the one following begins with two consonants, or a 
double consonant (x and z), we must distinguish as to 
whether the position occurs within a word or between two 
words. Witlun a word a syllable ending in a short vowel is 
regularly made long, as in a-pttis, f ductus, a-xis ; when, how- 
ever, the first consonant is a mute and the second a liquid 
(which is called />o«Ym) debilis), they make the vowel, for poetical 
purposes, only common. Thus, we may pronounce either 
cerebrum, volUcris, lugubris, mediocris, integri, or cerebrum, 
volucris, lugubris, mediocris, integri. But between two 
words the short vowel before a muta cum liquida is rarely 

Qu is not accounted as two consonants, for u is not a true 
consonant, though we usually pronounce it as such. But j 
alone is sufficient to make position within a word ; e. g., 
major, if its, Troja. 



[§ 32.] 1. It is a general rule that every word has an 
accent on one particular syllable. This accent is twofold, 
either the circumflex (*), or the ctcute ('), for what is called 
the grave in Greek means only the absence of either accent. 
Some words, however, have no accent, viz., the enclitics ne^ 
que^ ve, ce, which never appear by themselves, but are 
attached to other words. Prepositions lose their accent when 
they precede the cases which they govern. 

[§ 33.] 2. Monosyllables are pronounced with the cir- 
cumd^ex, when their vowel is long by nature and not merely 
by position, as in dos, mos, flos, jus, luxy spes, /6ns and 
mdns ; but when the vowel is naturally short, they are pro- 
nounced with the acute, although the syllable may be long 
by position ; e. g. drs,fdx^ dux. 

3. Words of two syllables have the accent on the first, 
either as circumflex, when the vowel of that syllable is 
naturally long, and that of the second one short ; or as acute, 
when the vowel of the first syllable is short, and that of the 
second long ; or when the vowel of the first as well as that 
of the second is long ; e. g. Moma, musa, luce, juris ; but 
h&mo because both syllables are short ; deos^ because the first 
is short and the second long ; arte, because the first is long 
only by position ; ddti, for although the vowel of the first is 
naturally long, yet that of the second is likewise long ; and 
drti, because both syllables are long. 

4. Words of three syllables may have the accent either on 
the antepenultima or penultima ; the acute on the antepenul- 
tima, when the penultima is short, as in caedere, pergere, 
hdmines ; the accented syllable itself may be long or short. 
The circumflex is placed on the penultima on the conditions 
before-mentioned, as in amasse, Romanus ; and the acute 
when those conditions do not exist, and yet the penultima is 
long, as in Bomdnis, Metellus. No word can have the 
accent further back than the antepenultima, so that we must 
pronounce Constantinopolis, solicitudinibus, 

[§ 34.] 5. Words of two or more syllables never ha»^^ 
the accent on the last. 


[§ 35.] 6. These rules conceming accentuation ought to 
lead us to accustom ourselves to distinguish accent from 
quantity ; to read, for example, h6mines and not homines, 
and to distinguish in our pronunciation lego (I read) from 
lego (I despatch) and in like manner tndlus (bad) from malus 
(an apple tree), pdlus, udis (a marsh), from paltis, i (a post), 
and pd'ptdfis (the people) from po^pulus (a poplar). Li our 
own language accent and quantity coincide, but it is very 
wrong to apply this peculiarity to a language to which it is 





[§ 36.] The words of every language are either nouns, verbs, 
or particles* 

A noun serves to denote an object or a quality of an ob- 
^ ject, and may accordingly be either a substantive, as domus 
(a house), a pronoun, as ego (I), or an adjective, as parvus 
(small). Nouns are declined to indicate different relations. 

A verb expresses an action or condition which is ascribed 
to a person or a thing, as scribo, ire, dormire, amari, A 
verb is conjugated in order to indicate the different modes 
in which an action or condition is ascribed to a person or a 

Particles are those parts of speech, which are neither de- 
clined nor conjugated, and which are neither nouns nor verbs. 
They are divided into the following classes. 1) Adverbs 
express the circumstances of an action or condition, as scribit 
bene, he writes well ; diu dormit, he sleeps long. 2) Prepo^ 
sitions express, either directly or indirectly, the relations of 
persons or things to one another or to actions and conditions ; 
as, amor metis erga te, my love towards thee ; eo ad te, I go 
to thee. 3) Conjunctions express the connexion between 
things, actions, or propositions ; as ego et tu ; clamavit, sed 
pater non audivit, 4) Interjections are the expressions of 
emotion by a single word ; as ah, ohe, vae. 

These are the eight parts of speech in Latin ; all of them 
occur in the following hexameter : — 

Vae tibi ridenti, quia max post gaudia flebis* 




[§ 37.] Nouns substantive are either proper, i. e. the names 
of one particular man or thing, or common, i. e. such as de- 
note a class of objects. 

All nouns have one of three genders : masculine, feminine, 
or neuter. 

The gender of substantive^ is determined partly by their termination, 
and partly by their signification. In reference to the latter point the 
fdUowing general rules must be observed. 

1. The names of men and of male oeings, of rivers, winds, 
and months, are of the masculine gender. 

[§ 39.] 2. The names of women, female beings, and most 
trees, towns, countries, and islands, 9i,vQ feminine, 

ExceptiofM. The names of trees and shrubs in er, of the third declen- • 
sion, are neuter ; as stZer, ctcer, papaver. Masculine are oleaster and 
pinaster, which belong to the second, and styrax which belongs to the 
third declension : also many shrubs and smidler plants in us, genit. t ; 
e. g. ttmarantuSf asparc^us, calamus, dumus, heUebdrus, intubus, rhamnus, 
and spinus. 

Of the names of towns, the following are masculine : I) All plurals in 
t, as Argi, Delphi, Vgi; 2) Five in o: Hippo (with the surname regius), 
Narbo Marcius, Frusino, Sulmo and Croto. 3) Tkines, etis, and Canopus. 
The following are neuter : 1 ) Those ending in urn, and the Greek names 
in on, as Tusculum, Ilion; 2) The plurals in a, genit. orvm, e. g. Susa, 
JScbatana, Leuctra, 3) Those ending in e and ur, which follow the third 
declension, as Caere, Tergeste, Anxur, and Tibur; Tuder is likewise neuter ; 
4) The indeclinable names in i and y, as lUiturgi, Asty, and some bar- 
barous names, the declension of which is defective. Argos, as a neuter, 
occurs only in the nominative and accusative, otherwise Argi, orum, is 
used. The poets occasionally use some of these names, according to the 
general rule, as feminines, the word urbs being understood ; this is the 
case especially with Praeneste, 

Names of countries in um and plurals in a are neuter, as Latium, 
Bactra; the names Bospdrus, Pontus, and Hellespontus, are masculine. 
The names of islands ending in um and the Egyptian Delta are neuter. 

Most names of precious stones are feminine as in Greek ; but beryUuSf 
carbunculus, opdlus and smaragdus are masculine. 

[§ ^^-] 3* There are many names of persons, which are 
common to both sexes, as they denote an occupation or quality 
which may belong either to a man or a woman. Such 
words are called common (communia). Those found in Latin 


with two genders are contained in the following hexameter 
lines : — 

Aniistes, vatesy adolescens, auctor et augur, 
DtiXy judex, index, testis, cum cive sacerdos, 
Municipi adde parens, patrueli affinis et heres, 
Artifici conjux atque incola, miles et hostis, 
Parjuvenis, martyr, comes, infans, obses et hospeSy 
Interpres, praesul, custos, vindexque, sateUes, 

Antistes, president. Heres, edis, heir. 

Vates, seer, prophet. Artifex, artist. 

Adolescens, a jouth. Conjux, husband or wife. 

^uctor, author. Incola, inhabitant. 

Augur, augur. Miles, soldier. 

Dux, leader, commander. Hostis, enemy. 

Judex, judge. Par, colleague, partner. 

Index, indicator, denouncer. Juvenis, a joimg man or wo- 

Testis, witness* man. 

Civis, citizen. Martyr, martyr. 

Sacerdos, priest, priestess. Comes, companion. 

Municeps, a citizen of a mu- Infans, infant, child. 

nicipal town. Ohses, hostage. 

Parens, parent ; in the plural, Interpres, interpreter. 

however, it is only mascu- Praesul, president. 

line. Custos, guard. 

Patruelis, aunt or uncle. Vtndex, avenger. 

Affinis, relation. Satelles, satellite. 

[§ ^^'] ^* Substantiva mobilia are those substantives 
which receive different terminations for the masculine 
and feminine genders. The termination for the feminine 
is always a or trix, and the latter occurs in those cases in 
which the masculine ends in tor, as in victor, victrix ; prac' 
ceptor, praeceptrix ; inventor, inventrix* (See § 236.) The 
feminine is indicated by a when the masculine ends in us or 
er, or any other termination, e. g. coquus, coqua ; puer, 
puera ; magister, magistra ; rex, regina ; caupo, copa ; tibi' 
cen, tU)icina. 

[§42.] o. Some names of animals have special terminations 
to distinguish the two sexes : cervus, cerva ; equus, equa ; 
gallus, gaUina : juvencus, juvenca ; lupus, lupa; leo, lea and 
leaena ; vitulus, vitula ; ursus, ursa. In some cases the 
words are altogether different, as in taurus, vacca, a bull 
and cow ; aries, ovis, ram and sheep ; hoedus^ capel\a« 


Most Other names of animals are common (epicoena); that 
is, they have only one grammatical gender which comprises 
both sexes, e. g. passer^ anser, corvus, canis are masculine ; 
and aquila,/elis, anaSy vulpes are feminine, though they may 
denote animals of either sex. If the sex of the particular 
animal is to be stated, the word mas or femina are added to 
the name; as, anas maSy anas femina^ femina piscis. Instead 
of ma^ we may also use masculus or masculay e. g. vulpes 
mascuUiy a male fox ; pavo masculus, a male peacock. 
Some of these nouns however, in which the difference of 
sex is more frequently noticed, are used as real common 
nouns (§ 40.), so that they are masculine when' the male 
animal, and feminine when the female animal, is to be par- 
ticularly specified. Of this kind are bos, cants, elephantus, 
l^us, mus, which are masculine when the difference of sex 
is not noticed ; but feminine when the female .is designated. 
Thus we generally find, e. g., elephanti prudentissimi hahen- 
tur, lepores timidi sunt; but at the same time elephantus 
gravida, lepus fecunda. 

The following nouns are sometimes masculine and some- 
times feminine, without regard to difference of sex : anguis 
and serpens, a serpent ; dama, fallow-deer ; talpa, a mole ; 
also sus, a pig ; and HgriSy tiger ; but stis is commonly femi- 
nine, while tigris is conunonly masculine. Others are of un- 
certain gender, in as far as they have both a masculine and 
a feminine form, which, however, are used indiscriminately 
and without regard to sex. Thus we have the feminine forms 
colubra, lacerta, luscinici^ and simia along with the mascu- 
lines coluber, lacertus, hiscinius, and simitcs, without simia, 
for instance, having any reference whatever to a female 

• £§ 48.1 6. The following are neuter. All indeclinable 
substantives, as gummi, pascha, sinapi, and pondo which is 
used as an indeclinable noun in the sense of ^' pound;" the 
names of the letters of the alphabet, as c triste, o hngum, 
&c., and all words and expressions which, without being sub- 
stantives, are conceived and used as such, or quoted merely 
as words ; e. g. uUimum vale, scire tuum nihil est, hoc ipsum 
diu mihi molestum est, lacrimas hoc mihi paene movet, where 
the words diu and paene are quoted from the sajdngs of 
another person, and it is said that the very word diu or 
paene is painful 


CHAP. vn. 


[§ 44.] The Latin language distinguislies, in nouns and 
verbs, the singular and plural (numerus singularis and plu- 
rails) hj particular forms ; it has also different forms to dis- 
tinguish six different cases (casus) in the relations and con- 
nections of nouns. The ordinary names of these cases are 
nominative, genitive, dative, accusative, vocative, and ablative. 
The different forms of these cases are seen in the terminations 
which are annexed to the crude form of a word. Declension 
is the deriving of these different forms, both in the singular 
and plural, from one another, the nominative forming the 
starting point. The nominative and vocative are called 
coMts recti, and the others casus ohliqui. 

There are five declensions distinguished by the termina- 
tion of the genitive singular, which ends :— 

12 3 4 5 

ae l is us ei 

4il declensions have the following points in common : — 

1. In the second, third, and fourth declensions there are 
neuters which have three cases alike, viz. nominative, accu- 
sative, and vocative. 

2. The vocative* is like the nominative, except in the 
singular of the second declension and in some Greek words 
in the first and third. 

3. Where no exception arises from neuters, the accusative 
singular ends in m. 

12 3 4 5 

am um em um em 

4. The genitive plural ends in vm. 

12 3 4 5 

arum drum um uum erum 

5. The dative plural is in all declensions like the ablative 

12 3 4 5 

is is (bus tbus (ubtM) ebus 



The following table contains the terminations of all the 
five declensions: — 






Norn, a (e, asy 


er, um 

a, e, 0, c, ly 

USy u 




€ren. ae (es) 






Dat. ae 




Ace. am (en) 


em (im) 

um, u 


Voc. like nom. 


eVf um 

like nom. 

like nom* 

like nom* 

Abl. a (e) 








Nom. ae 



es, a (ia) 

us, ua 


ijren, arum 


um (ium) 



Dat. is 



ibus (ubus) 


Ace as 



es, a (ia) 

us, ua 


Voc. ae 



es, a (ia) 

us, ua 


AbL is 



ibus (ubus) 




AP. vm. 


I§ 45.] The first declension comprises all nouns which form 
the genitive singular in ae. The nominative of genuine 
Latin words of this kind ends in a. Greek words in a, as 
musa. Medusa, Thalia, follow the example of the Latin 
ones. Some Greek words in e, as, and es have peculiar ter- 
minations in some of their cases. (See Chap. IX.) 

Singular. Plural. 

Nom. vi-a, the way. Nom. ri-oe, the ways. 

Gen. vi-a£, of the way. Gen. vi-arum, of the ways. 

Dat. vi-ae, to the way. 

Ace. vi-am, the way. 

Voc. vi-a, O way ! 

Abl. vi-d, from the way. 

Dat. vi-is, to the ways. 

Ace. vi-as, the ways. 

Voc. vi-ae, O ways ! 

Abl. vi-is, from the ways. 

In like manner are declined, for example, the substantives barba, beard ; 
causa, cause ; cura, care ; epistola, letter ; fossa, ditch ; hora, hour ; mensa, 
table; noverca, step-mother; penna, feather; porta, gate; poena, com- 
pensation ; sa^Ua, arrow ; siha, wood ; steUa, star ; uva, grape ; victoria, 




rS 46.] 1. Ik the dative singular and thronghont the plural^ 
Greek words in c, ow, and es do not diflPer from the regular 
declension. In the other cases of the singular they are de* 
clined in the following manner :— 

Nom. e as es. 

Gen. es as ae. 

Ace. en am (sometimes an) eru 

Yoc e a e and a, 

AbL e a i 

Note, Words of this kind in ? are : aloct crambe^ epUomey Circe, Dana%j 
in cm: Aeneast Boreas, Gorgttu, Midas, Measias, Satanasj in ee : anagnostet, 
comStee, dyruutes, pyrites, sophistea, Anchises, Thersites, and patronymics, 
(i. e. names of persons derived from their parents or ancestors, see 
§ 245) ; e. g, Aeneades, Alctdes, Pdtdes, Friamides, Tydides, 

Generally speaking, however, the patronymics in lis, genit. ov, are the 
only Greek words that foUow the second declension ; and the majority of 
proper names ending in es follow the third declension, as Alcibiades, Mil- 
tiades, Xerxes, But many of them form the accusative singular in Ai| 
after the first declension. 



[§ 47.1 Nouns in a and e are feminine, and those in as and 
es (being chiefly names of men) are masculine. 

Note, Nouns denoting male beings are of course masculine, though 
they end in a, as auriga, coachman ; coUSga, colleague ; nauta, sailor ; 
parricUia, parricide; po&a, poet; scriba, scribe. Names of rivers 
in a, such as Garunma, Trebia, Sequana, Himera, and Hadria (the 
Adriatic) are masculine, according to the general rule. (See Chap. VI.) 
Hie three rivers ABa, AMIa, and Matrdna, however, are feminine. 




[§ 48.] All nouns which form the genitive singular in t, 
belong to the second declension. The greater part of them 
end in the nominative in us, the neuters in um ; some end in 
er, and only one in ir, viz. vir with its compounds, to which we 
must add the proper name, Trevir. There is only one word 
ending in ur, viz. the adjective satur, satiira, saturum. 

The genitive of those in tis and um is formed by changing 
these terminations into L The vocative of words in us ends 
in e; in all other cases the vocative is like the nominative. 

Singular. Floral. 

Nom. gUzdi'USf the sword. Nom. ghdi-iy the swords. 
G«n. gladi-iy of the sword. G«n. gladi-drum, of the 

Dat. gladi-o, to the sword. Dat. gladi-ts, to the swords. 
Ace. gladi-umy the sword. Ace. gladi-os, the swords. 
Voc. glncU-e, O sword ! Voc. gladi-i, O swords ! 

Abl. gladi'5, from the sword. AbL gladi-iSyivom the swords. 

The neuters in um are declined in the same way ; but in 
the plural they have the termination a, and the nominative, 
accusative, and vocative are alike in the singular as well as 
in the plural. 

SiNouLAR. Plural. 

Nom. scamn-um, the bench. Nom. scamn-a, the benches. 

Gen. seamn-i, of the bench. Gren. scamn^rumy of the 


Dat. scamn-o, to the bench. Dat. scamn-is, to the benches. 

Ace. scamn-um, the bench. Ace. scamn-a, the benches. 

Voc. 5caw«-wm, O bench! Voc. scaww-a, O benches ! 

AbL scamn-dy from the AbL scamn-iSy from the 
bench. benches. 

Vir and its compounds, as well as satur^ simply add the 
terminations of the different cases to the nominative. 

Some of the words in er are likewise declined by merely 
adding the terminations to the nominative, as puer, puer-iy 
puer'Of puer-um, puer-orum, puer'is, puer-os ; others reject 


the short e in the oblique cases, as liher (a book), Ubr'iy 
libr-o, libr-um, &c. Those which retain the e are not very 
numerous, viz. adulter, gener, puer, socer, vesper. Liber (the 
god Bacchus), and liberi (the children, only in the plural) ; 
the adjectives asper, lacer, liber (free), miser, prosper, and 
tener. To these we must add the compounds of ferre and 
gerere, as Lucifer, armiger, and the words presbyter, Iber, 
and Celtiber (plural Celtiberi). The adjective dexter has 
both forms, dextera and dextra, dexterum and dextrum. 

[§ '^^•l ^* ^^^ genitive of nouns in ius and ium, in the 
best age of the Latin language, was not ii, but i, as fiU, 
TuUi, mancipu 

2. The following nine adjectives or adjective pronouns, 
unus, solus, totus, ullus, uter, neuter, alter, nullus, and alius, 
together with their compounds, uterque, utervis, uterlibet, 
utercunque, and alteruter, form the genitive in all their 
three genders in ius, and the dative in i; in addition to 
which uter and neuter eject the e preceding the r. The i of 
this genitive is long in prose, but in verse it is sometimes 
made short. Alterius alone has the i short both in prose 
and generally also in verse. Hence unus, Gren. unius, Dat. 
uni ; alius. Gen. alius, Dat. alii ; uter, Gen. utritis, Dat. utri. 

[§ so.] 3. The vocative of proper names in ttis ends in i 
instead of ie, e.g. Antoni, Mercuri, Terenti, TuUi, VtrgUL 
In like manner the proper names in jus, being sometimes 
softened down into tus, make the vocative in a simple i, as 
Gat, Pompeu But all common nouns and adjectives regu- 
larly form their vocative in ie, as fluvie, gladie, pie, even 
when such adjectives have become proper names, as Piu^. 
Filius and genius, however, make their vocative Jili, geni, 
and mens (though not mea or meum) makes mi. Deus in 
the vocative is like the nominative, as deus I mi deus ! 

[§ ^1"] 4* ^^^ genitive plural of some words, especially 
those which denote money, measure, and weight, is com- 
monly um instead of orum, particularly nummum, sestertium, 
denarium, medimnum, modium, jugerum, talentum. So also 
deum and liberum, instead of deorum and liberorum, 

5. Detts has three forms in the nom. dat. and ablat. plur.^ 
viz. dei, dii, and di, and deis, diis, and dis. 

The following words may serve as exercises of declension : — Annut, 
year ; eorvus, raven ; hortus, garden ; kctus, bed ; medicus, physidan ; 
morbus, illness ; nmntimt, messenger ; popuhu, people ; rivug, brock ; 
4amru», bull ; vetdus, wind. Neuters in um :*^A9trum^ sUx \ VSWei^^««t\ 


ecUumy neck ; doliumt cask ; donumt present ; membrum, limb ; rugctium, 
business ; ovum, egg ; poculum, cup ; prodium, battle ; seyulcnan, 
sepulchre ; signum, sign ; tergum, back ; vinculum, fetter. Those in er, 
genit. eri, have been mentioned above. The following are the most com- 
mon among those which reject the e before the r.* Ager, field; aper, 
boar ; arbiter, arbitrator ; auster, south wind ; cancer, cancer or crab ; 
coluber, snake ; cutter, knife ; faber, workman ; Uber, book ; mtigister, 
teacher ; minister, servant To these must be added the proper names in 
er, e. g. Alexander, gen. Alexandri. The adjectives which reject the e are 
a^er, ater, creber, glaher, macer, niger, piger, impiger, pulcher, ruber, eacer^ 
scaber, sinister, taeter, vafer. 

CRAP. xn. 


[§ 58.] Greek words in os and neuters in ov, which make ov in the 
genitive, are commonly Latinized in the nominative by the terminations 
us and um, such as the common nouns taurus, antrum, theatrum, and the 
proper names Homerus, Pyrrhus, Codrus ; or by the termination er, e. g. 
Alexander, Maeander, Teucer. Others admit of both terminations in the 
nominative, as Delos, Paros, and Delus, Parus ; Ilion and Ilium, The 
genitive plural in Hn instead of orum occurs in the titles of books, such as 
Bucolicon, Georgicon, 

Greek words in evs such as Orpheus, Idomeneus, PKalereus, were pro- 
nounced in Latin sometimes eus as one syllable, and sometimes ^us. The 
best way is to make them follow entirely the second Latin Declension, as 
Orphei, Orpheo, Orpheum, with the exception of the vocative, wh|ch (ac-^ 
cording to the Greek third declension) ends in eQ, 

CHAP, xm 


[§ ^^'] ^* ^OTJNS in tis, er, and ir are masculine ; those in 
um and the Greek nouns in dn are neuter. 

2. Of those in us however the following are feminine : the 
names of plants and precious stones, as well as those of 
towns, countries, and islands, with a few exceptions. (See 
above, § 39.) It must be observed, that in man^ cases 


where the name of a tree ends in m* fern., there is a form in 
um denoting the fruit of the tree, e. g. cerasus^ a cherry tree ; 
cerasum, a cherry ; malusy malum ; morus, morum ; pirus, 
pirum ; pruntis, prunum ; pomus, pomum ; hnt^cus signifies 
both the tree and the fruit. There are only four other genuine 
Latin words in us which are feminine, viz. alvus, humus, van- 
nuSi and colus, which however is sometimes declined after the 
fourth declension, gen. us. Pampinus, a branch of a vine, is 
rarely feminine, but commonly masculine. Viru>s (j nice or poi- 
son) and pelagus {to ^cXayoc, the sea) are neuter. Vulgus (the 
people) is sometimes masculine, but more frequently neuter. 

[§ 54.] Note, With regard to the numerous Greek feminines in tu 
^or 09\ which have been adopted into the Latin language, we notice 
especially the compounds of if Zhos : exifdus, methodusy periodua, and 
synodus, and the words biblus, papyrus, dicUedus, dipht?un^fU8, paragrdphut 
diam^trus aad perim^trus. 



T§ 66.] Nouns of the third declension form their genitive 
in f^. 

The nominative has a great variety of terminations, for sometimes 
there is no particular ending, and the nominative itself is the crude form, 
such as it usually appears after the separation of the termination of the 
genitive ; frequently however the nominative has a special ending. 1 .) The 
former is, generally speaking, the case with those words the crude form 
of which ends in I or r, so that the nominative ends in the same con- 
sonants, and the genitive is formed by simply adding is; e. g. sol, consul, 
ealcar, agger, auctor, dolor, murmur. Words like pater and tm^er, the 
crude form of which appears in the genitive and ends in r with a con- 
sonant before it, as patr-is, imbr-is, admit of a double explanation: either 
jthe nominative was increased for the purpose of facilitating the pro- 
nunciation, or the genitive rejected the short e (patris for pateris) ; the 
former however is the more probable supposition. In some words the 
nominative has s instead of r, as Jlos, gen. flor-is ; teUus, teUur-is j in 
addition to which the vowel sometimes undergoes a change, as in corpus, 
eorpoT'is ; onus, oner-is* When the crude form ends in n with a vowel 
before it, the formation of the nominative b likewise accompanied by 
changes : On throws off the n, and in becomes ^n or is changed into o. 
Thus leo is made from lean Qeon-is), carmen from carmin {carmin-is^, and 
virgo from virgin {mrgin-is}. Only when the genitive ends in Snis, the 
nominative retuns In, as in U€n-is, liBn, 2) The particular termination 
which the nominative receives in other cases is if for neuters, as moer-^^ 
flurr-e, and i or x which axises out of «, for nvMve,\>Y\ii«& «^<i ^^^is^attiD^^ 



This t is sometimes added to the final consonant of tlie crude fonn with- 
out any change, as in urb'ia, urb-s; duc-ia, dux {dues); leg-ist hx {1^9*) i 
when die crude form ends in d or ^, these consonants are dropped before 
the « ; e. g, frond-is, frons ; monUis, mons ; cutSUis, aetSs ; segSt-is, segis ; 
in addition to this the yowel i also is sometimes changed into ^ as in 
nURt-is, mUis ; jtmRo-'iSi jwdex. In all these cases where the nominative 
is formed by thie addition of an » to the final consonant of the crude form* 
the nominative has one syllable less than the genitive, or in other words, 
the s assumes an ^ or i before it, and then the nominative has the same 
number of syllables as the genitive, or in case the nominative assumes 1^ 
both cases are quite the same ; e. g. nuh-es, eto-t«, pan-is. 

These are the most essential points in the formation of the nominativ* 
in the third declension. 

We shall take the nominative, as is the nsual practice, as 
the case given, and shall point out in what way the genitive 
is formed from it. 

[§ 56.] 1. The nouns in a, which are neuters of Greek 
origin, make their genitive in atis, as po'ema^ poematis, 

2. Those in e change e into is, as mare, maris. 

3. The nouns in i and y are Greek neuters. Some of 
them are indeclinable, as gummi, and others have the regu- 
lar genitive in is, as sindpi, sinapis ; misy, mist/is and nUsys 
or mist/OS. The compounds of meli (honey) alone make 
their genitive according to the Greek in ttisy as mehmeli^ 
melomelUis ; oxymeli, oxymeUtis, 

4. Those in o (common) add nis to form the genitive 
sometimes only lengthening the o, and sometimes changing it 
into t. Of the former kind (genit. onis) are carbo, latro, led, 
ligo, pavo, praedo, sermo; and all those ending in io, as €Letio, 
{Hctio, ptigio. Of the latter kind (genit. mis) are all abstract 
nouns in do, as consuetudo, mis ; most nouns in go, as imcLga, 
virgo, origo f and a few others, as cardo, hirundo, tufio, 
/wmo, nemo. Caro has carnis. The names of nations in 
o have this vowel mostly short, as Macedones, Sendnes, 
Saxones ; it is long in Lacones and a few others. 

5. The only nouns ending in c are alec, gen. aUeisi and 
lac, gen. lactis. 

6. Nouns ending in / form the genitive by merely adding 
is, such as sol, sal, constd, ptigil, animal. Mel has mellis, 
and plur. mella ; fel has fetlis, but has no plural. 

7. Those in en (which are all neuters, with the exception 
of pecten, a comb,) make tnis, as carmen, flumen, lumen, 
nomen. Those in en retain the long e and have enis ; but 
there are only two genuine Latin words of this kind, ren and 
Um ; iovUchen, splen, and altagen are of Greek origin. 


Greek words in aUy en, iriy pn, and on follow the Greek 
rules in regard to the length or shortness of the vowel and 
also in regard to the insertion of a t: Cimon^ Cimonis; 
Xefiophon, Xenophontis, It is, however, to be observed 
that most Greek words in cur, (i>voc have in Latin the nomina- 
tive o\ e. g. Xoco, Plato, Zeno. The name Apollo is com- 
pletely LaBnized, and makes the genitiye ApoUmis, 

[§ ^7*] ^* Those ending in r must be distinguished 
according to the vowel which precedes it : they may end in 
iir, er, yr, or, or ur, 

a) Those in or have sometimes arts, as in calcar, puhinar, 
torctdar; and sometimes aris, as jubar, nectar, lar (plur. 
Iare8\ par and its compounds (e. g. impar, imparis), and the 
proper names Caesar, Hamilcar. But far makes farris, 
and hepar, hepatis, 

b) Latin words in ^r sometimes make eris, as mulier, 
muiieris, career, vomer; and sometimes they drop the short 
e, as, for instance, all those ending in ter (e. g. venter, uter, 
pater), with the exception of later, and the words imber, 
September, October, November, December, Iter makes its 
genit. (from a different nominat.) itineris. Juppiter (Jdvi* 
pater) makes the genitive Jdvis, Greek words in er follow 
the rules of the Greek language, whence we say crater, eris; 
air, aeris. Ver (the spring), gen. verts, originally belonged 
to the same class. 

c) Nouns ending in yr are Greek, and follow the rules of 
the Greek grammar : martyr, martyris. 

d) Those in or have dris, as amor, error, soror, uxor; 
but arbor, the three neuters ador, aequor, marmor, and- the 
adjective memor, have oris. Cor has cordk, and so also 
in the compound adjectives concors, discors, misericors, 
Greek proper names, such as Hector, Nestor, and others, 
have oris, as in Greek. 

e) Those in ur have uris, e. g. fulgur, murmur, sulphur, 
vultur, and the adject, cicur. Fur (a thief) alone has furis ; 
and the four neuters, ebur, femur, jecur, and ro^wr have oris, 
as ebdris, roboris. Jecur has, besides jecoris, also the forms 
jednoris, jocinoris, &ndjocineris. 

[§ 58.] 9. Nouns ending in s are yeij numerous ; they 
may terminate in a>s, es, is, os, us, aus, or in s with a con- 
sonant preceding it. 

a) Those in as £Drm their genitive in cOis, as aetas, aetaXvk^ 
Anas alone has anatis ; mas has mariA ; *oas ^^ «v«<iV3^'» 

c 2 


v&dis ; vas Ca vessel), vdsis, and asy assis. The Greek words 
vary according to their gender ; the masculines make antis^ 
the feminines adis, and the neuters atis, 

b) Those ending in es must be divided into two classes. 

• Those belonging to the first increase in the genitive, the 

letters d or t^ which were dropped in the nominative, being 

restored to their place, and their genit. termination is either 

UiSy etisy etisy or idis^ edis, edis. 

The genitive in ids occurs in most of them, as in antistes, 
comeSy equeSy hospes, mileSy pedes, satelleSy caespeSy /omes, 
gurgeSy limesy mergeSy palmes, stipeSy and trames, together 
.with the adjectives alesy codes, dives, sospes, and superstes. 

The following make their genitive in etis: ahies, aries, 
paries, interpresy seges, tegeSy and the adjectives heheSy tn- 
digesy praepes, and teres. 

The genit. in etis occurs in the Greek words lehes, tapes, 
Magnes; in the words quies, inquies, requies, and the adjec- 
tive locuples. 

Those which make idis are obses, praeses, and the adject. 
deses and reses. 

The genitive in edis occurs in pes, pedis, and its compounds, 
e. g. the plural compedes, Heres and merces, lastly, make 
their genitive in edis. 

The following words must be remembered separately: bes, 
bessis ; Ceres, Cereris ; pubes, and impubes, puberis and tm- 

The second class of words in es change the es of the nomi- 
native into is, without increase, such as caedes, clades, fames, 
ntibes, rupes ; it must also be observed, that several wotnis 
belonging to fcis class vary in the termination of the nomi- 
native between es and %s, so that along with feles, vulpes, 
vehes, aedes, we also have vulpis, vehis, aedis, 

c) Most words in is form their genitive in is, without any 
increase, as avis, dvis, panisy pisciSy and a great many others, 
together with the adjectives in w, neut. e. Others increase by 
one syllable, and make their genitive in tdis, itis or eris : uHs 
occurs in cassiSy cttspis, lapis, and in the Greek words aegis 
and pyramis: itis occurs only in lis. Quirts, and Samnis, 
plur. QuiriteSy Samnites ; and eris only in ciniSy eucumis, 
and ptdviSy gen. pulveris, cucumeris, and cineris. Glis hds 
gliris ; and sanguis has sanguinis (but the compound exsan^ 
guis remains in the genit. exsanguis) ; semis, being a com- 
pound of as, makes semissis. 


Greek words which have the genit. in loc or ewq form 
their genit. in Latin in is, without increase; but if their 
genit. is idog, thej increase in Latin and have tdis, (See 
§ 62.) 

[§ ^^*] ^ Nouns in os sometimes have dtts^ as cos, dos, 
nepoSy sacerdos, and sometimes oris, like os (the month), Jios, 
ghs, mos, ros, and in like manner honos, and lepos, the more 
common forms for honor and lepor. Ctistos makes cvLStodis; 
qs (bone), ossis; bos, bovis. The adjectives compos and 
impos have pods, 

e) Of the words in us, the feminines in us make their 
genitive in utis^ as virtus, viHUtis; or udis, as the three 
words incus, palus, and subscus, Tellus alone has tellUris, 
and Venus, Veneris. The neuters in us have sometimes 
eris, viz. foedus, funus, geniLS, latus, munus, olus, onus, opus, 
pondus, scelus, sidus, ulcus, vulnits ; and sometimes oris, as 
corpus, decus, dedecus, /acinus, fenus, frigus, litus, nemus, 
pectus, pecus (which in another sense has pecudis), pignus, 
stercus, tempus, and the common noun lepus, leporis, a hare. 
All monosyllables which have a long u, form their genitive 
in uris, as cms, jus, pus, rus, tus, and mus. Grtts and sus 
have grtUs, suis ; the adjective vetus has veteris, and inter- 
cus, intercutis, 

f) Greek words in ys make the genitive yis, contracted 
ys, or altogether in the Greek form yos. Some few, as 
chlamys, have ydis. 

g) The only nouns ending in aes are aes, aeris, and praes, 

h) There are only two words in aus, viz. laus and fraus, 
^f which the genitives are /atfc^i^j/rat/^i^. « 

t) Among the nouns ending in s preceded by a consonant, 
those in Js (except puis), ns (consequently all participles in 
-ns), and rs change the s into tis, e. g. fons, mons, pons, ars, 
pars. Mars — fontis, partis, &c There are only a few, such 
jBiS frons (a branch), glans, juglans, and some others, which 
^ake dis — frondis ; but frons (the forehead) makes frontis. 
The other words in s with a consonant before it, that is, 
those in bs, ps, and ms, form their genitive in bis, pis, mis, 
e. g. urbs, urbis ; plebs, plebis ; stirps, stirpis ; hiems, hiemis, 
•which is the only word of this termination. Caelebs has 
caelibis; the compounds of capio ending in ceps have tpis, 
JL& princeps, particeps — principis, participis. The compounds 

c 3 


of caput, which likewise end in ceps, such as anceps, make 
their genitive in cipitis, like caput, capitis, 

10. The termination t occurs only in caput and its com- 
pounds, gen. capitis. 

[§ ^^0 11* '^^® genitive of words in x varies between 
cis and gis, according as the x has arisen from cs or gs, which 
may be ascertained by the root of the word. The former is 
more common, and thus the following monosyllables with a 
consonant before the x make their genit. in cis : arx, calxy 
fahc, lanx, merx ; gis occurs only in the Greek words pJui* 
lanx, sphinx, and syrinx. 

But when the x is preceded by a vowel, it must be ascer- 
tained whether this vowel remains imchanged, and whether 
it is long or short. The Latin words in ax have cLds, as pax^ 
fomax, and the adjectives, e. g. audax, efficax. Fax done 
has a short a, facts, Greek words too have mostly acis, as 
thorax, Ajax, and only a few have dcis, as corax, climax^ 
while the names of men in nax have nactis, such as Astya- 
nax, Demonax, Words in ex generally make their genitive 
in ids, &s judex, artifex, supplex : but egis occurs in rex and 
lex, and egis in aquilex, grex ; ^cis in nex, foenisex, and in 
precis (from prex which is not used) ; ecis in verveXy Myr-^ 
mex, Remex has remigis ; senex, senis ; and supellex, supeU 
lectilis. The words in ix sometimes make their genitive in 
Ids and sometimes in ids. Of the former kind are cervix^ 
cicatrix, comix, coturnix, lodix, perdix, phoenix, radix, vibix^ 
and all the words in trix denoting women, such as nzUrix, 
victrix, and the adjectives felix, and pernix, and probably 
also appendix ; ids occurs in calix, choenix, coxendix, Jilix^ 
fornix, fulix, hystrix, larix, natrix, pix, salix, varix, and C«* 
lix. Nix has nids, and strix, strigis. The words ending in 
ox have 5ds, e. g. vox, vocis ; ferox, ferocis; but two words 
have ods, viz. Cappadox and the adjective praecox, Nox 
has noctis ; Allohrox, Allobrogis, The following words in 
ux form the genitive in uds : crux, dux, nux, and the adjec'^ 
tive trux ; the u is long only in two words, viz. lux and Pollux, 
genit. lUcis, Pollucis, Conjux (or conjunx) has conjugis, and 
frux (which, however, does not occur), frugis. There is only 
one word ending in aex, viz. faex, gen. faeds, and in aux 
oxAjfaux, gcn.fauds. The words in yx are Greek, and vary 
very much in the formation of their genitive : it may be pcis 
{Eryx), yds (bombyx), ygis (Japyx, Phryx, Styx), ygU (poe^ 
cyx), and ychis {onyx). 




[§ 61 .] All the remdning cases follow the genitive in regard 
to the above mentioped changes. It should be remarked 
that any other of the oblique cases might have been chosen, 
instead of the genitive, for the purpose of showing the changes 
in which all participate ; but we have followed the common 
practice. The following is a tabular view of the termina- 

Singular, Plural. 

Nom. — . Nom. es, neut. a (some id). 

Gen. IS Gren. um (some ium), 

Dat. f Dat. tbtis. 

Ace. em (neut. like nom.). Ace. like nom. 

Voc. like nom. Voc like nom. 

Abl, e (some !)• Abl. ibus. 

We subjoin some examples of the complete declension, in 
which it will be seen how the nominative either remains un- 
changed before the terminations, or undergoes a modifica- 
tion. Many more examples may be taken from the preceding 


Nom. aggevy the mound. Nom. pater^ the &ther. 

G^n. agger-is, of the mound. Gen. patr-is, of the father. 
Dat. agger-i, to the mound. Dat. patr-i, to the father. 
Ace agger-em, the mound. Ace patr-em, the father. 
Voc. agger, O mound ! Voc. pater, father I 

AbL agger-e, from the mound. Abl. patr-e, from the father. 


'Nom* agger^eSf the mounds. Nom. patr-ea, the fathers. 
Gen. agger-um, of the mounds.Gren. patr-um, of the fathers. 
Dat. agger-ibus, to the mounds.Dat. patr-ibus, to the fathers. 
Ace agger-es, the mounds. Ace. patr-es, the fathers. 
Voc. agger-esy O mounds ! Voc. patr-es, O fathers ! 
A»agger-ibiis,ixQmihQmo\VDAA,A^ patr-ibuSy from the fathers* 

c 4 



Nom. leo, the lion. Nom. homo, the man. 

Gen. leon-is. Gen. homin-is, 

Dat. leoU'L Dat. homin-i. 

Ace. leoTt'Cm, Ace. homin-em, 

Voc. leo, Voc. homo, 

Abl. leon-e, AbL homin-e. 


Nom. leon-es, the lions. Nom. homin-esy the men. 

Gen. leon-um. Gen. homin-um, 

Dat. leon-ibus, Dat. homin-ibtis. 

Ace. leon-es. Ace. homin-es, 

Voc. leon-es, Voc. homin-es. 

Abl. leon-ibus, AbL homin-ibtis. 


Nom. 9722/^5, the soldier. Nom. ^05, the flower. 

G«n. milit'is. Gen. flor-is. 

Dat. mUit'i, Dat. flor-i. 

Ace. milit-em. Ace. flor-em, 

Voc. mi/^^. Voc. ^/fo5. 

Abl. milit-e, Abl. fior-e. 


Nom. miliUeSy the soldiers. Nom. flor-es, the flowers. 

Gen. milit'um, G^n. flor-um, 

Dat. milit'ibus. Dat. flor-%bus. 

Ace. milit-es. Ace. Jlor-es, 

Voc. milit-es. Voc. Jlor-es, 

Abl. milit-ibus, Abl. flor^ibus. 


Nom. ^o;, the law. Nom. £?t^, the commander. 

Gren. /c^-w. G«n. duc-is, 

Dat. Ze^-i. Dat. c^e-t. 

Ace. leg-em. Ace. duc^em. 

Voc. /ear. Voc. rfMa?^ 

Abl. /^^-e. Abl. duc-e. 



Nom. leg-'CS^ the laws. Nom. dtic-es, the commanders* 

Gen. leg^um. Gen. duc-um, 

Dat. leg-ibus, Dat. duc-ibus. 

Ace, leg^es. Ace. dtic-es. 

Voc. leg-es. Voc. diic-es, 

Abl. leg-ibus, AbL duc-ibus. 



Nom. fulgur, lightning. Nom. opu^, the work. 

G^n. ftdgur-is. G^n. oper-is, 

Dat. fttgur-u Dat. oper-i. 

Ace. fulgur. Ace. opt^. 

Voc. fulgur. Voc opt^. 

Abl. fulgur-e, AbL oper-e. 


Nom. fulgur-ttf lightnings. Nom. oper-a^ the works. 

Gen. fulgur-um* G«n. oper-um, 

Dat. fulgur-ibus, Dat. oper-ibus. 

Ace. fulgur-a. Ace. oper-a, 

Voc. fulgur-a. Voc. oper-a, 

Abl. fulgur-ibus, Abl. oper-ibtis. 

Remarks on the separate Cases. 

1. The genitive of some Greek proper names in c* is £ 
instead of i$ ; e. g. Themistocles Neocli Jilius^ instead of 

[§ 62.] 2. Many words in w make the accusative singular 
£w instead of em, viz. — 

a) All Greek nouns which form the accusative in that 
language in. iv\ basim, poesim, paraphrasim^ Charybdim, 
Neopolim^ Persepolim, Tanaim ; those which have in Greek 
both terminations iv and ila {%. e. the barytons in cc, gen. iIoq) 
prefer in Latin the accusative in im, e. g. Memphimy Osirim, 
JPhalarim, Serapim, Zeuxim. But those which in Greek 
end in /c, gen. ilo^ (oi^ytona), have in Greek only iha, and in 
Latin only idem : e. g. aegis, pyramis, tyranni»^ Aetield* 

c 5 


b) Many proper names (not Greek) of rivers and towns in 
is which do not increase in the genitive, make, according to 
the analogy of the Greek, the accusative in im instead of 
em, e. g. Albim, Athesim, Baetim, Tiberitn, Bilbiliniy JBts* 

c) The following Latin common nouns: amussiSy ravis, 
sitis, tussis, and vis. In the following the termination em is 
less common than im : febris, pelvis, puppis, restis, ttirris, 
and especially securis, 

[§ 63.] 3. The ablative singular terminates in i instead 
of c* 

a) In all words which form their accusative ip im instead 
of em, with the exception of those Greek words which Hiake 
the genitive in idis. Thus we have poesi, NeapoHy Tiberi^ 
and among Latin common nouns not only ravi, tussi, and vi^ 
but febriy pelvi, pttppi, turri, and securi. But restim has 
more commonly reste, and navem on the contrary more 
.usually navi than nave. Clave and clam, and sem>ente and 
sementi, are equally in use. 

b) In neuters in e, al, and ar, e. g. mari, vectigdli, calcari, 
&c ; but far, farriSy and baccar, jubar, hepar, nectar^ and 
sal, which have a short a in the genitive, form the ablative 
in e. Names of towns in e always make their ablative in e^ 
as Praeneste, 

c) In adjectives and names of months ending in is and er ; 
hence factliy celebri, celeri, Aprili, Septembri, and generally 
also in those substantives in is which are properly adjectives, 
e. g. aequalis, ajffinis, annalis, bipennis, canalis, familiaris, 
gentUiSy popularis, sodalis, vocalis, triremis, and quadri- 
remis. But juvenis always makes juvene, and aedilis com- 
monly aedile, 

[§ ®*'] *• '^^ ablative singular in i or e indiscriminately 
occurs, generally speaking, in adjectives of one termination 
and in comparatives, as prudens prudente, and prudenti ; 
elegans, elegante and eleganti; vetus, vetere and veteri; 
locuples, locuplete and locupleH ; dives, divite and diviH; 
feUxy felice and feUci ; major, majore and majori. But i 
is preferable in adjectives of one termination, and e in com- 

Note. It should however be observed that the majority of adjectives in 
es, viz. hospes, sospes, deseSfpvbes, impubes, and superstes, pauper, aenex, and 
prineeps, fbrm the ablative exclusively in e. It must further be obsenred, 
that the words in an§ and ens, when used substantively, as infanif stqnmut 


and i^hen they are real participles, alirays have e. Hence we regularly 
find it in the ablative absolute, e. g. Tarquinio regnante, 

[§ ^] ^' 'T^® nominative, accusative, and vocative plural 
of neuters end in a; but neuters in e, aly and ar, which also 
form the ablative singular in i, and all participles and adjec- 
tives which make the ablative singular either in i alone, or 
vary between e and ^ have ia instead of a, except the 
adjective vetus and all comparatives ; e. g. nutria, vectigalia^ 
calcaria, paria, /adlia, sapienUa^ ingentia, victrida; 
amantia, sedentia, atedientia; but majortz, doctiora, &c. 

Note. Sal has no neuter plural, but only sa&« with masculine gender. 
All adjectives of one termination, make the plural in io, for of those 
which form the ablative singular in « exclusively, the neuter does not 
occur. Thus th^e remains only vehu, veterot although the ablative sing, 
is vetere or veteri, Compluret {^several or some) makes both compluria and 

[§ 66.] 6. The following words make their genitive 
plural in ium instead of um : 

a) All neuters which have ia in ihe nominative plural, 
that is, those in e, al, and ar, and all participles and adjec- 
tives which follow the third declension. Comparatives there^ 
fore (with the exception of plurium and comphirium) and 
those adjectives which have only e in the ablative singular, 
retain the termination um in the genit. plur., as pauperum^ 
superstitum. To these we must add the adjectives caelebs, 
celer, cieur, compos, impos, dives, memor, immemor, supplex^ 
uher, vetus, and vigil; all compounds o/L facto and capioy 
and of such substantives as make the genitive plur. in um, 
e. g. degenerum, bicorporum, indpum^ qu€tdrupedum, trici- 
pitum, versicolorum, 

b) Words in es and is, which do not increase in the 
genitive singular (e. g. nubes, nubium; civis, dvium; but 
militum and lapidum from mUes and lapis, gen. militis, 
lapidis); the following words in er: imber, UrUer, ventevp 
uter, and the word caro, camium, Vates, strues, the plural 
ambages, and generally also se^s, together with apis, eanis, 
juvenis, and volucris, form exceptions, and make their 
genitive phu*. in um, Panis is uncertain. 

c) Many monosyllabic substantives, and without exception 
those ending in s and x preceded by a consonant, make ium, 
as mon^um, dentium, arcium, mercium, from jnoiu, dens, 
urx, merx. Lynx however has lyncum ; and opes, from o'gs^ 
has opum. But the greater number of moiio^^^^vc. ^<3t^^ 

c 6 


ending in s and x preceded by a vowel make their genitive^ 
plur. more frequently in um than in turn. The latter occurs 
only in as, assium ; glis, glirium ; Us, litium ; nuis, marium ; 
OS, ossium ; vis, virium ; and generally also in fraus, frau- 
dium, and mus, murium. To these we must add faux, 
faucium; nix, nimum; strix, strigium; and nox, noctium. 
Fur and ren have furum, renum ; lar has more frequently 
larum than larium. Of cor we only find cordium, 

d) Substantives of two or more syllables ending in ns and 
rs have ium and um, though the latter occurs more rarely ; 
as in cliens, cohors, Picens, Vefens, Camers; and in like 
manner those which, like adolescens, infans, parens, sapiens, 
serpens, are properly participles, and admit um only because 
they are substantives (whence we firequently find parentum 
from parentes), commonly make their genitive in ium: 
adolescentium, sapientium, &c. The names of people in as, 
atis, such as Arpinas, Fidefias, form their genitive almost 
exclusively in ium : Arpinatium, Fidenatium. Penates and 
optimates, which usually occur only in the plural, follow 
their analogy. Other substantives (common nouns, appel- 
laHva) in as generally have um : e. g. aetatutn, civitatum ; 
but ium also is correct, and civitatium in particular occurs 
frequently. Quiris and Samnis, contrary to the rule, gene- 
rally make Quiritium, Samnitium, 

f§ 67.] 7. Names of festivals in alia which are used only 
in the plural, as Bacchanalia, Compitalia, make their 
genitive plural in ium or orum, as Bacchanalium or Baccha^ 

8. In the dative and ablative plural, the Greek words in 
ma prefer the termination is of the second declension to 
ibus ; e. g. poematis, epigrammatis, for poematibus and epi- 

[§ 68.] 9. The accusative plural of words which make 
the genitive plur. in ium ended, in the best age of the Latin 
language, in is, instead of es; hence we find artis, dvis, 
omnis, tris. , 

[§ 69.] 10. Juppiter (see § 12.) is declined as follows: 
genit. Jovis, dat. Jovi, accus. Jovem, voc. Juppiter, abl. Jove, 
In the plural Joves only is found. 

Bos, bovis, makes the nominat. and accus. plur. boves, gen. 
boum, dat. and ablat* bubus, and less frequently bobus, Sus 
makes the dat. and ablat. plur. subus, which is a contraction 
of suibus. 



We have, in the preceding chapter, arranged the deviations 
from the regular or ordinary declension, according to the 
order in which the cases follow one another in the paradigm : 
but for the purpose of assisting the learner, we shall here 
arrange the same observations according to the terminations 
of the nouns, viz. : — 

a. Substantives. 

1. The neuters in e, al, and ar^ make the ablat. sing, in t, 
the nom. accus. and vocat. plur. in ta, and the genit. plur. in 

2. Substantives in es and is, which do not increase in the 
genit., as well as several ending in er, make the genit. plur. 
in ium. 

3. Greek words in w, together with the names of rivers 
and towns of the same termination, though they may not be 
Greek, and a few Latin words in is^ make the accus. sing, in 
im^ the ablat. in i, and the genit. plur, (if they occur in the 
plural) in ium, 

4. Monosyllabic words in s and a?, preceded by a consonant, 
and several in which s or x\& preceded by a vpwel, form the 
genit. plur. in ium. 

5. Polysyllabic words in ns and rs commonly make the 
genit. plur. in ium ; the same is the case with the appellatives 
in as^ though more rarely. 

b. Adjectives, 

1. Adjectives in is^ e, and er, is, e, make the ablat. sing, in 
t, the neuter plur. in ia, and the genit. plur. in ium. 

2. Adjectives of one termination make the ablat. sing, on 
the whole more commonly in i than in e, the neuter plural in 
ia, and the genit. plur. in ium, (Comparatives, however, make 
the ablat. sing, in e, the neuter plur. in a, and the genit. plur. 
in um.) 

We subjoin a few of these nouns as models for the de 
clension of the rest. 



Neuters in e, al, and ar. 

Nom. mare^ the sea. 
Gen. mar-is, 
Dat. mar-i, 
Aec. mare, 
Voc. mare, 
Abl. mar-i. 


Nom. animal, the animaL 

Gen. animal-is, 

Dat. animal-i. 

Ace. animal, 

Voc. awima/. 

Abl. animal-i. 

Nom. mar-ia, the seas. 
G^n. mar-ium, 
Dat. mar-ibus. 
Ace. & Voc war-to. 
Abl. mar^bus. 


Nom. animal-ia, the animals. 
Gen. animal-ium. 
Dat. animal-ihus. 
Ace. & Voc. animal-ia. 
Abl. animal-ibus. 

Nouns in es, is, a;2</ er. 

Nom. & Voc. 72t£6e«, a cloud. N. & V. imber, a shower of rain* 

Gen. nub-is. Gen. imbr-is. 

Dat. WM^-t. Dat. imbr-i. 

Ace. ww6-em. Ace. imbr-em. 

Abl. ww5-c. Abl. imbr-e. 


Nom. & Voc. «w6-c*, clouds. 
G^n. nub-ium, 
Dat. nub-ibus, 
Aec. nub-es, 
Abl. »w3-t^*. 

N. 8e V. imbr-es, showers of rain. 
Gen. imbr-ium, 
Dat. imbr-ibus. 
Ace. imbr-es. 
Abl. imbr-ibus. 


Nom. & Voc. ctmff, citizen. Nom. & Voc. securis, axe. 

Gen. cft?-w. 

Dat. cft?-t. 

Ace. civ-em, 

AbL civ-e. 

Gen. secur-is, 
Dat. secur-i. 
Ace. 5ecMr-tm. 
Abl. secur-i. 



Nom. & Voc. civ-es, citizens. Nom. & Voc. secur-eSp axes. 

Gren. civ'ium. Gen. secur-ium, 

Dat. ciV'Ums. Dat. secur-ibtis. 

Ace. civ-es. Ace. secur-es. 

Abl. dv'ibus, Abl. secur^ihus. 

Nouns in s and x, vjith a Consonant preceding. 


Nom. & Voc. arSy art. N. & V. sapiens^ a wise man. 

Gen. art-is. Gren. sapient-is, 

Dat. art'i. Dat. sapient-i. 

Ace. art-em^ Ace. sapient-em. 

Abl. ar^-e. Abl. sapient-e. 


Nom. & Voc. art'€s, arts. N. & V. sapient-es, wise men. 

Gen. art'ium, Qen, sapient-ium. 

Dat. art'ibtis, Dat. sapient-ihus. 

Ace. art-es. Ace. sapient-es. 

Abl. art'Ums* Abl. sapient-ibtis. 



[ § 70.] A GRKAT number of Greek words; especially proper names, 
bel(mg to the third declension ; as their genitive terminates in os (cms, 
ovs), they follow the third declension in their own language also. 
Among the terminations of the nominative mentioned above, some belong 
exclusively to Greek words, viz. two, i, y, 5n, in. On, yn, ir, yr, ys, eu8,yx, 
inx, ynx, and the plurals in e ; but there are also Greek words with other 
terminations, most of which, however, are quite treated as Latin words, 
and the Greek forms are used by Latin writers, especially the poets, only 
in some cases. 

1. In the genitive singular, the poets frequently use the Greek ter- 
mination ds instead of the Latin is, e. g. Panos, Tethyos. 

The feminines in o, however, as echo. Calypso, Dido, Sappho^ has^ 
usually the Gredc genitive isk iU^aa echus, Didut^ SopphMA^^^b \Aie5v 


termination onis being less common. Their dative, accusative, and 
ablative end in o, and the Latin terminations oat, onem, one, are but rarely 

[§ 71.] 2. The Greek accusative of the third declension in a is very 
often used by the Latin poets instead of em ; e. g. hebdomada from Ae6- 
domoit Pana, aethera, Laeedaemona, Babyhma, 

[§ 72.] S. The vocative singular in most Greek words ending in » 
is formed by rejecting that consonant both in Greek and Latin ; e. g. 
Daphni, Phyllis Thai, Tiphy, Orpheu, Perseu. Nouns in cu, antis, make 
their vocative in Greek av and a, but the latter only is used in Latin ; e. g. 
Atia, Cakha, 

[§ '3>] ^- 111 the genitive plural only a few words retain the Greek 
termination Gn (wv), but on the whole only in titles of books ; e. g. meto- 
moTfAoseOn, epigrammatdn. 

[§ 74.] 5. The Greek accusative plural in as often occurs in proper 
names; e. g. Cydopas, Macedinuu, 

CHAP. xvn. 


[§ 75.] Masculine are those which end in o, or^ os, and er, 
and those in es which increase in the genitive, especially 
those in es, ttis, e. g. sermo, error, sudor, flos, mos, venter, 

Exceptions in o. Words ending in do, go and to are 
feminine, e.g. consuetudo, grando, legio, contio, natio, &c., 
also caro. The following, however, are masculine : in do, 
the words cardo and ordo, together with udo and ctido or 
ciidon ; in go : ligo, margo, and harpago ; and all words in 
io, which are not abstract nouns, but common names of 
things, such as pugio (a dagger), scipio (a staff), septentrio 
(north pole), tiiio (a fire-brand) ; several names of animals, 
as curculio, papilio, Scorpio, stellio, vespertilio, and a few 
others of rare occurrence ; and lastly, unio, in the sense of a 
particular pearl (margarita). 

[§ 76.] Exceptions in or. The following words in or, 
dris, are neuter: ador, aequor, marmor, and cor, cordis. 
Arbor is feminine according to the general rule. 


Exceptions in os, Cos, dos, and the Greek eos are femi- 
nine ; oSf ossis, and os, oris, are neuter. 

Exceptions in er, A great many words in er are neuter, 
viz. cadaver, iter^ spinther, tUber (a hump), tiher, ver, and 
verber (rarely used in the singular), and all the names of 
plants in er : cicer, laser, papaver, piper, siler, siser, suber, 
and zingiber. Tuber (a kind of peach tree) is feminine ; but 
when it denotes the fruit, it is masculine. 

Exceptions in es increasing in the genitive. The follow- 
ing are feminine : merges, itis ; seges and teges, etis ; merces, 
edis; quies, etis, with its compounds inquies and requies* 
Compes, which, however, does not occur in the nominative 
sing., but only in the plural compedes, is feminine. Acs, 
aeris, is neuter ; ales and quadrupes are properly adjectives^ 
but as substantives they are mostly used as feminines. 

CHAP. xvm. 


[§ 77.] Feminine are those which end in as, is, ys, avLs, and 
X, those in es, which do not increase in the genitive, and 
those in s preceded by a consonant, e. g. aetas, navis, chlamys, 
latLS 2kn^fraiM, pax, radix, arx, nubes, pars, mors, hiems. 

Exceptions in as. The following are masculine: — as^ 
gen. assis, and its compounds, though they have different 
terminations, as quadrans, a fourth of an as ; bes, two-thirds 
of an as ; and the Greek words which make their genitive in 
aniis, as adamas, elephas, and the names of mountains: 
Acragas, Atlas, Mimas, Mas, maris, and vas, vadis, are, 
of course, masculine. The following are neuters : vas, vasts, 
and fas and nefas, which, however, occur only in the nom. 
and ace us. 

Exceptions in is. The following are masculine : — 1) 
Those in is, gen. eris, as cinis, ciicumis, pulvis, and vomis 
(commonly vomer) ; 2) The following which increase in the 
genitive : glis, lapisy poUiSy and sanguis; 3) The CqXILqw:ol% 


vrhich do not increase: amnis, axis, callis, canalis, azssis 
(used especially in the plural casses, a hunter's net, and not 
to be confounded with cassis, tdis, a helmet, which is femi- 
nine) ; caulis or colis, collis, crinis, ensis,fascis (generally in 
the plural fasces), jinis, follis, funis, justis, ignis, mensisj 
orhis, pants, pisds, postis, scrobis, sentis, torquis, torris^ un^ 
gtds, vectis, vermis. 

As mensis is masculine, Aprilis, Quintilis (Julius), and 
Sextilis (Augustus), have the same gender. Some substan- 
tives in is are properly adjectives, and a substantive mascu- 
line being always understood, they are themselves used as 
masculines : e. g. annalis, commonly in the plural annales 
(libri), annals ; jugales (equi), two horses yoked together ; 
molaris (lapis), a millstone, or if dens is understood, a back- 
tooth or grinder; nataMs (dies), birth-day ; ptigillares (libeUt)^ 
a tablet for writing. 

Note. All the niascuUnes in is, whatever may be their genitive, are 
contained in the following hexameter lines : 

Mascula suni paniSy piscis, crinis, cinis, ignis. 
Funis, gliSf vectis, foUis, fascis, lapis, nmnis. 
Sic fastis, postis, scrobis, axis, vermis et unguis, 
£t penis, coliis, caUis, sic sanguis et ensis, 
Mvgilis et mensis, poUis, cum cauU canalis, 
£t vomis, sentis, pulvis, finis, c«ctimt«que, 
Anguis, item torquis, torris, cum cassibus orbis. 

Exceptions in ys. All words of this termination are 
Greek. Names of rivers and mountains in ys are masculine^ 
according to the general rule ; e. g. Halys, Oikrys, 

[S 78.T Exceptions in x. The following are masculine : 
1) The Greek words in ax : as cordax, thorax. 2) The ma- 
jority of those in ex, so that only lex, nex,faex, and supellex, 
are feminine. 3) Some in ix : viz. calix, fornix, phoenix, 
sorix ; and generally also varix, 4) One word m ux: viz. 
tradux, properly an adjective, palmes being understood. 
5) The following Greek words in yx : calyx, coccyx, onyx, 
oryx and hombyx (in the sense of silkworm; it is femin. 
when it signifies silk) ; and the names of mountains, such as 
Eryx. 6) The subdivisions of an a« which end in unx : as 
quincunx, septunx, deunx. 

Note, Many words in ear conmionly enumerated in these lists are mas- 
culine from their signification, such as rex, pontifex, camifex, foenisex, 
vervex. The other masculines in ex are : apex, eaudex, codex, eimex. 


• cortex, evlex^ frutex, grex, irpex, latex, murex, obex, podex, poUeXf puUx^ 
pumex, ramex, tilex, sorex, ulex, vertex or vortex. 

Exceptions in es, gen. is without increase. The Greek 
word acinaces alone (aictvaicjyc, ov) is masculine. Vepres^ 
which rarely occurs in the singular, and palmnbes^ though 
commonly masculines, are found also as feminines. 

Exceptions in s preceded by a consonant. The following 
are masculine : den^y fons, mons, and ponSy and commonly 
also adeps. Some words are properly adjectives, but are 
used as masculine substantives, because a substantive of that 
gender is understood : confluens or confluentes {amnes\ tor^ 
rens (amnis), oriens and occidefis (sol), rudens {funis), hidens 
and tridens ; and several Greek words, such as ellopsy epops, 
meropSf gryps^ hydrops^ chalyhs. 



[§ 79.] Words ending in a, c, e, y, c, /, w, ^, «r, «r, tis are 
neuter : e. g. poema, mare, sinapi, misy, lac, animal^ mel, 
carmen, fiumen, caput (the only word of this termination), 
calcar, pulvinar, fulgur, /acinus, opus, tempus. 

1. Exceptions in /. The following are masculine : sol, sal, 
and mugiL Sal in the singular is sometimes found ad a 
neuter, but in the plural the ancients use only sales, 

2. Exceptions in n. There are only three Latin words in 
en which are masculine, viz. pecten, pecttnis, ren, and lien 
(or lienis) ; the others in en are of Greek origin : e. g. atta* 
gen, lichen and splen. In an, paean; in on, agon, canon, 
gnomon, horizon, and the names of mountains in on, as Ci* 
thaeron. Helicon, The following in on are feminine : aedon, 
icon, and sindon ; and many Greek names of towns. 

3. Exceptions in ar. Par is common in the sense of 
" mate," but neuter in the sense of " a pair." 

4. Exceptions in ur, Astur, turtur, vultur, vaiidL furfur 
are mascuHne, and^r on account of its meaning. 

5. Exceptions in us. All words of two or mor^ ^^&s2c^s» 


which retain the u in the genitive, that is, which end in uiii . 
or udis, are feminine : e. g. juventus, salus, sefiectus, servitus^ 
virtus ; inctiSy paltcs, and subscus ; also tellus, telluris^ and 
pecus, pecudis, a sheep. The monosyllables, such as tus^ 
turis ; jus, juris, and those polysyllabic words which change' 
their vowel (see § 59.), are neuter according to the general 
rule. Respecting the names of animals in us, see above, 
§ 42. Lepus and mus are masculine ; gms and sus are femi- 
nine, when the particular sex is not to be specified. 



[S 80.] The fourth declension is only a particular species 
of the third, which has arisen from contraction and elision. 
The nominative of masculine and feminine words ends in u^ 
and of neuters in m. The following is the form of their 
declension : i— 


l^om. fruct'Us, fruit. 

com-u, horn. 

Gen. fruct'Us, 


Dat. fruct-uL 

(com-iti) corn'U, 

Ace. fruct'Um, 


Voc. fruct'Us, 


Abl. fruct-u. 



"Norn, fruct'US. 


Gren. fruct-Hum, 


Dat. fruct'ibus. 


Ace. fruct-Hs. 


Voc. fruct'US, 


Abl. fruct'ibus. 


The following words may be used as exercises : actus, 
coetus, cursus, gradus, lusus, magistratus, motus, senstts, 
sumptus, vultus : the only neuters are genu, gelu, veru, pecu 
(the same as pecus, dris), Tonitrus and tonitruum, plur. tom- 
trua, are more commonly used than tonitru. 


[§ 82*] f^ote. Some words make the dative and ablative plural in 
ihus instead of t6tw. lliey are contained in the following two 
hexameters : — 

Arcus, aeus, portus, qttercus, Jictu, lacus, arttUt 
£t tribus et partus, specus, adde veruque pecuque* 

But it must be observed, that instead of Jicvbus a better form is Jtcia, 
£rom^cu$, i, and partus has both forms, ubus and ibus. 

[§ 83.] Domus takes, in some of its cases, the forms of the second de- 
clension; especially in the genit. domi in the sense of *'at home :" in the 
abl. domo in the sense of *' from home ; '* and in the ace. plur. domos in 
the sense of ** home,'* when several places are alluded to. In the other 
signification, the forms of the fourth declension prevail. 

Gbnder of Words of the Fourth Declension. 

[§ 84.] The words in tis are masculine. The following 
only are feminines: acus, domus, mantis, portictis, trihtis, 
and the plurals idtLS, iduum, and quinqttatrtts, quinquatruum. 
To these must be added coltis, which however also follows 
the second declension. The words amis, nurus, socrus, and 
quercus are feminine, according to the general rule, on ac- 
count of their signification. 

The few words in u are neuter, without exception. 



r§ 85.] The fifth declension, like the fourth, may, with a 
few changes, be traced to the third. The nominative ends 
in is, and the declension is as follows : — 

Singular. Plural. 

Nom. di'Cs, a day. Nom. di-es, days. 

Gen. di-ei. Gen. di-erum, 

Dat. di'cim Dat. di-ehtis. 

Ace, dUem. Ace. di-es. 

Voc. dues, Voc. di-es, 

Abl. dire. AbL di-ehus. 

The foUowing may serye as examples for declension : res and species 
liave their plural oompUtOt The words acie<, fades, effigies^ «me«^ «xA 


ape», are found in good prose writers only in the nominative sing, and in 
the nom. and accusative plural ; the others, fides^ maciee, pemicies and 
tcahies have, from their signification, no plural. 

Note, The e in the termination of the genitive and dative singular is 
long when preceded by a vowel, as in diSi, maeUi, but short after a 
consonant, as in^^t, rSu 

Gender of Words of the fifth Dbclbitsion. 

[§ 86.] The .words of the fifth declension are feminine, 
with the exception of dieSy which is mascuL and femin. in 
the singular, and masculine only in the plural. The com- 
pound meridies is masculine onlj, but does not occur in the 



[§ 87.] The irregularities in the declension of substantives 
may be comprised under two general heads : A, Indeclinables 
and defectives ; B. Heteroclita and heterogenea, 

A, Some substantives have a defective declension, inas- 
much as they have either no terminations at all to mark the 
different cases (indeclinables), or want particular cases, or 
even a whole number (defectives). 

I. Indeclinables, or words which retain the same form in 
all cases, are chiefly the names of the letters of the Greek 
and Latin alphabets, e. g. alpha, beta^ gamma^ delta, iotcL^ 
a, V, &c. Further, a number of foreign words, such as 
manna, pascka, and a few Greek substantives in i and y, 
such as gummi, Hebrew proper names, which differ in their 
terminations from Greek and Latin words, are either not 
declined at all, as Bethleem, Gabriel, Ruth, or they take a 
Latin termination in the nominative also, e. g. Abrahamus, 
Jacobus, Josephus, Juditha, David and Daniel are the 
only names which, without taking any termination in the 
nominative, make the genitive Davldis, and Daniilis. 
Others, as Joannes, Moses, Judas, Maria, have already 


acquired through the Greek a declinable termination, and 
are accordingly declined after the first or third declension. 
JestLs makes the accusat. *Jesum, but in the other cases it 
remains unchanged, Jesu. 

Among the genuine Latin words we must notice pondo 
(properly an ancient ablative), which is used only as a plural^ 
and remains unchanged in all its cases, e. g. auri quinque 
pondoy ^Ye pounds of gold. 

[§ 88.] n. Defectives in ease are those substantives which 
want one or more cases. There are many words of which 
the nominative singular cannot be proved to have existed, as 
for instance, of the genitives dapis, dicionis, frugis, opis, vidSp 
and of the plurals preces and verbera (for which we use as a 
nom. sing, plaga or icttcs). The genitive neminis from nemo 
occurs very rarely, and its place is supplied by nullitis. The 
genitive plural is wanting, that is, does not occur in our au- 
thorities, in several monosyllabic words, as 05, oris; vas, 
vadis; glos, pax, and others. The genit. and dat. sing, of 
vis is very rare, but the plural vires^ virium, &c., is complete. 

[§ 89.1 With regard to words which want several cases, 
it most frequently happens, that only those cases exist which 
are alike (i. e. especially the nominat., accusat., and vocat., 
all the others being wanting). Thus^a*, nefas, nihil, parum 
(too little), and instar, are used only as nom. and accus. 
This is the case especially with the plural of such words as 
neces, kinds of death ; jura, rights ; rura, fields ; silentia, 
grates, and munia. 

The following must be remembered separately : fors occurs 
only in the nom. and abl. singular (forte by chance) ; majie^ 
In the nom., ace, and abl. singular, and is alike in all of them, 
but it is generally used only as an adverb. 

[§ 90.] Some words occur only in particular combinations 
and in a particular case : diets with causa and gratia ; nauci 
in the phrase non nauci facere or esse ; derisui and despica" 
tui, in combination with dud or esse ; infitias with ire ; venum 
with ire and dare, whence venire and vendere ; din et noctu 
(for which, however, noctu et interdiu is more common); natu 
with major and minor ; in promptu and in procinctu com- 
monly with esse and stare ; sponte with a pronoun, as mea, 
tua, sua, or a genitive. We must particularly notice some 
verbal substantives, which rarely occur in any other form 
than the ablat. sing, in combination with a genitive or a pro- 
noun, such as meo, ttu>, &c., e. g. concessu and peTiai&^M'* 


admonUu, rogatu, oratu, arbitratu, jussu and injussu; cocmtu 
and efflagitatu, 

[§ ^^0 ^^* Defectives in nufnber are words which have 
either no plural or no singular. 

1. Many words from their signification can have no plural, 
and are termed singularia tantum. This is the case: a) 
With abstract noims which have a simple and universal 
meaning, e. g. jtcstitia, temperantiay pueritia^ fameSy siHs ; 
b) "With words which denote a substance or mass without di- 
vision or subdivision, as aurum, argentum, sabulum, coenum, 
sanguis, and panis, inasmuch as we thereby do not understand 
a single loaf, but the substance of bread in general. Some 
words of this kind however, when used in the plural, denote 
separate objects, consisting of the substance indicated by the 
name, as aera, works in bronze ; cerae, wax-tablets ; ligna, 
pieces of wood ; c) Collective words, as vidoles, the whole 
natural abilities of a person ; plebs and vulgus, victus, supel- 
lex. Proper names should strictly have no plural, but cases 
often occur where a plural is necessary, viz. when persons of 
the same name or character are spoken of, and it may be 
remarked in general, that in such cases the person who 
Bpeaks or writes must decide for himself. It is surprising 
that there exists no plural of the words vesper {ve8pera\ 
meridies, ver, and specimen, 

[§ 93.] 2. Other words (pluralia tantum) occur only in 
the plural. This is the case : a) With the following collective 
names of personal beings : liberi, gemini, majores, posteri, 
primores and proceres, svperi and inferi, coelites, consentes, 
penates, lemures, excubiae, operae. When in any of these 
cases an individual is to be indicated, it can be done only by 
making it a part of the collective, e. g. one child, unus or una 
liberorum or ex liberis. Manes or dii manes however is used 
in the plural also to denote the departed soul of an individuaL 
b) A great number of other pluralia tantum denote a com- 
plex of things, the constituent parts of which are not con- 
ceived separately, or at least are not designated by the same 
word as the whole complex itself. Such words are. rendered 
in English either by plurals or collective words. The most 
important among them are: — a) Artus, exta, intestina and 
viscera, foria (orum), tormina, ilia, armamenfa, impedimenta, 
vtensilia, induviae, exuviae, manubiae, pariettnae, reliquiae^ 
sentes, vepres, virguUa, bellaria, crepundia, scruta, danaria, 
lauiia, inferiae, justa^ serta, compedes, verbera, grcUes, lor 


menta, minae, preces, dirae, ambages, argutiae, deliciae, divi- 
tiae, facetiae, nugae, gerrae, quisquiliae, insidiae, praestigiae, 
tricae. To these we may add some other but similar ideas, 
which are more frequently expressed by the plural than the 
singular, as angustiae, blanditiae, illecebrae, ineptiae, minu' 
tiae, latehrae, salebrae, 

[§ 94.] /3) The following words are used in Latin in the 
plural, because they denote things composed of several parts, 
whereas, we frequently express the same things in the singu- 
lar : — Altaria {altare is less common), arma, moefiia, bigcte, 
trigae, quadrigae, cancelli and clathri, casses and plagae, exe^ 
quiae, fides (a lyre, properly the strings which were called 
hervi), fores and valvae, loculi, phalerae, salinae, scalae, 
scopae, codidtliy.ptigillares, tabulae, cerae, clunes and nates. 
The meaning of the plural is to us more obscure in the fol- 
lowing words : cervices, fauces, clitellae, cunae, cunabula 
and incunabula, inimicitiae, induciae, nuptiae, obices, panti- 
ces, praecQrdia (orum), sordes, tenebrae. 

[§ ^^0 The names of certain days in the Roman calendar 
are plurals, as caUndae. nonae, idus, nundinae and feriae ; 
so also the names of festivals and festive games (like Itidi it- 
self), e. g. Bacchanalia, Fhralia, Saturnalia, Olympia, 
and natalida, sponsalia and repotia ; further, many names of 
towns, such as Athenae, Thebae, Gades, the neuters Arbela, 
Bactra, Leuctra, and a considerable number of names of 
towns which are properly names of the people, as Delphi, 
Leontiniy Parisii, Treviri* 

[§ 96.] Some words which are apparently the same vary in meaning 
according to their number, which is sometimes accompanied by a differ- 
ence of gender. Lustrum is a period of five years, and luttra, dens of 
wild beasts ; fastuSf u«, plur. jfastust pride ; and fasti, the calendar ; 
forum, market, and fori, passages ; tempus, time, and tempora (sometimes 
tempus also), the temples of the head. 

In other words the plural has a different meaning from the singular, 
though one nearly allied to it, and without giving up the meaning of the 
singular for the plural, e. g. 

Singular. Plural. 

Aedes, a temple. Aedes, a house. 

Aqua, water. Aquae, medicinal springs. 

AuxiKum, help. Auxilia, auxiliary troops. 

Bonum, something good. Bona, property. 

Career, a prison. Carceres, the barriers of a raoe-eourse. 

Catirum, a fort. CUistra, a camp. 



0)i?u7iiim, a part ofthe Roman forum. Comitith assembly of the people. 

Capiat abundance. Copiae, troops. 

Cupedia, daintiness. Cupediae, or cupedia, dainties. 

Epulum, a solemn feast Epulact a feast, a meaL 

FacviUUt power to do something. FacultaUSy property. 

Fortuna, fortune. FortuiuUt goods of fortune. 

Hortus, a garden. Horti and hortuK, pleasure-grounds. 

LiUeray letter of the alphabet LUterae, an epistle. 

Ludus, pastime. Ludiy public games. 

Ptaris, nostril. Naresy turn, nose = natut. 

Natalis (dies), birth-day. Natides, birth, high or low. 

( Ops, obsoL) Opisp help. Opes, power, weidth. 

Operch labour. Operas, workmen. 

Pars, a part. Partes, (commonly) a part]^. 

Rostrum, a beak, pointed head of Roshu, the raised place firom which 

a ship. the orators spoke, 

Sal, salt Sales, witticisms. 

CHAT. xxni. 


[§ 97.] B, The second kind of irregularity in the declension 
of substantives consists in too great an abundance of forms. 
It happens either, that although there is but one nominatiTey 
the other cases have two forms after different declensions, or 
that both the nominative, and all the other cases have two 
different forms. If, owing to the different terminations, such 
a word has at the same time different genders, it is caJled a 
heterogenes ; if it has merely different forms, it is called a 
heterocliton. It must however be observed that there are 
only very few words in which the practice of good prose does 
not give preference to one of the forms, and in the following 
list we shall always put the preferable form first. 

Forms of different declensions are found with the word 
jugerum ; for, besides the ablative sing, and plur. jugero and 
jugeriSy poets UBejugere aadjiigeribtis. Some names of trees 
in us, viz. cupressuSy ficusy lauruSy pinus, besides the forms 
of the second declension, also take those of the fourth in U9 
and Uy i. e. in the genit. and ablat. singular, and in the nom. 
and accus. plural, e. g. laurus (after the second and fourth 



declension), gen. lauri and laurus, dat. lauro, ace. laurum, 
voc. laure, abl. lauro and lauru, Nom. plur. lauri and fow- 
rt^, gen. laurorum, dat. and abl. lauris, accus. lauros and 
laurus, voc. /cMn*. The same is the case with colus, a dis- 
taff; but the cases in i, orum, is, do not exist. Vas, vasis, 
a vessel, makes the plural vasa, vasorum, vasis, 

[§ 9a] "Words which have different forms in the nomina- 
tive as well as in the other cases may follow the same declen- 
sion in either case, as balteus and balteuniy callus and callum, 
clipeus and clipeum (especially a consecrated shield), carrus 
and carruroy commentarius and commentarium, cubitus and 
cubitum, pHeum and pileus, baculum and baculus, palatum 
and palatus, Jugulum and jugulus, catinics, catillus, and 
catinumy catillum ; and some names of plants, as lupinus and 
lupinum, papyrus and papyruniy porrum and porrus: or 
tiiey follow different declensions ; as 

Alimonia, ae, — alimonium, i. 

Amygdala, ae, — amygdalum, t. 

Vespera, ae. — vesper, i, the evening star, is regular. In 

the sense of evening, we find the nom. 

vesper and accus. vesperum, but the 

ablative vespere and vesperi, from veS' 

per, is, 
Cingulum, t. — cingula, ae, 
Essedum, i, — esseda, ae, 
Incestum, i, — incestus, us, 
Delphinus, i, — delphin, inis, 
Elephantus, i, — elephas, antis. 
Consortia, onis, — consortium, i. 
Mendum, i, — menda, ae. 
Penum, i, — penus, us , and penus, dris. 

Tergum, i, — tergus, oris, 

Pavo, onis, — pavus, i, 

Scorpio, onis, — scorpius, i, 
Palumbes, is, — palumbus, i ; and palumba, ae, 
Colluvio, onis, — colluvies, ei. 
Crater, eris. — cratera, ae, 
PUbs, is, — plebes, ei, 

Paupertas, atis, — pauperies, ei. 
Juventus, utis, — juventa, ae; aadjuventas, atis, 
Senectus, Utis, — senecta, ae, 

D 2 


Gausapcy if (also — gausapuniy i ; and gausapa, ae. 

gausapeSy is, 

Praes€pe,is(Blso — praesepium, t. 

praesepeSy is, 

Tapete, is, — tapetumy i; and tapes, etis, 

AngiportuSy tis, — angiportum, i. 
Rictus, us, — rictum, i, 

Arcus, us, — arcus, i (in Cic. De Nat, Deor, iii. 20.),> 

Tonitrus, us — tonitruum, 


It is of comparatively frequent occurrence that substantives 
have two different forms, one belonging to the first and the 
other to the fifth declension, as barbaria, barbaries ; luxuria^ 
es; duritia, es ; materia^ es ; mollitia, es ; segniiia, es ; and 
that verbal substantives of the fourth declension have a 
second form in urn, genit. i, like the participle of the perfect, . 
as conatus and conatum, eventus and eventum, praetextus and, 
praetextum, suggestus and suggestum, 

[§ 99.] To this class belong those substantives which, in 
the plural, assume a different gender and a different form, in 
some instances, along with the regular one : — 

1. Masculines, which in the plural become alSo neuters: 
jocus, plur.yoci &ndjoca; locus, plur. loci (passages in books 
or subjects for investigation and discussion = topics) and 
loca (in the common sense of "places"). 

2. Feminines which in the plural become also neuters: 
carbasus, a species of flax, plur. carbasi and carbasa, sails 
made of it ; ostrea, plur. ostreae and ostrea, orum ; marga- 
rita, plur. margaritae, but also margarita, orum, 

3. The following neuters become — a) Masculines : coelum, 
coeli; siser, siseres ; porrum, porri; b) Feminines : delictum, 
deliciae ; epulum, epulae ; balneum, balneae (in the sense of 
a public bath balnea is more frequent) ; c) Both masculines 
and neuters: rostrum, rastri and rostra; frenum,fren and 




[§ 100.] 1. The noun adjective denotes a quality of a per- 
son or a thing, expressed either by a substantive or a pronoun. 
The participle is an adjective formed from a verb, and, as 
far as its form is concerned, is an adjective. An adjective 
has three genders, and can thus be joined with substantives 
of different genders. But there are only two classes of ad- 
jectives in which the three genders are indicated by three 
different terminations ; namely, the adjectives and participles 
in fis, a, um^ such as bonus, bona, bonum; amatus, amata, 
amattim; and those in er, a, um, such as liber, libera, liberum ; 
and the isolated satur, satura, saturum. 

To these adjectives of three terminations the following 
thirteen in er, is, e must be added : acer, acris, acre ; alacer, 
alacris, alacre; campester, campestris, campestre; celeber, 
Celebris, celebre ; celer, celeris, celere; eqtiester, equestris, 
equestre ; paluster, palustris, palustre; pedester, pedestris, 
pedestre; puter, putris, putre; saluber, salubris, salubre ; 
Silvester, silvestris, silvestre ; terrester, terrestris, terrestre ; 
volticer, volticris, volucre. Originally they had only two 
terminations, is for the masculine and feminine, and e for 
the neuter. The termination er for the masculine exclusively 
was afterwards added to them. 

[§ 101.] 2. Other adjectives have in reality only two 
forms, the one for the masculine and feminine in common 
{generis communis), and the other for the neuter. This 
class consists of those in is, neut. e, as levis (masc. and fem.), 
hve, and the comparatives in or (masc. and fem.), us (neut.), 
as levior, leviiis. 

[§ 102.] 3. All other a^ectives have only one termination 
for all tnree genders ; as /elix, prudens, anceps, sollers, 
pauper, dives, vetus. So also the present participles in ns, 
as laudans, monens, legens, audiens. But all the adjectives 
of this class have the termination ia in the nom., accus., and 
vocative plural of the neuter gender. Very few, and pro- 
perly speaking only vetus, veteris, have the termination a, 
(respecting wWch see above, § 65.) E. g. felicia, prudenixix.^ 
ancipitia, sollertia, laudantia, Vetera. 

D 3 


[§ 103.] 4. With regard to the declension of adjectives, 
it must be observed that the feminines in a follow the first 
declension; the masculines in us and er, which make the 
feminine in a, and the neuters in um, follow the second. 
All other terminations belong to the third declension. As 
therefore adjectives follow the same declensions as substan- 
tives, they have been treated of above, and their irregu- 
l^xities have been already pointed out (see §§51. and 66., 
&c.) ; especially that many in er, a, um, throw out the e, and 
that the adject, of the third declension commonly/ make the 
ablat. sing, in i, the neuter plur. in to, and the genit. plur. 
in ium. 

Note, We say commonly, for the abl. sing, in i occurs in all the ad- 
jectives in if, «, and in er, is, e, and also in the majority of those which 
have only one termination ; e exclusively occurs only in very few, but 
several have a alone, or e and t indiscriminately. With r^ard to the 
neuter plural in ia, it should be remembered that only the comparatives 
and veiuSf vetera form an exception. The neuter plural however occurs 
only in adjectives ending in ansy ens, n and x, and a few others. The 
genitive plur. in um is more frequent. 

5. Indeclinable adjectives are : nequam ; frugx (property 
a dative of the obsolete frux^ but is used quite as an ad- 
jective), praestOy and sends^ which is always added to other 
numerals in the sense of " and a half," e. g. recipe uncias 
quinque semis, take five ounces and a half. It must not be 
confounded with the substantive semis, gen. semissis. 

Adjectives defective in number are pauci and pleriqu€y 
which, in ordinary language, have no singular. Of mactus, 
a, uniy we have only macte and macti, joined with the im- 
perative of esse. 

Parum, too little, is the neuter of the obsolete parus, and 
is used as a substantive only in the nom. and accusative. 
Necesse exists only as a neuter in connection with est, erat, 
&c., and with habeo, habes, &c., the adjective necessarius, a, 
urn, being used in its stead. 


As in Chapter XV. we confined ourselves to giving speci* 
mens of the declension of substantives, we here sulyoin 
some examples of adjectives which follow the first, second 
and third declensions. 


Altus, a, rnn, high. 


Nom. alt-US^ alt-a, aU-um. 
Gen. alt'ij alt-ae^ alt-i, 
Dat. ali'Oy ali-ae, alt-o. 
Ace. alt'um^ alt-am^ alt-urn, 
Voe. alt'Cy alt-&y alt-um, 
Abl. alt'Oy alt'dy alt'O, 


Nom. alt'iy ali-ae, alt-a. 

Gen. alt'orum, alt-aruniy ali-orum. 

Dat. alt'is, alt-iSy alt-is. 

Miser, era, enim, wretched. 


Nom. misery miser-&y nUser-um* 
Gen, miser-ij miser-ae, miser-i, 
Dat. miser-Oy miser-aey miser-o. 
Ace. miser-umy miser-amy miser'Um, 
Voc. miser, miser-Oy miser-um, 
Abl. miser-Oy miser-d, miser-o. 


N6m. miser-iy miser-acy miser-a. 

Gen. miser-orumy miser-arumy miier'amm. 

Dat. miser-iSy miser*iSy miser-is. 

Ace. miser-oSy miser-aSy miser-a, 

Voc. miser-iy miser-ae, miser-a, 

Abl. miser-iSy miser-is, miser-is. 

Aeger, aegra, aegrum, ilL 


Nom. aegery aegr-^, a^gr-um. 
Gen. aegr-iy aegr-aey aegr-i, 
Dat. aegr-Oy aegr-ae, aegr^o. 
Ace. aegr-umy asgr^amy aegr-um, 
Voc. aeger, aegr-&y aegr-um, 
Abl. aegr-Oy aegr-hy aegr-o, 

D 4 



Nom. aegr-t, aegr-ae, aegr-d. 

Gen. aegr-orum, aegr-arum, aegr'Orum. 

Dat. aegr-iSy aegr-is, aegr-ls. 

Ace. aegr^Sy aegr-as^ aegr-a» 

Voc. aegr-ij aegr-ae, aegr-a, 

Abl. aegr-is, aegr-iSy aegr^is. 

Celer, celeris, celere, quick. 


Nom. ceUry celer-is, celer-e. 
Gen. celer-is for all genders. 
Dat. celer-i for all genders. 
Ace. celer^em, celer-em, celer'C. 
Voc. celery celer^ts, celer-e. 
Abl. celer-i for all genders. 


Nom. celer-eSy celer-eSy celer-ia. 
Gen. celer-ium for all genders. 
Dat. celer-ibus for all genders. 
Ace. celer-eSy celer-eSy celer-ia. 
Voc. celer-eSy celer-es, celer-ia, 
Abl. celer-ibus for all genders. 

Gravis, neut grave, heavy. 


Nom. grav-isy neut. grav-e. 

G^n. grav-is. 

Dat. grav-i. 

Ace grav-eniy neut. grav-e. 

Voc. grav-iSy neut. grav-e. 

Abl. grav-i. 


Nom. grav-eSy neut. grav-ia. 

Gen. grav-ium. 

Dat. grav-ibus. 

Ace. grav-eSy neut. grav-ia. 

Voc grav-eSy neut. grav-ia. 

Abl. grav-ibus. 


Comparative altior, neut altius, higher. 


Nom. altior, neut. altius. 

Gen. aldoT'ts. 

Dat. altior-i. 

Ace. altior-em, neut. aUius, 

Voc. altioTy neut. altius, 

Abl. alHoT'e, or altior-i. 


Nom. altior-eSy neut. altior'a. 

Gen. altior-um, 

Dat. alHor-ibus, 

Ace. altior-es, neut. altior^a, 

Voc. altior-es, neut. alttor-a. 

Abl. altior-ibiis. 

Adjectives of one Termination. 

Dives, ricA. Felix, happy. 

Nom. cfiW^. 

Gen. divit'is, 

Dat. divit'L 

Ace. divit^em, neut. (fives. 

Voc. €?tt7e*. 

Abl. divit-e, or divit-i. 


Nom. divit-esy neut. r/tV-ta (divit-ia). 

Gen. divit'Um. 

Dat. dxvit'ihus. 

Ace. divit-eSy neut. dit-ia, 

Voc. divit-eSy neut. dit-ia, 

Abl. divit-ibtis. 



Gen. felic'is, 

Dat. felic-L 

Ace felic-eniy neat, felix. 

Voc. y<?/M7. 

Abl. felic'i^ orfelic-e, 

D 5 



H^om, felic-eSy neut, felic-ia. 

Gen. felic'ium, 

Dat. felic'ibus. 

Ace. felic-eSy neut, felie-ia, 

Voc. felic-eSy neut,felic'ia, 

AbL felie-Hms, 



[§ 104.] 1. Adjectives (also the present and past par- 
ticiples when used as adjectives) may, by means of a change 
in their termination, be made to indicate that the quality 
they denote belongs to a subject in a higher or in the highest 
degree. The degrees of comparison (gradtts comparationis), 
as this change is called, are, the comparative, when a com- 
parison is made between two (persons, things, or conditions), 
and the superlative, when a comparison t^es place among 
three or more. The fundamental form of the adjective in 
this respect is called the positive. 

Note. The comparative is also used, in an elliptic mode of speaking, 
instead of our " too " (nimis) ; e. g. homo tristior, more sad, viz. than is 
right or natural, hence too sad. In like manner the superlative, when 
used without the objects of comparison being mentioned, indicates only 
that the quality exists in a high degree, which we express by the adverb 
very, e. g. homo doctissimus, does not always mean ** the most learned,'* 
but very often ** a very learned man ;'* and intemperantissime viteit, he lived 
very intemperately. 

2. The comparative has the termination tor for the mas- 
culine and feminine, and tiis for the neuter ; and these ter- 
minations are added to the stem of the word such as it 
appears in the oblique cases. The rule may be practically 
expressed thus : to form the comparative add or or us to 
that case of the positive which ends in i, that is, in adjectives 
of the second declension to the genitive, and in those of the 
third to the dative, e. g. doctus (docti), doctior; liier {lihert), 
liberior ; pulcher (pulchrt), ptdchrior; levis, levjior ; acer 
(aeri), acrior; prudens, prudentior; indtdgens, indfilgentior ; 
atuiax, avdacior; velox, velocior. 


3. The superlatiye ends in issimus, a, «m, and is formed 
as the comparative by adding this termination to the stem of 
the positive, such as it presents itself in the genitive and the 
other oblique cases, after the removal of the terminations^ 
e. g. doct'-issinmSy prudent^isdmtLS^ audac-usimuSy concord'- 

[§ 105.] 4. The following adjectives must be noticed as 
exceptions : 

a) All adjectives in er (those in er^ a, umy as liber and 
pulcher, as well as those in er^ is, e, as acer^ celeber, and those 
of one termination, as pauper, gen. pauperis) make the su- 
perlative in errimus, bj adding rimus to the nominative of 
the masculine gender, as pulcher-rimus, acer-rimus, eeleber' 
rimus, pavper-rimus* Vetus and nuperus, too, have veter^ 
rim-US, nteperrimus, Maturus has both forms, maturissimus 
and maturrimus, though the latter chiefly in the adverb. 

b) Some adjectives in iHs, viz. facUis, diffieUis, similis, 
dissimiUs, gracUis, and hurmlis, make the superlative in iUi^ 
mus, by adding Umus to the positive after the removfd of the 
termination is, as, fadl-limus, kumil-Umus* Im^edUus has 
two forms, imbedllissimus and imbecillimus. 

c) Adjectives compounded with dtcus, ftcus and vdlus 
(from the verbs dicere, facere, velle) make the comparative 
in entior and the superlative in entissimus, from the unusual 
and obsolete forms dicens, volens, Jaciens, e. g. maledicentior, 
benevolentior, munificentior, munijicentissimus, magnificent 




[§ 106.] 1. Instead of the peculiar forms of the compara- 
tive and superlative, we sometimes find a circumlocution, 
magis and maxime, or summe, being added to the positive. 
This rarely occurs in the case of adjectives which form their 
degrees of comparison in the regular way ; but where the 
regular or grammatical comparison cannot be used, its place 
is supplied by circumlocution. (See below, § 114.) 

D 6 


[§ 107.] 2. A degree is also expressed by the adyerbs 
admodum^ hene^ apprime, imprimisy sancy oppidoy valde^ and 
multum, and by the particle per, which is united with the 
adjective into one word, as in perdifficilisy permagnus, and is 
made still more emphatic by the addition of quam, e. g. loctis 
perquam diffidlis, an extremely difficult passage. Some few 
adjectives are increased in the same way by being compounded 
with prae, e. g. praedives, praepinguis, praelongus, 

[§ ^^®-] 3. When the adverb etiam (still) is added to the 
comparative, and Umge or multo (by far) to the superlative, 
the meaning of the degrees is enhanced. Vel^ even, and quamy 
as much as possible, likewise serve to denote an increase of 
the meaning expressed by the superlative, e. g. Cicero vel 
opHmtis oratorum Romanorum ; i. e. Cicero, a good or rather 
the very best of Roman orators ; gratias tUn ago quam fnaxi- 
mas, or qtuim maximas possum tibi gratias ago. As these 
words increase the meaning, so paulum or paulo, paululum or 
paululo, on the other hand, diminish it, as paulo docHor^ only 
a little more learned. Aliqitanto increases the sense, and has 
an affirmative power; it may be expressed by "considerably" 
or "much." 

CHAP. xxvn. 


[§ 109.] 1. Some adjectives make their degrees of com- 
parison from obsolete forms, or take them from other words 
of a similar signification. 

Bonus, good, melior, optimus, 

Maltcs, bad, p^jor, pessimus. 

Magnus, great, major, maximus, 

Multus, much, neut. plus (pi. plures, plurimus (equivalent in 

plura), the plural to plerique). 

Parvus, little, minor, minimtis, 

Nequam 1 See § 103. f nequior, nequissimtis, 

Frugi Jindeclin. \frugalior, frugalissimus, 
Egenus, needy, egentior, egentissimus (egens), 

Providus, ^Tovidenifprovidentior, providenHssimus (pro- 



. Dives makes the comparative divitior and ditioty and the 
superlative divitissimtis and ditissimtis, 

[§ 110.] 2. The following adjectives have a doable irregu- 
lar superlative : — 

Exter or exterus, o, utn, exterior, extremtis and extimus. 
{Infer or inferus), o, mw, inferior, inflmus and Imus, 
( Super or superus), a, um, superior, supremus and summus, 
{Poster ov postertis), a, um, posterior, postremus and postu^ 


[§111.] 3. There are some forms of the comparative and 
superlative which have no adjective for their positive, but an 
adverb which is derived from an adjective. 

{citra), citerior, dtimus. 

{ultra), ulterior, ultimus, 

(intra), interior, intimus. 

{prope), propior, proximus. 

The following, on the other hand, have neither an adjec- 
tive nor an adverb for their positive : — 

deterior, deterrimus. 

ocior, ocissimtis. 

potior, potissimus* 

prior, primus, 

[§ 112.] 4. The following adjectives have a superlative, 
but no comparative : — 

Falsus, falsissimus ; diversus, diversissimus ; inclittis, in^ 
clitissimus ; novus, novissimus ; sacer, sacerrimus ; vetus 
(the comparative is supplied by vetustior), veterrimus {vetus^ 
tissimus), and some participles which are used as adjectives, 
as meritus, meriHssimus, 

[§ 113.] 5. Most adjectives in ilis and bilis derived from 
verbs, together with those in tlis derived from substantives, 
have no superlative. To these we must add the following : 
a^restiSy alacer, ater, caecus, longinquus, propinquus, salu- 
taris, surdtis, vulgaris, and some others. In like manner 
there is no superlative of adolescens, juvenis (comparative 
junior contracted from juvenior), and senex (comparative 
senior), though these words must be regarded as adjectives. 

6. The two adjectives, anterior and sequior, exist only as 
comparatives. The neuter of the latter is sequius, 

[§ 114.] 7. Many adjectives have no degrees of comi^axv*- 


son at all, because their signification precludes comparison $ 
e. g. those which denote a substance, origin, possession, or 
a definite time ; e. g. aureus^ peregrinus^ pcUemuSy aesHvus^ 
hibemtis, vitms. 

Others do not form the comparative and superlative in the 
usual grammatical manner by the terminations tor and issi' 
mu8y but by the adverbs magis and maxime^ which are put 
before the adjective, and by the particles mentioned above* 
Such ad.ectives are : — 

a) Those in which the termination us is preceded by a 
vowel, as idonetiSy dubiuSy necessariuSy arduus / comparative 
magis necessariuSy superlative maxime necessarius, &c. In 
qu however, the u is not regarded as a vowel ; hence ««- 
tiqutiSy e. g., has its regular comparative, antiquior, and 
superlative antiquissimus, 

b) Many adjectives compounded with substantives and 
verbs, e. g. inops, magnanimuSy pestifer ; and those which 
have the derivative terminations tcus, tdusy ultiSy dlisy ilisy 
hunduSy e. g. modicuSy creduluSy rubidtiSy exUialiSy hostUiSy 


c) A great number of adjectives which cannot be clas- 
sified ; their want of the degrees of comparison is surpris- 
ing, and they must be carefully committed to memory : 
albuSy almusy caducus, calvus, canuSy curvuSy feruSy gnarusy 
lacer, mutiltes, lassies, mediocris, memory mertiSy miniSy 
muttiSy navuSy nefastus, par, parilisy dispary properuSy 
rudisy trux (the degrees may be formed from tructUeniua), 

CHAP, xxvm. 


[§ ^^^'l Numerals {nomina numeralid) are partly adjec- 
tives and partly adverbs. The adjectives are : 1) Cctrdtnai, 
denoting simply the number of things, as treSy three; 2) 
Ordinctly indicating the place or number in succession, as 
tertiuSy the third ; 3) DistributivCy denoting how many each 
time, as temiy each time three, or three and three together ; 
•4) Muliiplicativey denoting how manifold, as triplex^ three- 


fold ; 5) ProparHanaly denoting how many times more, as 
triphimy three times as much ; and 6) Adverbial numerals, 
denoting how many times, as ter, thrice or three times. 


The cardinal numerals form the roots of the other nume- 
rals. The first three, untLS^ duo, tres, are declined, and have 
forms for the different genders ; the rest, as far as one hun- 
dred, are indeclinable. The hundreds, as 200, 800, &c., are 
declinable, and have different terminations for the genders. 
Mille, a thousand, is indeclinable, but has a declinable plural 
(millia, or better milia,) for the series of numbers which 
follow. A higher unit, such as a million or billion, does not 
exist in Latin, and a million is therefore expressed by the 
form of multiplication : denies centena milia, i. e. ten times a 
hundred thousand, or decies alone, with the omission of cen- 
tena milia, and in like manner vicies, two millions ; octogies, 
eight millions ; centies, ten millions ; milHes, a hundred mil- 
lions ; Ins millies, two hundred millions. 

Singular. Plural. 

Nom. unus, una^ unum, one. Nom. uni, unae, una. 

G^n. unius. Gen. unorum, unarum, uno- 

Dat. uni, Dat. unis. 

Ace unum, unam, unum. Ace. unos, unas, una, 
AbL uno, una, uno, Abl. unis. 

Note. The Plural uni, unae, una, occurs as a numeral only in con 
nexion with pluraMa tanium, i. e. such nouns as have no singular, e . g. 
unae nupHae, <Nie wedding ; una castra, one camp ; unae litterae, one 
letter. (See § 119). Unus is used also in the sense of " alone," or "the 
same/* and is ^en a pure adjective, e. g., uni Ubii legatos miserant, the 
Ubians alone had sent ambassadors ; LacedaemonU ieptingentoa jam annos 
unie morbus vivunt, with the same manners. 

DuQ and tres are naturally plurals. 

!Nom. duo, duae, dito, Nom. tres (mas. and fern.), tria, 

Qren, duorum, duarum, duo- G^n. trium, 

Dat. dtiobus,duabtts,duobus, Dat« tribus. 

Ace. duos BJid duo, diuis,dtto. Ace ^re« (mas. and fern.), l^ria. 
Abl. duobus,duabus,dtu)bu8, AbL tribus. 



Note. Ambo, ae, o, both, is declined like duo. Duum, a second form of 
the geniL of duOf is the regular one in compounds, as duumvir, but is fire- 
quently used also in connexion with miliunu. Thus Pliny says that he 
had compiled his work e lecttone voluminum circUer diuan milium, ( See 

4. un. or iv. qtuittuor, 

5. V. quinque. 

6. VL sex, 

7. vn. septem, 

8. vm. octo. 

9. IX. novem. 

10. X. decern. 

11. XI. undecinu 

12. xn. dtiodecim, [^tres. 

13. xin. tredectm or decern et 

14. XIV. quattuordedm, 

15. XV. quindecim. 

16. XVI. sedecimor decern et sex, 

17. xvn. decern et septem, or 


18. xviiL decern et octo, or duo- 


19. XIX. decern et novem, or 

20. XX. viginti, 

21. XXI. unus et viginti^ or 

viginti umis, 

22. xxn. c^Mo e^ viginti, or 

viginti duo, 

23. ixxni. ^r65 6^ viginti, or 

viginti tres, 
28. xxvm. duodetriginta, or 
octo ef viginti. 

30. XXX. triginta, 
40. XL. quadraginta, 
50, L. quinquaginta. 
60. LX. sexaginta, 
70. Lxx. septuaginta, 
80. Lxxx. octoginta, 
90. xc. nonaginta, 
99. ic. undecentum, no- 
naginta novem, or 
novem et nonaginta, 
100. c. ceTi^m. 
109. Cix. centum et novem, 

or centum novem, 
200. cc. ducenti, ae, a, 
300. ccc. trecenti, ae, a. 
400. cccc. quadringenti, 

ae, a, 
500. D. or 10. quingenti, 

ae, a, 
600. DC. sexcenti, ae, a. 
700. DCC. septingenti, ae, a, 
800. Dccc. octingenti, ae, a, 
900. DCCCC. nongenti, ae, a. 
1000. M. or CIO. wiY/e. 
2000. ciocio. or MM. duo mi' 

lia, or 6t$ 9rae7/e. 
5000. 100. quinque milia, 
10,000. ccioo. decern milia. 

29. XXIX. undetriginta, or no- 100,000, ccciooo, centum milia, 
vem et viginti. 

[§ 116.] The intermediate numbers are expressed in the 
following manner : — from twenty to a hundred, either the 
smaller number followed by et precedes, or the greater one 
precedes without the et ; e. g. quattuor et sexaginta, or sexa^ 
ginta quaUuor, For 18, 28, 38, &c., and for 19, 29, 39, &c. the 
expressions duodeviginti, duodetriginta, undeviginti, unde^ 
triginta., up to undecentum, are more frequent than decern et 


octo, or octo et viginti^ &c. In such combinations neither 
duo nor un {unus) can be declined. Above 100, the greater 
number always precedes, either with or without et, as centum 
unus, mille unus, mille duo, mille trecenti, or mille et unus, 
mille et duo, mille et trecenti sexaginta sex. 

The thousands are generally expressed by the declinable 
substantive milia and the cardinal numerals, as dtio milia, 
tria milia, quattuor milia, unum et viginti milia, quadraginta 
quinque milia. The objects counted are expressed by the 
genitive which depends on the substantive milia ; e. g. Xerxes 
Mardonium in Graecia reliquit cum trecentis milibus arrnxL^ 
torum, unless a lower declined numeral is added, in which 
case the things counted may be used in the same case with 
milia ; e. g. habuit tria milia trecentos milites, or milites tria 
milia trecentos habuit; but even then the genitive may be 
used, e. g. habuit militum tria milia trecentos, or habuit tria 
milia militum et trecentos. It is only the poets that express 
the thousands by the indeclinable adjective mille preceded 
by an adverbial numeral, as bis mille equi, for dud milia 



[§ 117.1 The ordinals denote the place in the series which 
any object holds, and answer to the question quotas f All of 
them are adjectives of three terminations, us, a, um. 

1 . primus, 1 1 . undecimus, 

2. secundus (alter), 12. duodecimus, 

3. tertius. 13. tertiits decimus, 

4. quartus, 14. quartus decimus, 

5. quintus, 15. quintus decimus, 

6. sextus, 16. sextus decimus, 

7. Septimus, 17. septimtis decimus, 

8. octavus, 18. octavus decimus, or duode- 

9. nonus, vicesimus, [cesimus, 
] 0. decimus. 19. nonus decimus, or undevi* 


20. vicesimuSf sometimes vige- 200. ducentesimus. 

simus. 300. trecentesimus. 

21. unus et vicesimiis, vicesi- 400. qtuidringentesimut, 

mus primus. 500. quingentesimus, 

22. alter et vicesimtts, vicesi- 600. sexcentesimtis, 

mus secuTuius, 700. septingentesimus. 

30. tricesimtis, sometimes fn- 800. octingentesimus, 

gesimus. 900. nongentesimus, 

40. quadragesimus. 1000. millesimus. 

60. quinqtiagesimus, 2000. 6t9 tnillesimus, 

60. sexagesimus, 3000. fer millesimus, 

70. septuagesimits, 10,000. decies mittesimus. 

80. octogesimus, 100,000. centies miUesimns, 

90. nonagesimus. 1,000,000. decies centies fniUe^ 

100. centesimus, simus, 

[§118.] In expressing the intermediate numbers, the most 
common practice is to place the smaller number before the 
greater one with the conjunction ety or to make the greater 
number precede the smaller one without et, as qiuzrtus et 
vicesimtis, or vicesimus quartus. But there are many in- 
stances in which the smaller number precedes without et; 
e. g. quintus tricesimus; and from 13 to 19 this is the ordi- 
nary method, e. g. decimus tertius, though tertius et decimus 
and decimus et tertius also occur. Instead of primiis et vicesi' 
mus, &c., we find still more frequently umis et vicesimtts, fern. 
una et vicesima, or with the elision of the vowel, unetvice' 
sima. The 22d, 32d, &c, is more frequently and better ex- 
pressed by alter et vicesimus or vicesimus et alter, than by 
secundus et vicesimus. It then goes on regularly : tertius et 
vicesimus, quartus et vicesimus, &c. ; but the 28th, 38th, &C., 
are expressed also by duodetricesimus, duodequadragesimus, 
and the 29th, 39th, 99th by undetricesimus, undequadrage- 
simus, undecentesimtts, the words duo and unus (un) being 
indeclinable; and both forms are of more frequent occur- 
rence than octavus and nonus et vicesimus, or vicesimtis acta- 
vus, vicesimus nonus. 





[§ 119] DiSTBiBunvE numerals denote an equal number 
distributed among several objects or at different times, and 
answer to the questions : — "How many apiece ?" and, "How 
many each time ? ** (qtwteni f) They are always used in the 
plural. The English language having no corresponding nu- 
merals has recourse to circumlocution ; e. g. Scipio et Han," 
nibal cum singulis interpretibus congressi sunt, each with an 
interpreter ; Senatus agri Vejentani septena jvjgera plebi di' 
visit, the senate gave to each plebeian seven jugera. 

Hence the distributives are applied, instead of cardinals, 
with words which have no singiQar ; e. g. bini codtdUiy bina 
post Romulum spolia opima ; and with those substantives the 
plural of which, though it has a dififerent signification from 
the singular, yet retains the meaning of a singular, e. g. aedes^ 
castra, litterae, ludi. It must however be observed, that in 
this case the Romans commonly used uni instead of singuliy 
and trini instead of temi, since singuli and temi retain tiieir 
own distributive signification. "We therefore say, for example, 
bina castra uno die cepit; trinae hodie nuptiae cehbrantur; 
quotidie quinas aut senas litteras accipio; for duo castra 
would mean " two castles," ditae aedes "two temples," and 
duae litterae " two letters of the alphabet." They are all ad- 
jectives of three genders, t, ae, a. 

1. singtdi, 14. quatemi deni, 

2. bini, 15. quini deni, 

3. temi, or trinu 16. seni deni, 

17. septeni deni, 

1 8. octoni deni, 

19. noveni deni, 

20. viceni, 

21. viceni singuli, 
22» viceni bini, 

23. viceni temi, &c. 600. sexceni, 

30. triceni, 700. septingeni, 

40. quadrageni, 800. octingeni, 

50, qumquagenu 900. nongenu 

4. quatemi, 

5. quini, 

6. seni, 

7. septeni, 

8. octoni, 

9. novenu 

10. deni, 

11. undent, 

12. duodeni, 

13. temi denL 

60. sexagenu 
70. septuageni, 
80. octogenu 
90. nonageni, 

100. centenu 

200. duceni, 

300. trecenu 

400. quadringeni, 

500. quingenu 


Note, The genitive of these numerals is commonly in um instead of 
ortmiy as binum, temum, quatemum, quinum, &c., but not sif^fulum iat 

The thousands are expressed bj singula miliay bina milia, 
tema, quatemay quina milia; e. g. Legavit Ategustus prcie' 
torianis militibus singula milia nummum (that is, one 
thousand to each) ; in singulis legionibus Romanis quatema 
milia duceni pedites cum trecenis equitibus erant 

Here too there is a certain freedom of combination, for 
instead of viceni quatemi, we also find quatemi et mceniy 
and quatemi viceni; and 18 and 19 are expressed also by 
duodeviceni and undeviceni. 



[§ 120.] MuLTiPLiCATivES answcr to the question, " How 
many fold?" {quotHplexf) They are: simplex (gen. few), 
dupleXy triplex, quadrupleXy quincuplex {sexuplex or seplexjy 
septemplexy octuplex, novemplex, decemplexy centuplex* 

It will not be out of place here to add the Latin expres- 
sions for fractions, which are always denoted by pars : \i& 
dimidia pars, ^ tertia pars, \ quarta pars, quinta^ sexto, 
septima pars, &c. In cases where the number of the parts 
into which a thing is divided, exceeds the number of parts 
mentioned only by one, as in f , f , ^, the fractions are ex- 
pressed in Latin simply by duae, tres, quattuor partes, that 
is, two out of three, three out of four, and four out of five 
parts. In all other cases fractions are expressed as in 
English : ^, duae septimae ; ^, tres septima^, &c. 



[§ 121.] Proportional numerals express how many times 
more one thing is than another, but they cannot be tised 



throughout. They answer to the question quotuplus f They 
are : simplus, a, um ; dupltis, tripltis, qtrndruplus, quinqui' 
plus, (sexupltis), septuplus, octupltis, (nonupltts), decupius^ 
ceniupltis, and according to the same analogy we might form 
dtieeniuplus, and so on, as in the multiplicatives above. 

CHAP, xxxnr. 


[§ 122.] 1. The numeral adverbs answer to the question, 
"How many times?" qtwtiens? to which totiens is the 
demonstrative, and aliquotiens the indefinite. The form in 
ns is the original, and is preferable to the termination es, 
which has become the established ending in adverbs formed 
from real numerals. 

1. semeL 

2. bis 

3. ter, 

4. quater, 

5. quinquies* 

6. sexies. 

7. septies. 

8. ocUes, 

9. novies, 

10. decies. 

11. undecies. 

12. duodecies, 

13. terdecies or tredecies, 

14. quaterdecies or quattuor 


15. quinquiesdecies or quinde- 


16. sexiesdedes or sedecies, 

17. septiesdedes. 

18. duodevicies or octiesdeeies, 

19. undevtdeSyixtnoviesdecies. 1 

20. vi4^s. 






















semel et vides, 

bis et vides, 

ter et vicies, &c. 












quingenties, &c. 

octingenties, &c. 


bis mUlies. 

ter milUes, &c. 

centies millies, 

millies millies. 


With regard to the intermediate numbers, 21, 22, ^3, &e., 
the method above adopted is the usual one, but we may also 
BBj vicies semel and vides et semel, though not semel vieief; 
for bis vicieSy for example, would mean twice twenty; i, e. 

[§ 123.] 2. The numeral adverbs terminating either in 
um or o, and derived from the ordinals, or rather the 
ordinals themselves in the ace. or ablat. singular neuter 
gender, are used in answer to the question " of what num- 
ber?" or "what in number ?*' e. g. primum or primOy for 
the fbrst time, or first; secundum or secundOy tertium or 
tertioy &c., decimum, tertium decimum, duodevicesimum. 



[§ 125.] 1. Pronouns are words which supply the place of 
a substantive, such as /, thotiy we, and in Latin egoy tiiy noSy 
&c. These words are in themselves substantives, and 
require nothing to complete their meaning ; hence they are 
called substantive pronouns (pronomina substantival but 
more commonly personal pronouns, pronomina personalia, 

[S 126.] 2. Besides these there is a number of words which 
are m reality adjectives, inasmuch as they have three distinct 
forms for the three genders, and their meaning is not com- 
plete without a substantive either expressed or understood. 
But their inflection differs so widely from what are com- 
monly called adjectives, and they are so frequently used 
instead of a substantive, that they are not unjustly termed 
pronouns. They are — 

1) The adjunctive: ipse, ipsa, ipsum, self. 

2) The demonstrative: hie, haec, hoc; iste, ista, istud; 
ille, Ula, illud; is, ea, id, and the compound tdem^ eadem, 

3) The relative: qui, quae, quod, and the compounds 
quicunque and quisquis, 

4f) The two interrogatives : viz. the substantive interro- 
gative, quis, quid f and the adjective interrogative, gm^ quae, 
quod ? 


5) The indefinite pronouns : aliguis, aliqua, aliquid and 
aliqtiod; quidam, quaedam, quiddam and quoddam ; ali- 
quispiam, or abridged quispiafn, quaepiam, quidpiam and 
quodpiam; quisquaniy neuter quidquam ; quivis, quUibety 
and quisque ; and all the compounds of qui or quis, 

[§ 130.J 3. The possessive pronouns are derived from 
the substantive pronouns, and in form they are regular 
adjectives of three terminations: meus, tuus, suus, noster, 
vester ; to which we must add the relative cujtbSy a, um ; and 
the pronomina gentilida (which express origin), nostrtu, 
vestrasy and cujas. 

4. Lastly, we include among the pronouns also what are 
called pronominaliay that is, adjectives of so general a mean- 
ing, that, like real pronouns, they frequently supply the place 
of a noun substantive. Such pronominalia are. a) Those 
which answer to the question, who? alitiSy ulltts, nullus, 
nonnulltis. If we ask, which of two ? it is expressed by 
uter? and the answer to it is alter, one of two; neuter, 
neither ; alteruter, either the one or the other ; utervis and 
uterlibety either of the two. The relative pronoun (when 
referring to two) is likewise uter, and in a more general 
sense utercunque, b) Those which denote quality, size, or 
number in quite a general way. They stand in relation to 
one another (whence they are called correlatives), and are 
formed according to a fixed rule. The interrogative begin- 
ning with qu coincides with the form of* the relative; the 
indefinite is formed by prefixing ali; the demonstrative 
begins with t, and its power is sometimes increased by the 
suffix dem; the relative may acquire a more general mean- 
ing by being doubled, or by the suffix cunque ; and the 
indefinite generality is expressed by adding the words libet 
or w to the (original) interrogative form. In this manner 
we obtain the following pronominal correlatives: — 

Interrog. Demonst, Relat. Relat. generale. Indefin. Inde£ gener. 

qualis talis qualis qualisqualiSf qualisiihet, 


quatUui tanttu, tan' quanttu quantusquantw, aiiquantus quanttulibet, 
tundem quantuscunque quaniunrit. 

quot totftotidem, quot quotqvot, quaU €iiiqvot quotUbet, 


quotus tiftua qudtus quotuscunque (^aliquotiis,) —....-... 





[§131.] 1. Declension of the personal pronouns ego^ tu, 


Nom. Ego, I. Tw, thou. ■ 

Gen. mei, of me. tui, of thee. 

Dat. mihiy to me. tihi, to thee. 

Ace. me, me. te, thee. 

Voc. like nom. like nom. 

Abl. me, from me. te, from thee. 

sui, of himself, her- 
self, itself. 
stU, to himself, &c. 
se, himself, 8cc. 

se, from himself, &c 

Nom. Nos, we. 
Gen. nostri, nos- 
trum, of us. 
Dat. nobis, to us. 
Ace. nos, us. 
Voc. like nom. 


Vos, you. 
vestri, vestrum^ 

of you. 
«70^w, to you. 
vos, you. 
like nom. 

sui, of themselves. 

sibi, to themselves. 
se, themselves. 

Abl. nobis, from u^.vobis, from you. ^e, from themselves. 

Ncte. The contracted form of the dative, mi for mihi (like nt/ for ntAf?) 
is frequently found in poetry, hut rarely in prose. The genitives met, tui, ndf 
nostri, vestri, are properly genitives of the possessive pronouns meum, iumm, 
suuniy nostrum^ vestruniy for originally the neuters meum, tuiua, ^c. were 
used in the sense of " ray being," or of " as regards me, thee,*' &c. The 
beginner may pass over the origin of these forms, since they are used as 
the real genitives of the personal pronouns ; but he must be reminded of 
it in the construction of the gerund, § 660. Respecting the differenee 
between nostri^ vestri, and nostrum, vestrum, see § 431. 

The suffix met may be added to all the cases of these three pronouns to 
express the English emphatic self, as igomet, mihimet^ temet, semeif and even 
with the addition of ipse after it, as mihimet ipsi, temet ipsum. The genit 
plur. and the nominat. tu alone do not admit this suffix. Instead of it 
the emphasis is given to tu by the suffix ^^, as tute^ and to this again bjt 
th^ addition of met, as tutemet. The ace us. and abl at. singular of these 
pronpuns admit a reduplication, meme, tete, sese ; of the pronoun »ui alone 
it is used in the plural as well as in the singular. 

When the preposition cum occurs with the ablat. of these pronoun^ it if 
appended to them, as mecum, tecum, secum, nobiscum, vobiscum. Hie same 
is the case with quo, qua, and quibus, though we may also say cam fnih 
eum qua, cum qu^us. 


[§ 132.] 2. Declension of the demonstrative pronouns, 
hicy iste, ille, is. 

Singular. Plural. 

Nom. 8p Voc. Hic, haec, hoc, Nom. & Voc. hi, hae, haec, 

this. these. 

Gen. hujus, of this. Gen. horum, harum, horum, 

of these. 
Dat. Jmic (or huic\ to this. Dat. his, to these. 
Ace. hunc, hanc, hoc, this. Ace. h^s, has, haec, these. 
Abl. hoc, hoc, hoc, from this, Abl. his, from these. 

Note, The ancient form of this pronoun was hice, htiece, hoce. The 
cases ending in c arose from the omission of the e. In ordinary language 
the cases in s also sometimes take the ce to render the demonstrative 
power more emphatic, e. g. hujuace^ hisce, hoace. 

The pronomis iste, ista, istud, and ille, ilia, illud, are 
declined alike, and in the following manner : 

Singular. Plural. 

Nom. & Voc. ille, ilia, illtcd, Nom. & Yoc. illi, illae, ilia, 

he, or that. thej or those. 

Gen. illiiLs, Gen. ilhrum,illarum,illorum, 

Dat. illi, Dat. illis. 

Ace. ilium, illam, illtid. Ace. illos, illas, ilia. 

Abl. illo, ilia, illo, Abl. illis. 

Ipse, ipsa, ipsum, is declined like ille, except that the 
neuter is ipsum and not ipsud. 

Singular. Plural. 

Nom. is,ea, id, he, she, it, Nom. ii {ei), eae, ea, they or 

or that, those. 

Gen, e;W. Gen. eorum, earum^ eorum, 

Dat. ei, Dat. iis{eis). 

Ace. eum, eam, id. Ace. eos, eas, ea, 

Abl. eo, ea, eo, Abl. iis (eis). 

By the addition of the suffix dem we form from is — idem, 
eadem. Idem (as it were isdem^ eadem, iddem), which is 
declined in the other cases exactly like the simple is, ea, id. 
In the accusative eundem and eandem are preferable to 
eumdem, eamdem, and in like manner in the genitive plur. 
eorundem, earundem, 



[§ 133.] 3. Declension of the relative pronoun, qui, qmte, 

Sing u LA E. Plukal. 

Nom. Qeit, quacy quody who Nohl quiy quae, qtute, who or 

or which. which. 

Gren. cujus {quojusy obsoL), Gren. quoruniy quarunu qtuh 

_ of whom. rum. 

Dat. cut OT cui{quoiy ob^oV)y Dat. qutbus, 

to whom. 

Ace. quem, quavny quody Ace. quoSy quaSy quae. 


Abl. quOy qua, quo, from AbL qutbus, 


Note, An ancient ablat singular for all genders was qui, espeeiiDj 
when joined with cunij as qmcum vixitt instead of quomm or qmumm. 
Instead of quUms there is an ancient form ^ttss, or q9Kis, 

[§ 134.] There are two interrogative pronouns, quisy quidf 
(substantive), and qui, quae, quod? (adjective), the latta 
of which is quite the same in form as the relative pronoun, 
and the former differs from it only by its forms quis and 
quid. The interrogatives quisnam, quidnam f and qtUnam, 
qtMenam, quodnamf express a more lively or emphatic 
question than the simple words, and the nam answers to the 
English " pray." 

[§ 135.] The indefinite pronoun aliquiSy plur. aliquiy is used 
as a substantive and as an adjective. In ordinary language 
the form aliquis alone is used, both as a substantive and as 
an adjective ; but in the neuter the two forms aliquid and 
aliquod exist, and <the difiference between them must be 
observed ; e. g. (^ mihi aliqtddy give me something ; aUquod 
negotiumy some business. The femin. singul. and the neuter 
plur. are both aliqiuZy and the form aliquae is the femin. 
nom. pluraL 

[§ 136.] But there is also a shorter form of the indefinite 
pronoun, without the prefix alt, and exactly like the inter- 
rogative pronoun : quis, quae, quid, as a substantive, and quiy 
quae, quod, as an adjective. This form is generally used 
only after the conjunctions si, nisi, ne, numy and after rela- 
tives, such as qtiOy quanta, and quum. This rule is commonlj 
expressed thus : the prefix ali in aliquis and its derivativeB 
aliquo, aliquando, and alicubi is rejected when sty nisi, ns, 
num, quOy quanta, or quumy precede ; e. g. Quo quis est doe* 


■ • 

tior, €0 esse humanior solet, the more learned a person is, the 
more humane he usually is ; Consul videaty ne quid respublica 
detrimenti capiat The combinations of this indefinite quis 
or qui with the conjunctions si^ ne, num, and with the inter- 
rogative syllable en (ec) may be considered as peculiar and 
distinct words, as siquis or siqui, nequis or nequi, numquis or 
numqui. In the femin. singul. and the neuter plor. the form 
qua is used along with quae, likewise according to the ana- 
logy of aliquis. We may therefore say siqua, neqica, num' 
qua, ecqua, but also si quae, ne qtuie, num quae, ecquae, 

[§ 1^7*] "^^^ compounds of qui and quis, viz. quidam, 
quiiibet, quivis, quisque, quispiam, and unusquisque, are de- 
clined like the relative, but have a double form in the neuter 
singular, quiddam and quoddam, unumquidque and unum-^ 
qtiodque, according as they are used as substantives or as ad- 
jectives. Quisquam and quisquis are commonly used only 
as substantives, for ullus supplies their places as adjectives, 
and the regular form of the neuter therefore isquidquam {quic- 
qtmm), and quidqtdd (quicquid), and more rarely quodquam, 
qux>dquod. Quicunque, however, has only the form of quod' 
eunque for the neuter. 

[§ ^^^'l ^ach of the two words of which unusquisque is 
composed is declined separately, as gen. uniuscujuBqv^ da^ 
unicuiqucy ace unumqtiemque, &c. 




[§ 139.] 1. The possessive pronouns meus, mea, meum; 
tuus, tua, tuum ; suus, sua, suum ; noster, nostra, nostrum ; 
vester, vestra, vestrum, are declined entirely like adjectives of 
three terminations. Meus makes the vocative of the mascu^ 
line gender mi, sa O mi pater! 

2. The possessive pronoun cuju^, a, um^ has, besides the 
nominative, only the accusative singular, cujum, cujam, cu- 
jum ; cvjoy the ablative singular feminine, and cujas^ cujas, 
the nominative and accusative plural feminine ; but all these 
forms cccur very rarely. . . 

X 2 



3. NostraSy vestras^ and cujas (i, e. belonging to our, yoor 
nation, family, or party), are regularly declined after the 
third declension as adjectives of one termination : genit 
nostrdtisy dat. nostrdti^ &c., plural nostrateSy and neuter nat^ 

[§ ^^0 4' Th^ peculiar declension of the adjective pro- 
nouns uter, utra, utrum ; alter^ altera^ alterum ; alius (neut 
aliud), ulltis, and nullusy has already been explained in 

. utevy Gen. 


Dat. utrL 







alius (neut. aliud). 









The compound alteriiter (the one or the other) is either 
declined in both words, genitive alteriusutriuSy accusative 01- 
terumutruTTiy or only in the latter, as alterutri, alterutrum. 
The other compounds with uter, viz. uterquCy uterlibety utev' 
viSy and utercunqucy are declined entirely like utevy the suf- 
fixes being added to the cases without any change. The 
words unusy soluSy and totus are declined like ullus. 

CHAP, xxxvn. 


[§ 142.] 1. The verb is that part of speech by which it is 
declared that the subject of a sentence does or steers some- 
thing. This most general difference between doings which 
originates in the subject, and suffering which presupposes the 
doing or acting of another person or thing, is the origin of 
the two main forms of verbs, viz. the active and passive (oc- 
tivum et passivufn). 

2. The active form comprises two kinds of verbs : trans- 
Hive or active properly so called, and intransitive or neuter 
verbs. The difference between them is this : an intransitive 
verb expresses a condition or action which is not communi- 


cated from the agent to any other object ; e. g. I walk, I stand, 
I sleep; whereas the transitive verb expresses an action which 
affects another person or thing (which in grammar is called the 
object, and is commonly expressed by the accusative) ; e. g. I 
love thee, I read the letter. As far as form is concerned this 
difference is important, for neuter verbs cannot have a pas- 
sive voice, whereas every transitive or active verb (in its 
proper sense) must have a passive voice, since the object of 
the action is the subject of the suffering ; e. g. I love thee — 
thou art loved ; I read the letter — the letter is read. 

[§ 147.] 3. It is a peculiarity of the Latin language, that 
it has a class of verbs of a passive form, but of an active 
(either transitive or intransitive) signification. They are 
called (feponents (laying aside, as it we're, their passive sig- 
nification), e. g. consolor, I console ; imitor, I imitate ; fateor, 
I confess ; sequor, I follow ; mentiovy I lie ; morior, I die. 
These verbs, even when they have a transitive signification, 
cannot have a passive voice, because there would be no dis- 
tinct form for it. 

[§ 148.] 4. Before proceeding we must notice the follow- 
ing special irregularities : — 

The three verbs, j^o, I become, or am made, vapulo, I am 
beaten, and veneo, I am sold or for sale, have a passive sig- 
nification, and may be used as the passives oifacio, verbero, 
and vendo ; but, like all neuter verbs, they have the active 
form, except tbat Jio makes the perfect tense f actus sum, so 
that form and meaning agree. They are called neutralia 

The verbs avdeo,fido, gaudeo, and soleo, have the passive 
form with an active signification in ■ the participle of the 
preterite, and in the tenses formed from it : as ausus, Jistis, 
gavisus, solitus sum^ eramy &c. They may therefore be called 

To these we must add, but merely with reference to the 
participle of the preterite, the verbs jurare, coenare, pran^ 
dere, and potarcyof which the participles juratus, coenatus, 
pransus, and potus, have, like those of deponents, the signi- 
fication : — one that has sworn, dined, breakfasted, and 

s 3 


CHAP, xxxvm. 


[§ 149.] There are four general modes (moods, modi) in 
which an action or condition expressed by a verb may be 
represented : — 1) Simply as a fact, though the action or con- 
dition may differ in regard to its relation and to time : this is 
the Indicative ; 2) As an action or condition which is merely 
conceived by the mind, though with the same differences as 
the indicative, Conjunctive or Subjunctive; 3) As a com- 
mand. Imperative ; 4) Indefinitely, without defining any per- 
son by whom, or the time at which, the action is performed, 
although the relation of the action is defined, Infinitive. 

To these moods we may add the Participle which is, in 
form, an adjective, but is more than an adjective by express- 
ing at the same time the different relations of the action or 
suffering, that is, whether it is still lasting or terminated. A 
third participle, that of the future, expresses an action which 
is going to be performed, or a condition which is yet to come. 
The Gerundy which is in form like the neuter of the parti- 
ciple passive in dus, supplies by its cases the place of the in- 
finitive present active. The two Supines are cases of verbal 
substantives, and likewise serve in certain connections (which 
are explained in the syntax) to supply the cases for the 

[§ 160.] When an action or condition is to be expressed 
as a definite and individual fact, either in the indicative or 
subjunctive, it is expressed in a verb by its Tenses. We 
must further know its position in the series of actions with 
which it is connected, that is, the relation of the action, viz. 
whether it took place while another was going on, or whether 
it was terminated before another began. If we connect these 
considerations, we shall obtain the following six tenses of the 
verb: — 

An action not terminated in the present time ; I write, scriho : Present 

An action not terminated in the past time ; I was writing or wrote, 

acribebam : Imperfect tense. 
An action not terminated in the fiiture ; I shall write, scribam : Future 



' An action terminated in the present time ; I wrote or have written, 
scripsi : Perfect tense. 

An action terminated in the past time; I had written, ncripatram: Plu- 
perfect tense, 

An action terminated in the future ; I shall have written, scripsero : 
Future perfect tense. 

The same number of tenses occurs in the passive voice, 
but those which express the terminated state of an action can 
be formed only by circumlocution, with the participle and 
the auxiliary verb esse : scribor, scribebaVf scribar, scriptus 
sum, scriptus eram, scriptus ero. The subjunctive has no 
future tenses : respecting the manner in which their place is 
supplied, see § 496. The infinitive by itself does not express 
time, but only the relation of an action, that is, whether it is 
completed or not completed. By circumlocution we obtain 
also an infinitive for an action or a sufiering which is yet to 



[S 151.3 The Latin verb has two numbers, singular* and 
plural, and in each number three persons. These three per- 
sons, ly the one speaMng, ihou^ the one spoken to, and he or 
she^ the one spoken of, are not expressed in Latin by special 
words, but are implied in the forms of the verb itself. The 
same is the case in the plural with we, yoti, they, and these 
personal pronouns are added to the verb only when the per- 
son is to be indicated in an emphatic manner. 

The following is a general scheme of the changes in ter- 
mination, according to the persons, both in the indicative 
and subjunctive : — 

In the Active. 

Person : 1, 2. 3. 

Sing. — Sy t 

Plur. muSy tisy nt 

The termination of the first person singular cannot be 
stated in a simple or general way, since it sometimes ends iu 

X 4 

In the Passive, 

Person : 

1. 2. 
r, ris, 
mury minij 


o, sometimes in m, and sometimes in i (see the following 
Chapter). In the second person singular the perfect indica« 
tive forms an exception, for it ends in ti. Respecting the 
vowel which precedes these terminations, nothing general 
can be said, except that it is a in the imperfect and plaper<* 
feet indicative. 


This, however, does not apply to those tenses of the pas- 
sive, which are formed by a combination of the participle 
with a tense of the verb esse. 

The imperative in the active and passive has two forms, 
viz. one for that which is to be done at once, and another for 
that which is to be done in future, or an imperative present 
and an imperative future. Neither of them has a first per- 
son, owing to the nature of the imperative. The impera- 
tive present has only a second person, both in the singular 
and plural ; the imperative future has the second and the 
third persons, but in the singular they have both the same 
form, ending in to in the active, and in tor in the passive 
voice ; as amato, amator ; legito^ legitor. In the second and 
third persons plural, however, there are distinct forms. The 
imperative future passive, on the other hand, has no second 
person plural, which is supplied by the future of the indica- 
tive, e.g. laudabiminu 



[§ 152.] 1. There are in Latin four conjugations, distin- 
guished by the infinitive mood, which ends thus : — 

1. are, 2, ere. 3. ere, 4. ire. 

The present indicatives of these conjugations end in : 

1. o, as, 2. eo, es, 3. o, is. 4. to, Is, 
JVote, Attention must be paid to the difference of quantity in the tei^ 


mination of the second person in the third and fourth conjugations, in 
order to distinguish the presents of the verbs in iot which follow the third 
conjugation, e. g. fodioy fugio, capioy i&om those verbs which follow the 
fourth, such as audio, erudio, 

[§ 153.] 2. In order to obtain the forms of the other 
tenses, we must further know the perfect and the supine ; 
for the three tenses of the completed action in the active are 
derived from the perfect ; and the participle perfect passive, 
which is necessary for the formation of the same tenses in 
the passive, is derived from the supine. These four princi- 
pal forms, viz. Present, Perfect, Supine, and Infinitive, end 
thus : — 












w * 













3. With regard to the first, second, and fourth conjuga- 
tions, no particular rule is needed as to how the perfect and 
supine are formed. According to the above scheme they 
are : — 

1. laud'Oy laud-aviy laud^atum, laud-are, 

2, mofi'eOy mon-ui, mon-Uum, mon-ere. 
4. attd'io, atid-iviy attd-itum, aud-ire. 

[§ 154.] 4. But in the third conjugation the formation of 
the perfect and supine presents some difficulty. The follow- 
ing general rules therefore must be observed (for the details 
see the list of verbs of the third conjugation). When the 
termination of the infinitive ere, or the o of the present tense, 
is preceded by a vowel, the forms of the perfect and supine 
are simply those mentioned above, that is, i and turn are 
added to the stem of the verb, or to that portion of the verb 
which remains after the removal of the termination, e. g. 
acuere, acu-o, acu-i, acu-tum. The vowel becomes long in 
the supine, even when it is otherwise short. So also in 
minuoy statuo, tribuOy and solvo, solutum, for v before a con- 
sonant is a vowel. 

But when the o of the present is preceded by a consonant 
the perfect ends in su The s in this termination is changed 
into X when it is preceded by c, g. A, or qu (which is equal 
to c); when it is preceded by 6, this letter is changed into 

JB 5 


p ; i£ d precedes, one of the two consonants must give way, 
and either the d is dropped, which is the ordinary practice, 
or the s ; e. g. diico, dtixi ; rego, rexi; trahoy traxi; coquo^ 
coxi; scribo, scripsi; claudo, clausi; hut defendoy defendu 
Verbs in po present no difficulty: carpoy carpsi; ieulpo, 
sculpsi. That lego makes legiy hibo^ bun, and emo, emiy is 
irregular ; but ^go, fixi ; nubo, nupsi ; demo, demsi (or 
dempsi), are perfectly in accordance with the rule. 

6. The supine adds turn to the stem of the verb, with some 
change of the preceding consonants : b is changed into p ; 
g, h, and qu into c ; instead of dtum in the verbs in do, we 
find sum ; e. g. scribo, scriptum ; rego, rectum ; traho, trac' 
tum ; coquo, coctum (verbs in co remain unchanged, as dic' 
ium^ ductum) ; defendo, defensum; claudo, clausum. The 
supine in xum is a deviation from the rule, as ixiJigo,Jixum, 
and so also the tlirowing out of the n of the stem, as in 
pingo, pictum; stringo, strictum ; although this is not done 
without reason. Of the words in which o is preceded by I, 
m, n, r, or s, only a few in mo follow the ordinary rule ; 
e. g. como, demo ; perf. comsi, or compsi ; sup. comium or 
comptum : all the others have mixed forms. 

6. Two irregularities are especially common in the forma- 
tion of the perfect of the third conjugation. The first is the 
addition of a syllable at the beginning of the verb, called 
reduplication, in which the first consonant of the verb is 
repeated either with the vowel which follows it, or with an 
e ; e. g. tundo, tutudi ; tendo, tetendi ; cano, cecini ; curro, 
cucurri ;fallo, fefelli ; parco, peperci. In the compounds of 
such words the redupUcation is generally not used, except in 
those of do, sto, disco, posco, and in some of curro. The 
second irregularity is that many verbs of the third conjuga- 
tion form their perfect like those of the second. This is the 
case especially with many verbs in lo and mo, as alo, ahd, 
allium {altum) ; mx>lo, molui, molitum ; gemo, gemui,getnUum, 
Concerning this and other special irregularities, see the list 
of verbs in Chap. L. 

[§ 155.] 7. The derivation of the other tenses and forms 
of a verb from these foiu' (present, perfect, supine, and in- 
finitive), which are supposed to be known, is easy and with- 
out irregularity in the- detail. 

From the infinitive active are formed : 
a) The imperative passive, which has in all conjugations 
the same form as the infinitive active. 


b) The imperatiye active, by dropping tlie termination re. 
It thus ends in conjugation, 1. in a, 2. e, 3. e, 4. f, as ama, 
mone, lege, audi, 

c) The imperfect subjunctive active, by the addition of m, 
so that it ends in the four conjugations in arem, erem, erem, 
irem, e. g. amarem, monerem, legerem, audirem, 

d) The imperfect subjunctive passive, by the addition of 
r, as in amdrer, monerevy legerer, audirer. 

e) The infinitive present passive, by changing e into i, e. g. 
amariy moneri, atidiri, but in the third conjugation the whole 
termination ere is changed into ^ as in legere, legi. 

From the present indicative active are derived : 

a) The present indicative passive, by the addition of r, as 
amor, moneor, leqor, audior* 

b) The present subjunctive active, by changing the o into 
em in the first conjugation, and in the three others into am; 
as amem, moneam, hgam, audiam, 

c) The present subjunctive passive, by changing the m of 
the present subjunctive active into r, as amer, monear, legar, 

d) The imperfect indicative active, by changing o into 
aham in the first conjugation, in the second into bam, and 
in the third and fourth into ebam, A change of the m into 
r makes the imperfect indicative passive, e. g. amabam, 
amabar ; monebam, monebar ; legebam, legebar ; audiebam, 

e) The first future active, by changing o into abo in the 
first conjugation, in the second into bo, and in the third and 
fourth into am. From this is formed the first future passive 
by adding r in the first and second conjugations, and by 
changing m into r in the third and fourth; e.g. laudabo, 
laudabor ; monebo, monebor ; legam, legar ; audiam^ audiar, 

f) The participle present active, by changing o in the 
first conjugation into ans, in th^ second into ns, and in the 
third and fourth into ens ; e. g. laudo, laudans ; moneo, mo- 
nens ; lego, legens ; audio, audiens. From this participle is 
derived the participle future passive, by changing s into 
dus ; e. g. amandus, monendus, legendus, audiendus ; and 
the gerund : a^tandum, monendum, legendum, atuhetidum. 

From the perfect indicative active are derived : 
a) The pluperfect indicative, by changing i into eram: 
laudaveram, monueram, legeram, audiveram. 

X 6 


b) The future perfect, by changing i into ero : latidavera, 
monuero, legero, atidivero, 

c) The perfect subjunctive, by changing t into erim : lau-. 
daverimy monuerim, legerim, audiverim. 

d) The pluperfect subjunctive, by changing t into issem 
(originally essem) : laudavissem, monuissem, Ugissem^ audi" 

e) The perfect infinitive active, by changing i into isse 
(originally esse) : latidavisse, monuisse, legisse, audivisse. 

From the supine are derived : 

a) The participle perfect passive, by changing um into 
tis, a, um: laiidatus, a, um; monitus, a, um ; lectus^ a, um; 
auditus, a, um. 

b) The participle future active, by changing um into urus, 
a, um : laudaturus, a, um ; moniturus, a, um ; lecturusy a, 
um ; auditurus, a, um. 

By means of the former participle we form the tenses of 
the passive, which express a completed action ; and by means 
of the participle future we may form a new conjugation ex- 
pressing actions which are to come. See Chap. XLHI. 



E§ 156.] The verb esse, to be, is called an auxiliary verb, 
ecause it is necessary for the formation of some tenses of 
the passive voice. It is also called a substantive verb, be- 
cause it is the most general expression of existence. Its con- 
jugation is very irregular, like the English lam. The supine 
and gerund are wanting, but the inflection in the persons is 

Indicatiyk. Subjumctiys. 


Sing. Sum, I am. Sing. Sim, I may be. 

iSi thou art. sis, thod mayst be. 

e»t, he is. sit, he may be. 

Plur. sumus, we are. Flur. simw, we may be. 

estis, ye are. sltit, ye may be. 

sunt, they are. sint, they may be. 




Sing. Ertvn, I was. 

erctSt thou wast. 

eratf he was. 
Plur. erdrmu, we were. 

eratisy ye were. 

erant, they were. 

Sing. Ero, I shall be. 

eris, thou wilt be. 

eritf he will be. 
Plur. erimus, we shall be. 

erUis, ye will be. 

erunt, they will be. 

Sing. Fui, I have been, or I was. 
fuisti, thou hast been. 
fitit, he has been. 

Plur. fuimu8, we have been. 

fuistis, ye have been. 

M^"^' ] *^®y ^^'^^ *^°- 


Sing. Essem, I might be. 

6«8es, thou mightst be. 

esset, he might be. 
Plur. essemus, we might be. 

essetiSf ye might be. 

essent, they might be. 


Instead of a subjunctive, the parti-' 
ciple/ifhtnw is used with sim. 

FiUurus sim, n«, &c. I may be 
about to be. 


Sing. Fuirimf I mi^ have been. 
JueriSf thou mayst have been. 
fuerit, he may have been. 

"Plur, fuertmus, we may have been. 

JiieritiSf ye may have been. 

Juerint, they may have been. 

Sing. Fuiram, I had been. 

fueras, thou hadst been. 
fuerai, he had been. 
Plur, fuerdmus, we had been. 
fuerdtitf ye had been. 
fuerant, Uiey had been. 


Sing. Fvissem, I should, or would 
have been. 

fuissea, thou shouldst, &c. 

fuissetf he should, &c. 
Plur. fuissemus, we should, &c. 

fuissiHs, ye should, &c. 

futssenty they should, &c. 

Future Perfect. 

Sing. Fuiro, I shall have been. 
fuerisy thou wilt have been. 
fuerity he will have been. * 

fuerimusy we shall have been. 

fuerUiSy ye will have been. 
fuerinty they will have been. 

No Subjunctive. 


Present, Sing. Esy be thou. Plur. este, be ye. 

Future, Sing. Eito, thou shalt be. Plur. estStey ye shall be. 
etto, he shall be. suntOy tiiey shall be. 




Present, state not terminated, esse, to be. 
Perfect, terminated, Jkisse, to have been. 
Future, futurum (eun, um) esse, or fSre, to be about to fafe. 


Present, not terminated (ens), being. 

Future, /itfitnur, a, um, one who is about to be. 

Note, The compounds absum, adsum, destan, insum, intersum, o6ticm,pfae- 
sum, subsum, supersum, have the same conjugation as sum, Frotum inserts 
a d when pro is followed by «; e. g. prodes, prodest, &c. Tlie participle 
ens is not used, but appears in the two compounds absens and praesens. 



First Conjugation, 

Indicative. Subjumctivb. 


Sing. Jm-o, I love. 

amrds, thou lovest. 

am>-at, he loves. 
Plur. am'Smus, we love. 

am^Stis, ye love. 

am-ant, they love. 

Sing. am^Sbam, I was loving, 
or I loved. 


Plur. am-abdmus. 



Sing. aW'Sbo, I shall love. 


Plur. am-abimus. 



Sing. Am-em, I may love. 

am-Ss, thou mayst love. 

am-et, he may love. 
Plur. am-gmus, we may love 

am-SHs, ye may love. 

om-en/, tbey may love. 


Sing, am-drem, I might loTe. 

Plur. am-arSmus, 



Indicative. Subjukctivb. 


Sing, am-dvi, I have loved, or Sing, am-avirimt I may have loved. 
I loved. 
am-avisti, am-averis, 

am-avit. am-averit, 

Plur. am-avimus* Flur. am-averimus. 


am-avisHs, am-averitis. 

am-avSrunt («). am-averint 


Sing, am-aviranij I had loved. Sing. eKm-avisum^ I might haveloved. 

am-averSs, am-amssSs, 

am-averat. am-avisset, 

PI r. am-averSmtts. Plur. am-avissSmus, 

am-averiUis, am-avUsitis, 

.am-avercmU am-aoisse^. 

Second Future, or Future Perfect. 

Sing, am-aviro, I shall have loved. 

Plur. am-averimtUm 


Present, Sing, am-d, love thou. Plur. am-dte, love ye. 

Future, Sing. am-^Zto,thoushalt love. Plur. am-^Gtet ye shall love. 
oM'StOf he shall love. am-antOt they shall love. 


Pres. and Imperf. (of an action still going on) am-dre, to love. 
Perf. and Plupeif. (of an action completed) am-^viuef to have loved. 
Future, am-aturum e<se, to be about to love. 

Gen. am-andi ; Dat am-ando ; Ace am-andum ; Abl. am-andp* 

am-atum; am-atu. 


Pres. and Imperf. (of an action still going on) am-am, loving. 
Future, amnUunUf about to love. 


Second Conjugation. 

Indicative. Subjunctive. 


Sing. Mon-eo, I advise. Sing. Mon-eam, I may advise. 

mou'Sa. moH'eas. 

moii^. mon-eat. 

Flur. mou'Smus. Plur. tnoi^edmus, 

mon-itis. moH'ecUis, 

mon'ent. tnon-eant. 


Sing. mon-Sbctoh I was advising, Sing. moM-A-em, I might advise, 
or I advised. 

num-ebds, mon-erSs. 

mon'-ebat. mon-eret, 

Flur. mon-ebdmu8. Plur. mon-eremtts, 

mon-ebatia, num-eretis. 

mon^ebant, mon-erent. 

Sing. mon-SbOf I shall advise. 
Plur. rrum-dnmus, 


Sing, mou'iti, I have advised, or Sing, mon^uirimf I may have advised. 
I advised. 
mon-uisti. mon-ueris, 

mon-uit mon-uerit, 

Plur. mon-uimus» Flur. man-uerimus. 

num-uistis, mon-ueritis. 

mon^uSrunt (e), mon^uerint. 


Sing, mon-uiram, I had advised. Sing, mon-uissemf I should have ad- 

mon^uerds. mon-uissCs. [vised. 

mon'Uerat, mon-uisaet, 

Plur. mcm-ueramus. Plur. mon-vissSmus, 

mon'Uerdtis. mon'uiasetis, 

mon-uercmt. mori'uissent. 

Second Future, or Future Perfect. 

Sing, fium-u^ro, I shall have advised. 

Plur. mon'uertmus. 



Imps A ATI vs. 

Present, Sing, num-ij advise thou. Plur. rhon-i^, advise ye. 

Future, Sing, mon-eto, tbou shalt advise. Flur. mon-^dte^ ye shall advise. 
mon-Sto, he shall advise. mon-entOf they- shall advise. 


Pres. and Imperf. num-Sre, to advise. 

Perf. and. Pluperf. mon-uisse, to have advised. 

Future, mon-iturum esse, to be about to advise. 

en. mon-endi ; Dat. mon^endo ; Ace. mon-endutn ; Abl. mon-endot 

mon'ttum; mon-Uu, 


Pres. and Imperf. num-ens, advising. 
Future, mon'itwus, about to advise. 

Third Conjugation. 

Indicative. Subjunctitk. 


Sing. Leg-o, I read. Sing. Leg-am, I may read. 

leg-is. leg-Ss. 

leg-it, Ug-at, 

Plur. leg-lmus. Plur. leg-amus. 

leg-Uis,, leg-atis, 

leg-unt, leg-ant. 


Sing. leg-Sbam, I Was reading, or Sing, leg-irem, I might read. 
I read. 
leg-ehds, leg-irSs,' 

leg-ehat. leg-eret, 

Plur. Ieg-ebdmu8. Flur.. leg-erSmus, 
leg-ebatis, Ug-eretis, 

leg-ehant, leg-erent. 

Future. . 
Sing, leg-am^ I shall read. 


Plur. leg-imus. 




Ikdicatitx. Subjunctitx. 


Sing. Ug-i, I have read, or I read Sing, leg'&im, I may have read. 
Ug'tiH, leg-erit, 

leg-it, leg-erit, 

Flur. Im-imut, Flur. hg-erimHt, 

leg-isHs, l^f-erUts. 

leg-Srunt (e). Ug-erinL 


Sing, leg-iramf I had read. Sing, leg'iuem, I should have read. 

leg-erSa. leg-iuSs, 

Ug-erat, leg-isaet, 

Plur. leg-erdmiu, Plur. leg-isshnus, 

leg-eratis, la^'issitis, 

leg'Srant, Ug-issewL 

Second Future, or Future Perfect. 

Sing, leg-iro, I shall have read. 

Plur. Ieg-erlmu8, 



Present Sing. Jeg-i, read thou. Plur. Ug-Ue, read ye. 

Future^ Sing. leg-UOf thou shalt read. Plur. leg-itOUf ye shall read. 
leg-Uo, he shall read. kg-tmtOt they tth»\} read. 


Pres. and Imperf. leg-^re, to read. " 

Perf. and Pluper£ leg-Use, to have read. 
Future^ lec-turum esse, to be about to read. 


Gen. leg-endii Dat leg-endo; Ace leg-endum; AbL leg'emdo. 

lee-tuM; Ue-tUm 


Fres. and Imper£ leg-ens^ reading. 
Future} lec-tunUf about to read. 


Fourth Conjugation. 



Sing. Aud-iOf I hear. Sing. Aud-ianif I may bear. 

aud-U, aud-ids, 

aud'iU aud-iat. 

Plur. aticUimua, Plur. aud'tSmus. 

aud-itit, aud-iatis, 

aud'iutU, aud'iant. 


Sing. avd'iSbam, I was hearing, Sing. audAremy I might hear, 
or I heard. 

aud'iebds, aud-irSt, 

aud-iebat, aud~iret, 

Plur. aud'iebdmus. Plur. avd-irSmut, 

aud'iebStis, aud-iretis, 

aud'idHint, aud-irent, 


Sing, aud-ianif I shall hear. 


Plur. aud-iimu8, 




Sing, aud-lvi, I have heard, or Sing. oMd-itiMnif I may haye heard. 
I heard. 
aud-ivisti. aud-ivetU. 

aud'ivit aud'iverit, 

Plur. and-ivhnu9, Plur. aud-iverhnus, 

aud'ivistis. aud-iverUit, 

aud'iveruni (e). aud-iverint 


Sing. aud-iv^raMf I had heard. Sing, attd-ivitsem, I might have heard. 

aud-iverds. aud-ivistSs, 

aud-ivefoL aud^ivisaet. 

Plur. aud'iverdmus, Plur. aud-ivisaimus, 

aud-iveratis, aud-ivissitis, 

attd'Werant, aud-ivissent. 

Second Future, or Future Perfect 

Sing, aud'tviro, I shall haye heard. 

Plur. aud-iverimu$, 




Present, Sing, aud-lt hear thou. Plur. aud-Ue, hear ye. 

Future, Sing. aiMf-fto, thou shalt hear. Flur. mtd-itOte, ye shall hear. 
atid'Uo, he shall hear. aud-iuntOf they shall heafl 


Pres. and Imperf. aud-ire, to hear. 

Perf and Pluper£ aud-ivisse, to have beard. 

Future, aud-Uwrum etce, to be about to hear. 


Gen. aud'iendi; Dat. aud-iendoj Ace. aud-iendum ; AbL aud-iendo. 

aud-itum ; aud-ltu, 


Pres. & Imperf. aud-iens, hearing. 
Future, aud-iturtUf about to hear. 

[§ 158.] II. PASSIVE VOICE. 

First Conjugation. 

Indicative. Subjunctive, 


Sing. Am-or, I am loved. Sing. Am-er^ I may be loved. 

am-dria (c). ampins (c). 

ixm-'Otur, aro'etur, 

Plur. am-amur, Plur. arn-emur. 

am-aminu am-emtnt. 

am-antur. am^entur. 


Sing. am-Sbar, I was being loved, Sing. am-Srer, I might be loved, 
or I was loved. 

am-abdris (e). am-arSris (e). 

am^cdHxtur, am-areiur, 

Plur. ani-abamur. Plur. am-aremur. 

am-oiamtnt. am'Oremini. 

am-abafiiur, am-arentur. 


Ikdicatiyk. Subjunctive. 


Sing, am-abor, I shall be loved. 

am-ah^ris (c). 

Plur. am'dbimur, 




Sing. amSius (a, um) sum, I have Sing, am-dtus (a, urn) simy I may 

been loved, or I was loved. have been loved. 

am-atu8 es. ant'Otus sis, 

am-atus est, am-atus sit, 

Plur. am-ati (a«, a) sumus, Plur. am-ati (ae, a) simus, 

am-ati estis, am-ati sitis, ' 

am-ati sunt, am-ati sint. 


Sing, am-dtus (a, um) eroMf I bad Sing, am-atus (a, um) essem, I might 
been loved. have been loved. 

am-atus eras, am-atus esses. 

am-atus erat. am-atus esset, 

Plur. am-ati (ae, a) eramus. Plur. am-o/t (ae, a) essemus. 

am-ati eratis, am-ati essetis, 

am-ati erant, am-ati essent. 

Second Future, or Future Perfect. ^ 

Sing, am-atus (a, ion) ero, I shall have been loved. 

ami-atus eris. 

am-atu8 erit. 
Plur. am-ati (a«, a) erimus, 

am-ati eritis. 
. am-ati erunt* 


Present, Sing, am-are^ be thou loved. Plur. am-amm^ be ye Ibved. 

Future, Sing, am-atoty thou shalt be loved. PL am-andnofr^ ye shall be loved. 
am-£rfor, he shall be loved. am-anfor, they shall be loved. 


Pres. and Imperf. (of a passive state still going on), am^ari, to be loved. 
Perf. and Fluperf. (of a state completed), am-atum (am, um) esse, to 

have been loved. 
Future, am-3tum iri, to be about to be loved. 


Perfect, am'Stus, a, son, loved« 

In dus (commonly called Future, or Future o^ l^ec^vVf^^^'^''''^'*^''^'^'^'* ^ 
wfi, deaerymg 9r requiring to be Xo^ed.. 


Second Conjugation* 

Tndicatitb. Subjukctxtx, 


Sing. Man^eoTt I am advised. Sing. Man^ear, I may be advised. 

moTugris («). mon-edria (c). 

ttton^tur, mon-eafwr. 

Plur. mon-emur. Flur. mou'eamur, 

num'emim. mort'eamiuL 

mon-entur, mott'eantur. 


Sing. mon-Shar, I was being advised, Sing. mon^Srer, I might be advised, 
or I was advised. 

mon^t^arU (e). num-erSris (e). 

mon^ebatur* mon-erefiir. 

Plur. mon-^Himur, Plur. num^eremur, 

mon^ebaminu num-eremini, 

num-ebantur* mon^ereniw. 


Sing. num-gboTt I shall be advised. 

mon-ebiris (e). 

Plur. mon-ebimur, 




Sing. mon-Uut (a, urn) sum, I Sing. mon-Uus (a, ion) nm, I may 

have been advised, or have been advised. 
I was advised. 

mon'Uui e$, iMm-Una ids. 

num^Uut est, mon-Uus sit 

Flur. num^Ui (ae, a) sumus. Plur. mon-iti (ae, a) simus, 

fnon-fh* estU. mon-iti gitis, 

mon^Ui sunt, mon-Ui sint. 


Sing. monMus (a, urn) eram, I Sing. mon-Uus (ti, urn) essem^ I should 

had been advised. have been advised, 

mon-Uus tras. monAtus esses. 

mon-Uus erat, mon-Uus esseL 

Flur. mon-Ui (ae, a) eramus, Plur. mon-Ui (ae, a) essentm, 

mon-Ui eratis, mon-Ui esuHs, 

mon-Ui eranL mon-ftt esgent 


Indicatitk. Subjuvctxtx, 

Second Future, or Future Perfect. 

Sing. mon-itu8 (a, t^m) ero, I shall have been advised. 

mon-itus eris, 

mon-itu8 eril. 
Plur. mon-iti (ae, a) erimus. 

mon-iti eritis» 

mon-iti erunt, 


Present, Sing, mon-^ be thou advised. Plur. moff-emtW, be ye advised. 

Future, Sing, mon-gtor, thou shalt be Plur. mon-eminor, ye shall be 

advised. advised. 

mon-gtor, he shall be, &c. mon-enfof, they shall be, &c. 


Pres. and Imper£ num-eri, to be advised. 

Per£ and Pluperf. mon-itum {am, urn) esse, to have been advised. 

Future, mon-iium iri, to be about to be advised. 


Perfect, mon-ttus, advised. 

In dus (commonly called Future, or Future of Neeeflsity)^ num-eiufttf, 
deserving or requiring to be advised. 

Third Conjugation, 

Indicative. Sujijvkciitx. 


Sing. Leg-or, I am read. Sing. I^g-ar^ I may be read. 

leg-iris (c). Ug^rt* (e), 

leg-itur, Ug-^Btwr, 

Plur, leg-imur. Plur. kg-^mwr. 

leg-imini, leg-aminu 

Ug-untur. leg-^niur, 


Sing. leg-Sbar, I was being read, Smg, leg^ifrer, I mi^tbe refuL 
or I was read. 
leg-ebSris (e). leg-^rSris (s)« 

leg-ebtUur, l^f-'eretur. 

Plur. l^hebamur. Plur. leg-eremw, 
Ug-dKoninL l^'-er^hdnu 

Ug-ebamtwr, Ug-erentwr, 


Indicatiyz. Subjunctivs. 


Sing. leg-ar, I shall be read. 

hg-iris (e). 

Plur. leg-Smur, 




Sing, lec-tus (a, um) sum, I have Sing, lec-tus (a, urn) nm, I may h: 
been read,- or I was read. been read. 

lec-tus es. lee-tus sis. 

lec-ius est, lec-tus sit 

Plur. leC'ti (ae, a) sumus. Plur. lec-ti {ae, a) simus, 

lec-ti estis, lec-ti sitis. 

lee-ti sunt, lec-ti sint. 


Sing, lec-tus (a, um) eram, I had Sing, lec-tus (a, um) essem, I shoulc 
been read. have been read. 

lec-tus eras, lec-tus esses, 

lec-tus erat. lec-tus asset. 

Plur. lec-ti (cie» a) eramus. Plur. lec-ti (ae, a) essemus, 

lec-ti eratis. lec-ti essetis. 

lec-ti ercmt. lec-ti essent. 

Second Future, or Future Perfect. 

Sing, lec-tus (a, um) ero, I shall have been read. 

lec-tus errs. 

lec-tus erit. 
Plur. lec-ti erimus. 

lec-ti eritis. 


lec-ti erunt. 


Present, Sing, leg-ire, be thou read. Plur. fe^-tmintVbe ye read. 

Future, Sing. Ug-Uor, thou read. Plur. leg-iminor, ye shall be raadl 
leg-Uor^ he shall be read. /ej^-un^or, they shall be read. 


Pres. and Imperf. leg-i, to be read. 

Perf. and ^Pluperf. lec-tum {amy uml) esse, tp hsve been 4'ead. 

Future, lec-ium iri, to be about to be read. 


Perfect, lec-tus, read. 

In dus (commonly (billed Future, or Future of Necessity), ft^cnflhu, de- 
serving or requiring to be read. 


Fourth Conjugation, 

Indicative. Subjunctivi. 


Sing. Aud-ioTi I am heard. Sing. Aud-iar, I may be heard. 

aud-iris (e). aud^idris (e). 

aud-ttvT' aud-iatur, 

Plur. aud-lmur, Flur. atMf-tamtir. 

aud-imini, aud-^iamini, 

audriufUw^ aud-iantur. 


Sing, aud-igbar, I was being Sing, aud-lrer, I might be heard, 

heard, or I was heard. 

cntd-iebdrU (e). a«d-tr?m (e\ 

aud-iebatur, aud'iretur, 

Plur. aud-iebamur. Plur. atuUiremur. 

aud-iebamifd, aud'tremtni, 

aud-iehatUur. attd-ireniur. 


Sing. aud~iar, 1 shall be heard. 
aud'iirii (c). 

Plur. aud'iSmur, 


Sing. atMf-!^tt« (a, ton) «i(m, I have Sing. attd'Uu8(a,um)8iin, I may have 

been heard, or I was heard. been heard. 

attd-Uv* es, aud^ltua sis. 

attd-ltus est, aud-Uus sit. 

Plur. attd-iti (ae, a) sumus. Plur. aud-iti (ae, a) simus. 

aud-iti estis. aud-iti sitis. 

aud'lti sunt. aud-Ui sint. 


3ing. aud-Uus (a, icm) eram, I had Sing. aud»itus (a, vm) essem, I might 

been beard. have been heard. 

aud-Uus eras. aud-Uus esses. 

aud-Uus erat, aud-Uus esset. 

Plur. aud-Ui {ae, a) eramus, Plur. aud-Ui (oe- a) sstemus, 

aud-Ui eratis, aud-Ui essetis, 

aud-Ui erant. aud-Ui essent. 


Second Future, or Future Perfiwt 

Sing. aud-Uia {a, ton) ero, I shall have been heard. 

aud'Uus eris, 

aiid-ltu8 erit. 
Plur. aud-lH (ae, a) erimut, 

aitd-lti eritis, 

aud-iti erunL 

Present, Sing, aud-lre, be thou heard. Plur. aud-imini, be ye heard 

Future, Sing, aud-ltor, thou shalt be Plur. aud-iminor, ye shall be 

heard. heard. [be, &c 

aud-Uor, he shall be heard. aud-iuntor, they shall, 


Pres. and Imperf. aud-iri, to be heard. 

Perf. and Pluperf aud-itum (am, ium) es<e, to have been heard. 

Future, aud-itum iri, to be about to be heard. 


Perfect, aud-ltus, heard. 

In du9 (commonly called Future, or Future of Necessity), aud-ienduM, 
deserving or requiring to be heard. 


[§ 169.] The conjugation of deponents differs from the 
passive only hj the fact that it has both the participles 
of the active and of the passive voice, that is, for all the 
three states of an action : that in ns for an action not 
completed ; that in t», a, um for an action compl^;6d ; and 
that in urtiSy a, tern for one about to take place. The ^urth 
participle in ndtcs with a passive signification is an irregu- 
larity, and is used only in those deponents which have a 
transitive signification ; e. g. hortandtis, one who should be 
exhorted. Of deponents which have an intransitive mean- 
ing, e. g. loqui, this participle is used only sometimes, chiefly 
in the neuter gender (often, but erroneously, called the ge- 
rund), and in a somewhat different sense, e. g. logttendum 
est, there is a necessity for speaking. It will be sufficient in 
the following table to give the first persons of each t^iae^ 
for there is no difficulty, except that these verbs with a 
passive form have an active meaning. 



1st Conjug. 

S. hort-or, I ex- 
P. hort-amur. 

S. hort'Ohar, 

A. Indicativk. 

2d Conjug. Sd Conjug. 4tb Conjug. 

ver-eor, I fear. «e^or, I fioHow. &2tiiM{. tor, I flatter. 








S. hort'iiboT, 
P. Aoif-ofrtnttcr. 

S. horf-attu (a, 
urn) sum, 

P. hort'oH (ae, 
a) aumtu. 

S. hort-aiHt (a, 
um) eram, 

P. hort-oH (otf, 
a) eramus. 

S. hort-albu (a, 
tan) ero, 

p. hort-ati (oe, 
a) en'miif. 


First Future. 




ver-itus (a, tern) secic-htf (tf, um) Uand-Uus (a, um) 
gum. gum. gum, 

ver-Ui (ae, a) gecu-ti (ae, a) bland-Ui (ae, a) gu- 
gumug, gumug, mug. 


ver-itug (a, um) geeu'iug (a, um) Uand'itug (a, um) 
eram, cram, grcan, 

ver-iti (oe, a) gecu-H (ae, a) hiand»tti (o^ a) 
eramug, eramug, eramug. 

Future Perfect. 

veriiug (a, um) gecu'tug (a, um) Ikatd-itug (cc, «m) 

ero. ero. ero, 

vef'tti (ae, a) secti-^ (oe, a) Uand-tft'(o^»«)^' 

ertmve. ertNMM. 

B. SuBJUKcnrx. 

S. hort-^r, 
P. Aor^-emur. 

S. hort-3rer, 
P. hort-aremaar. 

S. korUatug (a, 
um) Sim. 

P. ftort'oH (ae, 
a) eimttf. 









«er-ttee (a, tcm) sectf-te« (a, ior) £2aiui-thK (a, imi} 

• • . 

gtm. gtm, gtm, 

ver.iti (ae, a) geem^ti (ae, a) bland-Ux (^oe, <^v «v« 

gimug, «tmtu. iiimx. 

F 2 



1st Coi^jug. 2d Cdgug. Sd Caqag. 4tb CQ^ja^ 

S. hort-ahut (a, ver-itus (a, «ai) Mecu-tms (a, «a) blamd- it ma (a, «a) 


P. hort-ati (oe, vtr^iH (ae, a) 

i (oc^ «) hhrnd-Ui (oe^ a) 

P. 2. Aorf-aauni. ter-eminL 



S. 2. Aori-alor. cer-i'or^ sequ-Uor^ liemd'Uor, 

3. kort-ator, rtr-ilor. $eqU'-Uor, hland-Uor. 

P. 2. (is wanting, but is supplied by the Future Indicative.) 
3. hort-OMior, veT'CtUor, seq»-muiior, 

D. iNPINinVE. 

Presoit and Imperfect 



Perfect and Pluperfect 

korUatum (oai, cer-^vm {am^ seem-ium (i 
i)ess«. Mm) esse. vm) 


UoMMhM (< 

kori-'aturwm (j 
mm) esse. 

ver'UwruM (am, secK-Afnun ( 
vm) esse. tim) esse. 

Gen. hort-^mdu ver-endt, 
Dat hort-ando, ver-emdo, 
Aoc hart-OMdrnm. ver-emdmm, 
AbL Aorf-oiuio. ver-endo. 

£. GsauNn. 




F. Paeticipucs. 
IVesent and Imperfect 

Perfect and Pluperfect 
ihort-atet, a, ton. ver-ihit, a, vm. seew-<vs, a, urn. UamdAimt, a, «■. 

Jhrf-atMnu, a, mm, ver-Uunu^ a, vm. tec«-tvr««,a, vm. Uomd.tivriif,a, mb. 


1st Conjug. 2d Conjug. Sd Conjug, 4th Conjug. 

Future, with Passive Signification. 
hort-andu8t a, um. ver-'endus, a» tern. aequ-endtUtOyWn, Uand'iendu9,a,U7n* 

G. Supine. 

1. hort-atum, ver-itum, secu-ium. btancUlium, 

2. hort-atu, ver-itu, secU'tu, Ucmd-Uu. 



[§ 160.] 1. In the terminations avi, evi^ and im of the 
tenses expressing a completed action, viz. of the perfect and 
pluperfect^ indicative and subjunctive, and of the future per- 
fect, as well as of the infinitive perfect active, a syncopation 
often takes place. 

a) In the first conjugation the v is dropped and the vowels 
a-i and a-e are contracted into a long a. This is the case 
wherever avi is* followed hj an Sy or ave by an r; e. g. 
amavisH, amasti; amavissemy amassem; amavisse, amasse; 
amaverunt, amarunt; amavenniy amarim ; amaveraniy ama-' 
ram; amavero, amaro, &c. 

b) The termination evi in the second and third conju- 
gations is treated in the same manner ; e. g. neo, I e^pin, 
nevi, nesti, nestiSy nerunt Thus we often find complessem, 
deleraniy and in the third conjugation consuerunt for cow- 
sueverunty quiessemy decressemy decresse for decrevisse. The 
termination ovi however is contracted only in novi, novisscy 
with its compounds, and in the compounds of moveOy movi ; 
e. g. norunty nossCy cognaramy cognoro, commossem, 

c) In the fourth conjugation ivi is frequently contracted 
before s; hence instead of audivissey audivistiy audivissemy 
we find audisscy audistiy atulissem. In those forms where 
i and e meet, the v is frequently thrown out ; e. g. audierunfy 
desierunt, definieraniy quaesieram, 

[§ l6'>.] 2. The e in the termination of the imperfect of 
the fourth conjugation is sometimes thrown out, e. g. nutri- 
bam, lenibam, scibam, largibar, for nutriebam^ Zem^L^aw.^ 
sciebam, largiebavy — and the future oi \\ie ?«axift <i,QrK^\v'??2Cv3VN. 

» 3 


is formed in ibo instead of iam; e. g. scibo^ serviBoj for 
scianii serviam; but these contractions are antiquated, 
and are retained onlj in the irregular verb ire, 

[§ 163.] 3. For the thii*d person plural of the perfect 
active in erunt there is in all the conjugations another form, 

[§ 164.] 4. The four verbs dicerCy dttcere, facere, and 
ferre, usually reject the e in the imperative ; hence we say 
die, due, fac, fer, and so also in their compounds, as educ^ 
effer, pejfer, calefae, with the exception of those compounds 
o^faeere which change a into %; e. g. confiee, perfice. 

Of scire the imperatives sei and scite are not in use, and 
their place is supplied by the imperative future scito^ sciiote, 

[§ 165.] 5. Tne quantity of the t in the terminations rt- 
mus and ritis, in the future perfect and the perfect subjunc- 
tive, is uncertain. The poets frequently use it long. 

[§ 166.] 6. Instead of the termination ris in the second 
person in the passive, re is also used, especially in the present 
and imperfect subjunctive, and in the imperfect and future 
indicative, as amere, moneare, loqitare^ attdiare ; amarere^ 
amahare, amabere, monerere, loguerere, &c. But, generally 
speaking, these forms do not occur in the present indicative. 

[§ 1^7*] 7* The participle future passive of the third and 
fourth conjugations {including the deponents) is formed also 
in undus instead of endtis, especially when i precedes. In the 
verb potior, potiundtis is the usual form. 

[§ 1^^*] ^* "^6 conjugatio periphrasHcay or the conjuga- 
tion by circumlocution, is fomjed by means of the two parti* 
ciples future, in the active and passive, and of the verb eise, 
for a conjugation made up of the participle present and esH 
does not occur in Latin, (e. g. amans sum would be the same 
as amo,) and the combinations of the participle perfect passive 
with sum, sim, eram, essem, ero, esse, are considered as a part 
of the ordinary conjugation of a verb in the passive voice, as 
for example amatus eram, which is the pluperfect passive of 
ama. But it must be observed, that in the conjugation of the 
passive the perfects of esse are sometimes used instead of the 
above-mentioned forms sum, eram, ero, &c. Amatumfuisse, 
therefore, is equal to amatum essesi& an infinitive perfect 
passive ; amatus fueram is equivalent to amatus eraroy and 
amxitusfuero to amatus ero, Amatus fuero, in particular, is 
used so frequently for amatus ero, that it may be lodced 
ufon as the ordinary future perfect paaaive. 


[§ le&.l But hj the cbmbination of the participle future 
active with the tenses of esse, a really new conjugation is 
formed, denoting an intention to do something. This inten* 
tion may arise either from the person's own will, or from out- 
ward circumstances, so that, e. g., scripturus sum may either 
mean "I have a mind to write," or " I am to write," or "I have 
to write.'* The former sense is also expressed by " I am on 
the point of writing," or "I am about to write," and this sig- 
nification is carried through aU the tenses of esse^ 

Scripturus sun^ I am about Scripturus fuiy I was or have 
to write. been about to write. 

Scripturus eramy I was about Scripturus fueram^ I had been 
to write. about to write. 

Scripturus erOy I shalL be Scripturus fuerOy I shall have 
about to write. been about to write. 

The subjunctive occurs in the same manner. 

Scripturus sim. Scripturus fuerim, 

Scripturtcs essenu Scripturus fuissem. 

Scripturus sim and scripturus e&sem serve at the same time 
as subjunctives to the future scribam; but scripturus fuerim 
and scripturus fuissem are not used as subjunctives to the 
future perfect, scripsero. The infinitive scripturum fuisse 
denotes an action to which a person was formerly disposed, 
and answers to the English " I should have written," so that 
in hypothetical sentences it supplies the place of an infinitive 
of the pluperfect subjunctive ; e. g. Pollio Asinius Caesar em 
existimat suos rescripturum et correeturum commentarios 
fuisse, that is, that he would have re-written and corrected, 
if he had lived longer. The infinitive with esse likewise origin- 
ally denotes an intention ; scripturum esse, to intend writing, 
or to be on the point of writing ; but it then assumes, in ordi* 
nary language, the nature of a simple infinitive future, for 
which teason it is incorporated in the table of c<mjugations. 
For the particulars, see the Syntax, Chap. LXXVI. 

[§ ^^^j The participle future passive expresses (in the 
nominative) the necessity of sufiering an action, and in combi- 
nation with the tenses of esse it &ewise forms a new and 
complete conjugation {tempora necessitatis) ; e. g. amandus 
sum, I must be loved ; amandus eram, it was necessary '&^ 
me to be loved, and so on with aU tlk& \ftTisfti(^ ^ es»e. ^Vu^ 
neuter combined with esse and the da^iw^ <A ^ ^g^st^sw^ 

' F 4 


presses the necessity of performing the action on the part of 
that person, and may likewise be carried through all the 
tenses, as, 

mihi, tibiy illi scribendum est, mihi scribendum fait, I have 

I, thou, he must write. been, or was obliged to write. 

mihi scribendum erat, I was mihi scribendum fuerat, I had 

obliged to write. been obliged to write. 

mihi scribendum erit, I shall mihi scribendum fuerit,! sktill 

be obliged to write. have been obliged to write. 

And so also in the subjunctive and infinitive ; mihi scri* 
bendum esse; mihi scribendum fuisse. 






[§ 171.] The irregularity of the verbs of this conjugation 
consists chiefly in their taking ui in the perfect, and Uum in 
the supine, like verbs of the second ; the t, however, is 
sometimes thrown out. It will be seen from the following 
list that some verbs, in some form or other, again incline 
towards a regular formation of their tenses. 

Crepo, crepui, crepUum, make a noise, rattle, creak. 

Compounds : amcrHpo, make an intense noise ; cUscri^, differ ; tii- 
erfyot chide, rattle. 

Cabo, cuhuiy cubttum, cubare, lie. 

Compounds : accitbo, recline at table ; excHbOf keep watch ; inewbOf 
Jie upon ; recttbo, lie upon the back ; secubo, lie apart, and some othen* 


When the compounds take an m before hi they are conjugated after the 
third, but keep their perfect and supine in ui^ itian, (See § 191.) 

Domo, uiy itum, tame, subdue. 

Eddmo and perddmo strengthen the meaning. 

Sono, ui, itum, resouncL (Participle sonatunts,) 

ConsdnOf agree in sound ; (Mssdno, disagree in sound ; personOf sound 
through ; resdno, resound. 

TonOy uiy (ituMy) thunder. 

Attdno (active), strike with astonishment ; intSno, commonly intran- 
sitive, make a sound ; circwmtdno, 

VetOy uiy ttumy forbid. 

Frico, fricui, fricatumy and frictumy rub. 

DefricOj infrico, perjrico, refrico, are conjugated in the same way. 

3Iico, ui, (without supine,) dart out, glitter. 

Emico, ui, atum, dart forth rays ; but dimico, fight, makes dimicavi, 

Seco, ui, sectum, cut. (Part, secaturus,) 

Desico, resicOf cut off; diasSco, cut in parts. 

Juvo,juvi, support, assist. (J^Burt^juvaturus.) 

So also the compound adj&vo, adjuvi, adjutum, participle adjuturus 
and adjuvaturus, 

Ldvo, Idviy lavatum, lautum, lotum, cavare, wash, or bathe. 

2^eco, kill, is regular ; but from it are formed, with the same 
meaning, eneco, avi, atum, and enecui, enectum; the par- 
ticiple is usually enecttis. 

From Plico, fold, are formed applico, avi, atum, and ui, ttum ; 
so explico, avi, atum, unfold, explain; implico, implicate. 
The perfect ui and the supine atum are most common. 
But those derived from nouns in plex form the perf. and 
sup. regularly : supplico, duplico, multiplico. 

Poto, drink, is regular, except that the supine usually, in- 
stead of potatum, is potum, whence potus, which is both 

• active and passive, having been drunk, and having drunks 
Compounds, appdtus, active ; and epottis, passive. 

Do, dedi, datum, dare, give. 

drcumdo, surround ; pessundoy ruin ; scUisdo, give security ; venund(H 
sell ; are formed like do. The other compounds addo, condoy x^ddo^ 
belong to the third conjugation. (See §187.) 

F 5 


StOy steti, statum, starCy stand. 

The compounds have &i in the perfect ; e. g. adsto, stand near ; con* 
ffo, consist o{', exstOj exist or am visible ; tn«to, insist ; obsto^ hinder ; 
perstOt persevere ; prcuato, surpass ; retto, remain over and above. Only 
those compounded with a preposition of two syllables retain &t in the 
perfect, viz. anteato, dreunuio, imterato, suptrida. The supine does not 
exist in all the compounds, but wherever it is found it is dium, Prauto 
however has praestitum and praestcUurus, 

The active verbs juro and coeno have a participle with a 
passive form, but an active signification : juratus (with the 
compounds conjuratus and injuratus\ one who has sworn ; 
and coenatus, one who has dined. 



[§ 172.] The irregularity of verbs of the second conjugation 
consists partly in their being defective in their forms, and 
partly in their forming the perfect and supine, or one of tiiiem, 
like verbs of the third conjugation. With regard to the first 
irregularity, there are a great many verbs in this conjugation 
which have no supine, that is, which not only have no parti- 
ciple perfect passive (which cannot be a matter of Burprise^ 
since their meaning does not admit of it), but also no parti- 
ciple future active. The regular form of the perfect is ui, 
and of the supine Uum ; but some verbs throw out the short 
i in the supine ; and aU verbs which in the present have a 
V before eo undergo a sort of contraction, since, e. g., we 
find cdviy cautum, instead of cavuiy cavituniy from caveo^ but 
this can scarcely be considered as an irregularity, since v 
and u was only one letter with the Romans. Respecting the 
lengthening of the vowel in dissyllabic perfects, see § 18. 

We shall subjoin a list of the regular verbs of this conju- 
gation as exercises for the beginner, confining ourselves to 
the form of the present. 

CdleOf am warm. Difko, feel pain. 

Incboat caleseo, Hdbeo, have 
CareOf am without. Compounds : adkiheot eofabe^, 

DtbeOf owe. &c., a being changed into t. * 



Jdceo, lie ^ comp. a^auo. PSreo, obey (appear). 

Liceo, am to be sold. Compound : apparto, appear. 

Not to be confounded with the PldeeOf please, 
impersonal Ueet^ it is permitted. iVaeb«o^ offer, affcard* 
See Chap. LX. Tdceoy am silent. 

Mireo, merit ® TWreo, terrify. 

Mdnw, admonish. Vdleo, am well. 

Ndeeo, ii^jure. 

To these regular verbs we may first add: — ^ 

[§ 173.] a) Those which mahe the Perfect in vi instead of 

vui. . 

Caveo, caviy cautum^ cavere, take care. 
Faveo, favi, fautum, am favourable. 
Fovea, fovi, fotum^ cherish. 

Mdveo, movi, motumy move. 

CommSvto and pemuww strengthen the meaning ; amooeo and tub- 
moveOf remove ; admoveo, bring to ; promoveo, bring forwards ; rtmoveo, 
bring back, or remove. 

PaveOy paviy (no supine,) dread. 

The compound ihchoat. expaveseoj expavif is more commonly used, 
especially in the perfect, than the simple verb. 

VoveOf voviy votum, vow ; devoveo, devote with imprecation. 

FerveOy ferviy and ferbui, (no supine,) glow, am hot. 

The inchoatives of the third conjugation effienesca, refervetco, and 
confervetco, have more frequently hut in the perfect. 

Conniveo, niviy and nixiy (no supine,) close the ejes. 

[§ 174.] b) Those which mahe the Perfect in evi instead 


DeleOy deleviy deletum, extinguish, destroy. 

Fleoy fleviy fletumy weep. 

NeOf nevif netum^ spin. 

t 6 


(From Pleo\ campleOy complevi, completUMy fill up ; estpleo, 

(From dleoj grow,) we have the compounds: nboleOy abolish; 
abolesco, cease ; adoleoy adolesco, grow up ; ^oleo or exo' 
lesco and obsoleo or obsolesco, grow obsolete ; all of which 
have evi in the perfect ; but the supine of aboleo is aboU" 
turn, of adolescOy adultum^ and the rest have etum : escole- 
turn, obsoletum. Besides abolitum^ however, there exist 
only the adjectives adultusy exoletus, obsoletus. 

[§ ^"^^O ^) ^^ose which throw out the short i in the 


DoceOy docuif doctum, teach. 

Compounds : edoceo and perdoceot strengthen the meaning ; dedoeeo, 
teach otherwise. 

TeneOy tenuis (tentum, rare,) hold, keep. 

Ahsiineo, abstain ; attineo, keep occupied by or at a thing ; contitieo, 
keep together ; detineo, keep back ; dittineo, keep asunder ; retineo, re- 
tain; gustineo, keep upright. All these have in the stapine teniutn. 
PertineOf belong to, has no supine. 

MisceOy miscui, mixtum or mistum, mix. 

Compounds are, admitceo, eommisceo, immisceo, permitceo* 

TorreOf torrui^ tostufn, roast. 

To these we may add — 

Censeo, censui, censum (participle also censUtis)^ estimate, 

PercenHo, enumerate, without supine. Ofaecenaeo, reckon with, we 
find accensus ; of suceenseot am angry, succetuurtts ; and recetueoy ex- 
amine, makes both recension and recensltum. 

[§ 1^^*] ^) ^^^*^ which make the Perjcct regularly in ui, 

but have no Supine, , 

ArceOy areui, arcere, keep off. 

But the compounds coerceo, coerce ; ex^reeOf exercise ; have a supine 
in Uum, 

CaUeo, have a hard skin, am skilled in (caltidus). 


Candeo, shine, glow (candidus), 
Egeo, want. Compound, indigeo, 
(From mined), emineo, stand forth. 
Floreo, flourish. 
Frorideo, have foliage ; effronduL 

HorreOy shudder, am horrified (horridtu). 

Compounds: abhorreo, and a number of inchoatives, as horretco, 

LangueOy am languid (languidus), 
Ldteo, am concealed. 

Compounds : itUerlaUo, perlateo, ntblateo, 

Mddeo, am wet {madidusy 

NiteOy shine {nitidus). 

Compounds : eniteo^ internkeo, praemteo. 

Oleo, smell. 

Compounds: abdleo and reddUo, have the smell of; tuboleo, smell « 


Palko, am pale. 

PateOy am open. 

Riffeo, am stiff (rigidtis), 

Mubeo, am red (rubidus), 

Sileoy am silent. 

Sorbeo, sorbuiy sip. 

Compounds : abtorbeo and exsorbeo, 

Sordeo, am dirty (sordidus), 

SplendeOy am splendid (splendidiui). 

Studeo, endeavour, study. 

Stupeoy am startled, astonished (stupidus). 

Timeo, fear {Hmidtis). 

Torpeo, am torpid. 

Tumeo, swell, am swoUen (jtumidiui), 

Vigeo, am animated. 


VireOy am green or flourish. 

Besides these, there is a number of Bimilar intransitiye 
verbs which occur more rarely, and chiefly in the form of 
inchoatives. (See § 204.) Compare § 235. respecting their 
derivation from adjectives. 

The following are really irregular verbs, and follow the 
analogy of the third conjugation : — 

[§ 177.] 1. Verbs which make the Perfect in si afid the 

Supine in sum. 

Ardeo, arsi, arsum, ardere^ bum. 
Haereo, haesiy haesum, cleave. 

Compounds : adhaereo, eohaereo, inhaereo, 

JUbeOf jussi, jussuniy command. 

ManeOy mansi, mansum, remain. (But manoy as^ flow). 

Permanm (permdnes), wait ; remaneo, remain behind. 

Mulceo, mulsiy muhum, stroke, caress. 

The compounds demulceo and pennulceo strengthen the meaning. 

Mulgeo, mulsiy mulsumy milk. 

RldeOy risiy risuniy laugh. 

Compounds : arrideo (arrldes), smile upon or please : derideo and 
irrideo, laugh at, scorn; subrideOf smile. 

Suadeo, suasi, suasum, advise. 

Dissuadeo, dissuade ; perguadeoy persuade. 

Tergeo, tersi, tersum, tergere, wipe ; is used also as a verb of 
the third conjugation : tergo, tersiy tersum^ tergere. 

[§ 178.] 2. Verbs which make the Perfect in si, but have 

no Supine* 

Algeo, alsiy algere, shiver with cold. 
FulgeOffulsiyfulgere^ shine, am bright. 
Turgeo, tursi, swell. 
Urgfeo or urgueo, ursiy press. 


3. Verbs with the Perfect in si and the Supine in turn. 

IndulgeOy indidsi, indultum, indulge. 

TorqueOf torsi, tortum, twist. 

Compounds : contorqueo, twist together ; ditiorqueo, twist away ; «r- 
torqueot wrest out or from. 

4f, Verbs with the Perfect in xi and the Supine in turn. 
Augeoy auxi^ auctuniy increase. 
LUceOy luxiy lucere, shine ; has no supine. 
LUgeo, lusciy lugerCy mourn ; has no supine. 
FrigeOy frixiy frigercy am cold ; has no supine. 

[§ 179.] 5. Verbs with the Perfect in i and the Supine 

in sum. 

Prandeo, prandiy pransum^ dine. The participle pransus 
has an active signification : one who has dined. 

Sedeo, sediy sessum, sit. 

AsMeo (cu9ide9)t sit by ; desideot sit down ; circumtedeo or a'rcitm- 
tideo, surround ; iruideo, sit upon ; tupersedeo, do without ; possideo, 
possess ; ditsideo, dissent ; praesideo, preside ; rendeo, settle down. The 
last three have no supine. 

Vtdeo, vidiy visum, see. 

Invideo (invides), envy ; pervideo, see through ; praevideo, foresee ; 
provideo, provide. 

Strideo, stridi, without supine* 

6. Verbs with a Eeduplication in the Infect* 
Mordeo, mdmordi, morsum, bite. 

Pendeo, pependi, pensum, am suspended. 

Dependeo, depend, and impendeoi soar above, am impending, lose the 

Spondeo, spSpondi, sponsum, vow. 

DespqndeOf deapondi, promise ; retpandeo, respondi, answer, are with- 
out the reduplication. 

Tondeo, tStondi, tonsum, shear. 

The compounds lose the reduplication, as ottowdeO) deUmd&o« 


[§ 180.] 7. Verbs mthout Perfect and Supine^ 

AveOf desire. 

CalveOy am bald, (calvtis). 

CaneOy am grey {canus), 

Flaveo, am yellow (Jlavtis). 

Foeteo, stink (JbeUdus). 

Heheo^ am dull, stupid (Jiebes). 

Humeo, am damp {hunddus). 

LiveOf am pale or envious (lividtis), 

(Mtneo) immineoy to be imminent, threatening, ProniineOy 
am prominent. 

Maereo, mourn (maestus). 

PolleOy am strong. 

Penideoy shine, smile. 

Scdteo, gush forth {Scatere in Lucretius). 

Squdleo, am dirty (squalidus). 

Vegeo^ am gay {vegitus). 

CieOf ciere, is the same word as the rare and obsolete cior 

cire, stir up ; both make the perfect civi, according to the 

fourth conjugation ; in the supine they differ in quantity, 

cieo making cttum, and cio, citum. 

Note, In the compounds too, e^ g. coneieot excieot the forms of the - 
second and fourth conjugation cannot be separated ; ^ but in the si(rnifi- 
cation of *' to call,** the forms of the fourth are preferred, e. g. imperf. 
cibanit cirem; infinlt. cirii the participles concitus, excUtUt and incitus^ 
signify ** excited;'* whereas excI/tM means ** called out.*' JVrcieo and 
incieo retain the signification of ** to excite;" but accirey to call towards, 
summon or invite (of which the present indicative does not occur), 
has only accltus. Derived from citum are : cUot quick ; the frequenta- 
tive cUare, and hence excUo, incUo, and susdto, 

[§ 181.] 8. Semideponents, (See above § 148.) 
Audeoy ausus sum, venture. (Partic. future ausurus,') 

The ancient future subjunctive austnif ausisy atiaitt ausiiU, are rem 
nants of the obsolete perfect aust, and are contractions from ausenm. 


GaudeOf gavistis sum^ rejoice. 

SoleOy solitus sum, am accustomed (to do something). 

The impersonal compound aas^flet, signifies <* it usually happens. ** 



[§ 182.] In the list of verbs of this conjugation it is still 
more necessary, than in the preceding one, to include thoso 
verbs which, according to Chapter XL., form their per- 
fect and supine regularly. We divide them into several 
classes according to the characteristic letter which precedes 
the o in the present, 

1. Verbs which have a Vowel before o including those in vo. 

The following have the Perfect and Supine regular : 

AcHOf aciii, acutum, sharpen. 

Exacuo and peracuo, strengthen the meaning ; praeacuo, sharpen at 
the end. 

Arguo, accuse, convict of (perf. passive in the latter sense 
usually convictus, from convincere). 
Coarguo, the same ; redarguo, refute a charge. 

Imbuo, to dip, imbue. 

Indue, put on ; exuo, strip off. 

Lvo (participle luiturus), pay, atone for. 

AUtco and e/tio, wash off; poUuo^ defile ; diluo, refute ; are derived 
from another Iw) (Javo) and all make the supine in lutum. 

Minuo, lessen, 

Comminuo, deminuo, diminuot imminuo, perminuo, strengthen the 

(Nuo, nod, does not occur ; from it are formed) 

Ahnuoy refuse ; annuo^ assent ; innuot allude, or refer to ; renuot de- 
cline ; all of which have no supine ; ahntto alone has a participle future^ 


Ruo (supine ruitum — rtdturus at least is deriTed from it; 
rutum occurs only in compounds), fall. 

Diriio, cUriih dtruhcm, destroy ; obruo, overwhelm ; pronto^ rush for- 
wards. Corrvo, &11 down, and irruo, rush on, have no suphie. 

Spuo, spit. 

CoMpuo, spit on ; despuo, reject with disgust. 

Statuo, establish. 

ConttUuo and inOituo, institute ; ratituOf re-establish ; aubstUw^ 
establish instead of; destUuo, abandon. 

StemuOy sneeze (without supine) ; the frequentative stemvio 
. is more commonly used. 

Suo^ sew. 

ContuOf sew together ; dissuo and resuo, unsew. 

Tridtw, allot to. 

Attribuot the same ; cUstribuo, divide ; contribuot contribute. 

Solvo, solvij solutum, loosen. 

Absolw, acquit ; dissolvo, dissolve ; exaohot release ; persoho, pay. 

Volvoy roll (frequentative voluto). 

EvdvOf unroll ; invoivo, roll up ; pervdvo, read through. 

The following are without a Supine : 

Congruo, congrui, agree, and ingruo, penetrate. The simple 
verb does not exist. 

MetuOy metuiy fear. {Timeo is likewise without a supine.) 

FlvOy pluviy usually impersonal, it rains. Comp. impiuOf 
impluvif or impluu Campluo and perpluo do not occur in 
the perfect. 

The following are irregular : 
£§ 183.] CdpiOy cepiy captuniy capere^ take hold of. 

AcdpiOi receive ; excipiOf receive as a guest, succeed ; reetpto, recovery 
suscipiOi undertake ; decipio, deceive ; percipio, comprehend ; praedph, 
give a precept. 

F&cio,feciy factum, do, make. 

Arefacioy dry up ; tusuefado and eonsttrfacioy accustom ; eaiefheh and 
tg>efacio, warm ; frigefacio, cool ; hbefacio, make to totter ; patifaeio, 


open ; satisfacio, satisfy. These have in the passive -^So, -foetus tumf 
'•fieri. But those which change a into i form their own passive in 'fi- 
cioTy and make the supine in -fectum : afficuh affect ; conficio and perfi^ 
do, complete; deficio, fall off, am wanting; interficiot kill; proficio, 
make progress ; reficio^ revive, repair ; officio, stand in the way, injure. 
Other compounds of facio follow the first conjugation : ampUficOf 
sacrifico, and the deponents gratificor, ludificor, 

JaciOy jeci, jactumy throw. 

The compounds change H into i, and in the supine into e. Jbjieio, 
throw away ; adjicio, add ; dejicio, throw down; ejicio, throw out ; injidOf 
throw in ; objicio, throw against ; rejicio, throw back; transjicio or tra- 
jicio, throw or carry across, 

[§ 184.] The following have x in the Perfect : 

(From the obsolete lacio, entice, of which hicto is the fre- 
quentative), cdUciOy exiy ectum^ allure ; illidOy entice in ; 
pelUciOy lead astraj ; but elicio makes elicui, elicitum^ draw 

(From specioy xi, ctum^ see, of which the frequentative is 
specto) aspidoy exi, ectum, look on; conspicioy the same$ 
despicio, look down, despise; dispicio and perspicio, 
understand ; inspicio, look into ; respiciOf lo^ back ; 
suspicio, look up, reverence, 

FlicOf Jiuxi, Jltictum, flow. 

Affiuo, flow in; eonfluo, flow together; effluo, flow out; interfiuot 
flow between. 

Struo, struxij strtLctum^ build, pile. 

Construo and exziruoy buUd up ; dettruo, pull down ; inttruo, set in 

Vivo, vixiy victum, live. 

[§185.] Other Irregularities, 
FddiOy fodi, fossum, dig. 

EffSdio, dig out ; confodio and perfodio, dig, pierce through ; tujffbdio, 

FugiOy fugh fugttum, flee. 

AufUgio and effugio, flee away, escape , confugio and perfugio, take 

Cupio, "ivi, 'Uum, desire. 

Discupio, pereupio, eoncupio, strengthen the meaning. 


Rapio, rapuif raptum^ rob, snatch. 

Arripiot arripHtf arreptuniy seize ; ahripio and eripio, snatch away ; 
deriptOf plunder ; surripio, steal clandestindy. 

Pario, peperi, partum, bring forth. (But the particip. fut 
act. pariturus,) 

Quatio, {quassi is not found,) quassum, shake. 

Conditio^ tusit usstan, shake violently; discutio, shake asunder; 
excvtioj shake out, off (fig. examine) ; incutiot drive into ; perevtia, 
strike ; repercuiio, rebound. 

Sapio, iviy and m*, (no supine,) am wise. 

DeHpio, am foolish ; resipio, have a taste of, or become wise again. 

(From the obsolete present coepioy) coepi and coeptus sum^ 
coeptuMy {coepere,) have begun. 


[§ 186.] 2. VERBS IN DO AND TO, 

The following are regular : 
Claudoy clausi, clausum^ dauderCy dose. 

Condudo, shut up, conclude ; excludo and sedudo, shut out ; indudOf 
shut in. 

Divido, divuiy divtsum, divide. 

LaedOf injure. 

AUldo^ strike against ; URdoy strike upon ; coUldo, strike together ; 
dido, strike out. 

Ludo, sport. 

CoUudo, play with^ aUudo, play upon : dudo, deludo, and WudOf 

Plaudo, si, sum, clap. 

ApplaudOf applaud. The other compounds (with a different pro- 
nunciation) have -DdOf 'Gsi, 'dsumt as explodo, explode; complodo, cli^ 
the hands ; supplodo, stamp with the feet. 

Bado, shave, scrape; so in ahrado, drcumrado, derado, 
erddo; corrode, scrape together. 


Rodo^ gnaw. 

Ahrddo and derodo, gnaw off; arrodot nibble ; eircumrodo, nibble all 
round ; perrodo, gnaw through. 

Trudo, thrust, with its compounds: detrudo^ thrust down; 
extrudoy thrust out ; protrudoy thrust forwards. 

VadOy (no perfect or supine,) go. 

But evddot evasi, evanan, escape; invadOf attack; pervado, go 

[§ 187.] The following are irregular: 
a) With a Reduplication in the Perfect, 

•Cddo, cectdi, casum, falL 

Of the compounds, these hftve a supine : ituXdo, tncScK, incStum, &11 
in or upon ; ocddot set ; reddo, fall back. The rest have none ; conddo, 
sink together ; decidot fall down ; exddo, fall out of; tteddit, it happens 
(used most commonly of a misfortune). 

Caedo, cecidi, caesumy cut. 

Abscidot abscldi, abscUutn, cut off; concldo, cut to pieces; indldo, cut 
into ; occidOf kill ; recidOf cut away. So deeido, excidot praecidOf and 

Pendo, pependiy pensuniy weigh. 

AppendOi appendix appensum, weigh out to ; expendo, spend, also con- 
sider, like perpendo; suspendo, hang from; dependo, pay; impendo, 
employ upon or in something. 

Tendo, tetendi, tensum, and tentum, stretch. 

Extendo, ostendo, protendo, and retendo, have both supines; but 
ex- and protentum are more frequent. Hie other compounds have 
only turn in the supine: attendo (sc. animum), attend; eonttndOi 
(sc. me), strive ; distendo^ separate or enlarge by stretching ; intendot 
strain ; cbtendo and praetendo, commonly used in the figurative sense of 
alleging ; stAtendo, stretch beneath. 

Tundoy tutudiy tunsum, and tOsum, beat, pound. 

The compounds have only tusum ; coniundOf contUdi, conituumf pound 
' ^ small ; extundo, (figurative) elaborate ; cbhindo and retundOf blunt. 

Credo f credidiy crediium, believe, 

AccrSdo, accredidi, give credit to. 

The compounds of do, except those mentioned in § 171, 

Condo, condidi, eonditum, build, conceal ; o&cbi, dbdlids Qbd\t«m>\Ai^ft« 


So addoj add ; dedo, give up ; edoj give out, publish ; perdo^ ruin, lo96; 
. reddoy give back, render; ^rcuio, deliver; vendo, selL But iibscondo 
appears in the perfect more frequently without the reduplication, ofr- 
scondi, than with it, abscondidi. Instead of the passive, veneo is used 
(see § 215.), except the participles vendUug and vendendug. 

[§ 188.] b) Making di in the Perfect^ and sum m M« 

AccendOy incendo^ succendo, ^cendi, 'censum, light, kindle. 

CUdOy forge. 

Defendo, defend, ward off. 

JEdo, eat. See § 212. ■ 

Exido and com^cb, -^t, -Ssum, (but also comestes,} consume. Ibi^ 

Mando (perfect very rare), chew, 

Offendo^ offend, 

Prehendo, seize ; frequently contracted into prendo. 

Apprehendoj comprehendo, lay hold of, (figurative) understand ; deprt- ' 
kendo, detect, seise in the &ct; reprehendot blame. 

Scando, climb. ! 

Aicendo and escendo, climb up ; descendo, descend ; conscendo and 
inscendo, mount, embark. 

StrWo (also strtdeo), strUU (no supine), grate, make a harsh 

Fundoy fudiy fusum^ pour. 

Diffunde, pour out^ spread abroad ; offimdot pour oyer ; prcfundst 
waste; affundo, ofnfundo, effundo^ infunda. 

£§ 189.] c) Other Irregularities, especially that of a double 

s in the Supine, 

KJedOy cessi, cessum, yield, go. 

Abtcido, go away; aoeSdoj go to ; anteeedo, surpass; conotdB, give way; 
deoedo, go away ; discedo, separate myself; excedot go out ; tneedo^ 
march ; intercedOf come between, interpose ; recedo, retmt ; meeedit 
come into one's place. 

Findo^ fidi, fissum, split. 

Diffhido, difidi, split asunder. 


ScindOy scidiy scissum, cut. 

Consctndo, conaddif eonscissum, tear to pieces ; e. g vestem, eputokans 
ducindOi interscindo (e. g: ptmUm), peradudo, andproscindo have similar 
meanings. Rescindoy annul. Respecting the forms of abscindo, cut 
ofiT, and exsdndo, destroy, tiiere is considerable doubt ; but the forms 
abscissum and extcissttm do not exist at all, because in pronunciation, 
they are the same as abscUvm and excUwn, from abscidere and excidere ; 
and the perfect exscidi also is not fimnded on any authority, since the s 
by which it is distinguished is not heard in pronunciation, and is better 
not introduced in writing. 

Frendo (frendi), fressum and fresttmy gnash widi the teeth; 
also frendeo, frendere. 

Meto, messuiy messum, cut, reap. 

Mitto^ misi, Tmssunif Bead, 

AdmittOf admit, commit ; amittOf lose ; eommitto, intrust commit a 
fault ; demitto and dimitto, dismiss ; emitto, send forth ; immitto, send 
in, against ; intermitto, omit ; omitto and praeUrmitto, leave out ; 
permit^f permit ; promitto, promise ; remitto, send back ; tvbmUtOf send 
up, send aid. 

Pando, pandty possum {pansum rare), spread abroad. 

Expando has expansum and expassvm ; dispando only ditpansum, 

Peto, petivi, (in poetry petti)y peiitumy ask, seek. 

Appito and expeto, strive for ; oppeto, encounter ; repeto, repeat, seek 

Sido (the perfect and supine usually from sedeo\ sit down. 

The compounds, too, usually take the perfect and supine from sedeo : 
constdOi conaSdi, conmsnan; so anido, seat myself beside ; subndOf sink ; 
insidOf sit upon ; desido and resido, seat myself down. 

SistOy stid, statuTn, stop (whence status), but sistOy in a 

neutral sense, makes the perfect and supine from stare. 

The compounds are all intransitive, and have sHH, sHiums subsi$tOf 
svbsHti, smbidtwm, stand still ; tdmHo (no supine) and desisto, desist ; 
assistOf place myself beside ; eonsuio, halt, consist ; existo, come forth 
(perf. exist) ; insittOy tread upon ; ohtUto and resistor resist i ptrsutQ, 

StertOy stertuiy (no supine,) snore. 
VertOy vertiy versuniy turn. 

Adverto and converto, turn towards; mimadverto (animum oefeerftf), 
turn attention to; avertOy turn from; everto, destroy; penerto and 
itdwerto, overturn. 

Deverto, turn in to a house of entertainment ; prtxeverto, anticipate ; 
and reverto, turn back ; are used in the present, imperfect, and fiituse 
as deponents mom commonly than as actives. 

ItdOy ftsus sunty fiderty trust. 

^ am/Jdo, confide ; diffldoy distrust. 



[§ 190.] 3, YERBS m BO AND PO. 

Kegular are: 

Glubo (glupsi), gluptum (at least degluptum), gluhere^ peeL 

Ntihoy cover, am married (applied only to the female), par- 
ticiple nupta, one who is married. 

ScribOy write. 

DescrVH), copy ; cucriboy inscribo, peneriba, praeieribo, 

Carpo, pluck. 

Concerpo, and discerpo, tear asunder ; deeerpOf gather. 

JRepoy creep. 

Arr^, creep up to ; irripo, cbrepo, subrqpo, prorepo, 

ScalpOy grave with a pointed tool, or scratch with the finger. 
Sctdpo, work with the chisel. 

Exculpo, cut out ; tnsc^po, engrave. 
SerpOy creep : inserpOy proserpo, 

[§ 191.] The following are irregular : 

The compounds of cubarCy to lie, which take an m with a 
change of meaning. 

Accwhbo, 'Cvbui, 'Cubitum, recline at table ; incumbo, lean upon, apply 
to something; procumbo, lie down; tuccumbOy fidl under; oceumbo 
(suppL mortem), die. 

Biboy btbiy bibUum, drink. 

Ehibo, imbibo, 

JLambOy lambiy {lambituniy) lambere, lick. 

flumpOy rupiy ruptuniy break, tear. 

Ahrwnpo, break off; erwnpo, break out ; cormmpoy destroy ; iiifer- 
rumpo, interrupt; irrumpo, break in; perrumpo, break through; /nv- 
rtanpoy break forth. 

Scaboy scabiy scabercy scratch with the finger. 
Strepo, strepuiy strepUumy make a noise. 




vowel), before 0. 

Regular are : 

CingOf cinsci, cinctum, cingere, gird, surround. 

Aocingor, the passive (or accingo me), has the same meaning ; discingo^ 
ungird ; and others. 

Trom ^igo, which rarely occurs, are formed : 

Affiigo, strike to the ground ; conJRgo, fight ; infligo, strike upon. 
Profligo belongs to the first conjugation. 

Frlgo (supine regular, Jrictum^ rdrely frtxum\ roast, parch. 
Jungo, join. 

Adjungo and conjungo, join to, with ; disjungo and sejuiigo, separate ; 
subjungOf annex. 

Lingo, lick. (Hence ligurio or ligurrio,) 
Mungo^ blow the nose (rare) ; emungo. 
Plango, beat, lament. 
Regoy rule, guide. 

ArrtgOf arrexi, arrectUTn, and erigoy raise on high ; corrigo, amend ; 
dirigo, direct ; porrigo, stretch out. Pergo (for perrigo), perrexi, per- 
rectunif go on ; 8urgo (for surrigo), surrexi, aurrectum, rise ; and hence 
assurgo, consurgo, exurgo, iniurgo* 

Sugo, suck, eoeugo^ 
"TegOf cover. 

Cont^go and obtigo, cover up ; detego and retego, uncover ; profegOf 

Tingo, or tinguo, dip, dye. 

Ungo or unguo^ anoint. 

Perungot strengthens the meaning ; inungo, anoint. 

Stinguo , put out (has no perfect or supine, and is of rare 

Compounds : extinguo, and restinguo, 'inxu 'inctum ; so also 



Traho, draw. 

Pertrdho, strengthens the meaning: attreJu), corUraho, detrahOf ear- 
traho, protraho, retraho ; subtraho, withdraw secretly. 

VehOy carry (active) ; firequent. vecto, 'Os. 

AdtihOi carry to ; ifwekoy carry or bring in. The passiiFe of this 
verb vehoTj vectus sum, vehi, is best rendered by a neuter Yer|^ of 
motion. So ctrctcmv^Aor, travel round; praetervihoTj seal past ; invihort 
inveigh against These verbs therefore are classed among the 
deponents. , 

DicOy say. 

Addico, adjudge ; eontr€uUco, edieo, indieo ; interdico, praedieo. 

Duco, guide, lead, draw. 

Abducot addutOy circumduco ; conduco, hire : dedmco, diduco, edtuot 
iitducOf introduco, obducOf perduco, produw, reduco ; sedueOf lead aside ; 
svbduco, traduco, 

Cdqtw, coxiy coetum, dress ; concoqteOy digest 

[§ 193.] Irregular in the Supine, throwing out «, or 

assuming x. 

FingOy finxiy fictumy feign. 

ConfingOf the same ; ajffingo, falsely ascribe ; effingo, imitate ; refingo, 
iashion anew. 

Mingo (a more common form of the present is meio)y minxi, 
mictunty make water. 

PingOy pinxiy picium, paint. 

DepingOf represent by painting ; appingo, expingo, 

StHngOy strinxiy strictum, squeeze together. 

Astringot draw close ; conttringo, draw together ; deatringOy draw 
out ; distringo, draw asunder; obstringo, bind by obligation. 

Figoy Jixiy fixmm, fasten. 

Afflgo, affix ; transfigo, pierce through. 

Verbs in cto, in which t only strengthens the form of the 


FlectOy fleociy flexuMy bend. Comp. inflecto, 
NectOf next and nexuiy nexum^ bind. 

. » 


Pecto, pexiy pexum, comb. 

PlectOj without perfect and supine, usually only in the pas- 
sive, plector, am punished, smart for. Another pUcto, 
twist, is obsolete as an active, but forms the foundation 
of the deponents: amplectOTy complector; participle 
amplexitSy complexm. 

Of ango, anxi, torment ; and ningoy ninxiy snow, no supine 
is found. 

Of clangoy rmg loudly, neither perfect nor supine exists; 
according to analogy the former would be clanxi, 

[§ 194.] The following are irregular in the formation of 

the Perfect. 

cl) Taking a Reduplication, 

Parco, peperciy parsum, spare ; parsi is rare ; parcitum is 
uncertain ; but we have the compound comparsiy or com' 

PungOy pupugiy punctum, pierce. 

The compounds haTe in the perfect punxi ; as ampungOf dispungo, 
and interpungo, distinguish with points. 

TangOy tetigi, tactumy touch. 

Attingo and contingOt -tigif -tcuitum, touch ; contingitf coTitigit ; obtingii, 
ohHgit (as impersonals), it falls to the lot ; usually in a good sense. 

Pango, in the sense of strike, driv^ in, panxiy panctum ; in 
the sense of bargain, pepigi, pactum. !ul this se^se 
paciscor is employed in the present. 

The compounds have pSgi, pactum ; as &mipingo, £fisten together ; 

[§ 19^'] ^) Without changing the Characteristic Letter, 
AgOy egi, actum, agere, drive. 

C6go {coSigo), edSgi, coactum, drive together; force; perdgo, carry 
through ; abigot drive away ; adUgo^ exigo, redigo, subigo, tranngo. 

Dego, degi (rare), no supine, spend {yitam, aetatem), 

Frango; fregi, fra^tum, break. 

Omfringo and perfringo strengthen the meaning ; effiringo andr^rvivg^ 
break open. 

o 2 


LegOy legiy tectum, read. (But lego, as, send off.) 

So perUgo, praelifgOt with those changing i into t, as coUxgo, deligo, 
eligo, and seLigOy are conjugated. But diUgo, inteHigo (obsolete inteUig</)y 
asd negligo (obsolete negligo), have -eort in the perfect. 

Ico, or icio, id, ictum, strike, in connection vnthjoedits. 
Vinco, vici, victum, conquer. 

Convinco, persuade; devinco, overcome; evinco, carry a point. 

Linquo, liqui, leave (no supine), chiefly used in poetry. 

The compounds reUnqttOf derdinquot deUnguo, have lietum in tin 


[§ 1^' ] ^) Perfect si, Supine sum. 

Mergo, mersi, mersum, dip. * 

EmergOf demergOf immergo, submergo. 

Spargo, sparsi, sparsum, scatter. 

Aspergo, conspergo, and reapergo, besprinkle ; expergo, sprinkle abroad. 

Tergo, tersi, tersum, wipe; sometimes follows the second 
conjugation. (See above, § 177.) 

So also the compounds detergere, extergere, 

Vergo, vergere, incline towards, without perfect and supine. 


[§ 197.] 5. VERBS WHICH HATE L, M, Ny R, BEFORE Or 

Regular verbs in mo. 

Como, compsi, comptum, comere^ adorn. 

Demo, take away. 

Promo, bring out. Deprqmoy expromo, the same in signifi" 

Sumo, take. 

Absumo and consume, consume ; assumOf cie^ttmo. 

Temno, temnere, despise (poetical). » 

ConUmno, cantempti, contemp^unt, the same meaning. .i * ■ ' 



[§ 198.] a) Conjugated according to the Analogy of the 

Second Conjugation, 

Alo, aluiy alitum (or altum)y alere^ nourish. 

Colo, coluiy cultum, tilL 

Excdlo and percoio strengthen the meanmg ; incdlo, inhabit a country.^ 

ConsulOf consuluiy consuUum, ask advice. 
Moloy molui, molitum, grind. 

Occulo, occuluiy occultum, concealf 

I^remOy fremuiy fremituniy murmur. Adfremo, confremo. 

Gemo, gemuiy gemitum, groan. 

Congimo {congemisco), ingimo (Jngemisco), ui, no supine^ lament, 

Tremo, tremui (no supine), tremble. Contremo strengthens 
the meaning. 

VomOy vomuif vomttum^ vomit. Evomo^ revSmo^ 

Crigno, beget (from the obsolete getio\ genui, genitum, > 

Ingigno, implfint ; progigno, hr'vag forth, 

Pono, posui, posituniy place. 

AntepGnOj prefer; appono, place by; eompotuft arrange; depono, lay 
donrn ; dispono, set out, or in order ; expono, explain ; opponot oppose ; 
■ postponOf to place after ; praepono, prefer ; sepono, set on one side. Re- 
specting the short o in the perfect and supine se^ § 18. 3. 

(From the obsolete cello) — 

AnteceUo, excetto, praeceUot ui, (without supine,) surpass ; but percelh, 
perculi, percuUitm, strike down. 

[§ 199.] b) Forming the Perfect with Reduplication^ 
Cdno, ceetni, cantum, canere, sing. 

SuccinOy succinuif succentum, sing to ; so occino, sing, sound against ; 
concinOf harmonize. 

CurrOy cucurri, cursum, run. 

The compounds, twcurrOf decurrOt excurrrOy incurro, percurro, praecurro^ 
and others, sometimes retain, but more frequently drop the reduplica- 
tion in the perfect. 

o 3 


Falloy fefelli, falsum, cheat. 

Pello, pepuli, pulsum^ drive away. 

Appdbi appiUiy apptdswn, eome to land. In tbe same way are ccnw 
jugated compdb, urge, eompel ; depeUot propeUo, reptXb, drive away ; ex- 
peUo, drive out ; impdlo and perpeUot urge on. 

[§ 200.] c) Making vi in the Perfect 

Cerno, crevi, cretum, separate. In the sense of seeing, per- 
ceiving, it has neither perfect nor supine. 

Compounds : DecemOf decrevi, decrehmt, decree ; so diseemot exeemot 
secemo, separate, distinguish. 

Lino, levi (or livi\ lUuniy smear. Linio belongs to the fourth 

CoOxno, Ulino, perUno, obUno (participle oblUus, not to be confounded 
with dblltus from Mimscor)^ petHno, besmear. 

Sino, sivi, sttum, allow. 

DetinOf eksivi, and deaii, deHhan, cease. 

Spemo, spreviy spretum, despise. 

Stemo, strdvi, stratum^ stretch out on the ground. 

ConaiemOi instemo, spread out ; prostemo, throw down. 

Sero, in the sense of sowing, has seviy satum ; in that of ar- 
ranging and connecting together it has sentiy sertum. 

The compounds contiro and insero make -ti» ^'ertum, in the sense of 
joining ; -evi, -itum, in the sense of sowing. The following compounds 
are used only in the sense of joining i^—Desero, disaero, exierOf and ac- 
cordingly make only serui, iertum, 

TerOy triviy tritum, rub. 

ConterOf rub to pieces ; attiro, rub away, injure. 

[§ 201.] d) Other Irregularities. 
Velloy velliy and vulsi (but more rarely), vulsum, pluck out. 

The compounds convdh, rwdb, and diveUo, have only velli in tht 
perfect, but avello and evello have also avtdsi and evulsi, 

Psalloy psalliy psallere^ play on a stringed instrument. 

Emo, emi, emptum, buy. 

CoimOf collect by purchase ; redimo, purchase back. The significa- 
tion ** take" appears in the compounds adimo, take away; diritno, divide; 
eximo, take out; interimot take away, kill; perimo, destroy. 


Premo, pressij pressum, press. 

Comprimo, press together ; deprimo, opprimOf supprimo, press down ; 
exprimo, press out. 

,Gero, gessi, gestum, carry, transact. 

CongSrOy bring together ; digero, arrange ; ingero, introduce. 

Uro, ussiy ustuMy bum. 

Aduro, kindle; comburo, joonsumo by fire; inuro, bum in, brand; 
exuro, bum out. 

Verro, veniy versuniy sweep out. 
Qtuiero, quaestvi, quaesitum, seek. 

Acquiro, acquire ; eonqulrOf collect ; anquiro, e^tquirOf inquirop per- 
quiro, examine ; requirOf miss, require. 

{Fur6)y furere, rage (without perfect or supine); insanivi, is 
used as a perfect instead. 

fero, tuliy Idtumyferre^ is irregular in several points. See 
below, § 213. 


[§ 202.] 6. VERBS VH SO AND XO. 

Depso, depsui, depsitum and depstum^ knead. 

Pinso, pinsui a.nd pinsi, pinsitum andpistumy pound, grind. 

Viso, rnsi, visere^ visit. The supine visum belongs to videre, 
from which visere itself is derived, 

Texo, teocui, textum, weave. 

Compounds frequently with a figurative signification : attexo, add ; 
contexo, put together ; obtexo, cover ; pertexot carry out ; praetexo, ad4 
a hem ; retexq, to undo that which is woven, destroy. 

After the Analogy of the Fourth Conjugation 

Arcesso, or accersOy 'ivi, 'itufn, summon. 
CapessOy undertake. 

o 4 


Facesso, give trouble. 
IncessOy attack ; no supine. 
LacessOy provoke. 

[§ 203.] 7. Verbs in sco, either not Inchoatives, or of which 

the Simple is not found* 


CrescOy crevi, cretum, grow. 

So also con-f de-, excrescOf and without a supine : aeeresco, increscOy 
grow up, and succresco, grow ^p gradually. 

NoscOy novi, ndtum, become acquainted with. The original 
form is gnosco, and the g reappears in the compounds, if 

The perfect novi takes the signification of the present, ** I know " 
(§ 221.). The comp. agno$eoy recognise, cognosco (perf. cognovit I 
know'), and tecogjioscOf recognise, liave in the supine offnttum, cogniiumt 

Pasco, pavi, pastum, feed. 

Depasco, feed down* 

Quiesco, quievi, quietum, rest. 

Acquiesco, repose with satis&ctioa ; conquiesco, requiesco, rest. 

Suesco, suevi, suetum, mostly intransitive, grow accustomed, 
or, more rarely, accustom another* 

So also assuesco, consuescoy insuesco, generally accustom one's self; 
desuesco, disaccustom one's self. 

CompescOy compescui, (no supine,) restrain. 

DispescOf dispescuiy (no supine,) divide. 

Disco, didici, (no supine ; disdturtis in Appuleius,) learn. 

Addisco, addidici, learn in addition ; dedisco, unlearn ; edisco^ lear^ 
by heart. 

Pasco, poposci, (no supine,) demand. 

Deposco, depoposci, and reposcOf demand back; expatco, expopoid, 

Glisco, gliscere, increase. 

HiscOy hiscere, open the mouth, gape. 




[§ 204.1 The inchoatives in sco are partly formed from 
verbs (chiefly of the second conjugation), and partly fron^ 
nouns (substantives or adjectives), and are accordingly called 
inchoativa verbaUa or inchoativa nominalia, that is, verbal 
or nominal inchoatives. The first have no other perfect 
than that of the simple verb ; the others either have none, 
or form it in a similar way in m. Few of the verbal incho-* 
atives have the supine of the simple verb, 

1. Verbal Inchoatives with the Perfect of the Simple Verb^ 

Acesco (aceoy, actct, grow sour ; coacesco, peracesco, 

Albesco, and exalbesco (a!beo), exaSnti, grow white. 

Are$co (areo), ami, grow dry. 

CcUesco (caleo), ccUui, become warm. 

Canesco {caneo), canui, become grey. 

Conticesco {tcw-eo), conticui, am reduced to silence. 

ContremUco (tremo), contremuif tremble. 

Defervesco (feirveo), deferbui, gradually lose my heat. 

Dditesco (lateo), deliiuU lurk. 

Effervesco (Jerveo), efferhui, grow hot. 

Excandesco {candeo)t excandui, grow of a white heat ; figuratively, anqi 

Extimescot pertimesco (timeo), exHmui, am terrified. 
Floresco, de-, effloresco (Jhreo), efflorui, bloom. 
Haeresco, and ad-, inhaeresco (haereo), ad^, inhaen, adhere to. 
Harresco, exhorresco, perhorresco {horreo), exhorrui, am struck with horror^ 
Ingemiso) (^gemo), ingemut, groan. 
Intumesco (tumeo), intumui, swell up. 
Irraudsco (raiicio), irratisi^ become hoarse. 

LanguetcOt elartguesco, rekmgueaco {langueo), dangui, become feeble.. 
JLiquesco (liqueo), licui, melt away. 
Madesco {madeo), madui, become wet 

Mareexco (marceo), comp. eommarcescOf emarcesco, emarcuif fade. 
OccaUesco (caUeo), occalui, acquire a callous surface. 
PallescOt expcdlesco (paUeo), pcUlui, turn pale. 
Putreseo (putreo), putrui, moulder. 
Resipiaco {sapio), resipui and resipivi^ recover wisdom. 
Rube$co, erubeaco (^rvbeo), grow red, blush. 
Senesco, consenesco {seneo), conaenui, grow old. The participle seneetus, 

grown old, is little used. 
Stupesco and obstupesco (jstupeo), dbstupui, am struck. 

Q 5 

130 . lATm GRAMMAB. 

Tdbesco (tabeo), tabui, pine, waste away. 

Tepesco (tepeo), tepui, grow lukewarm. 

Viresco, comp. conviresco, evirescOt reviretco (^vireo), vinti, grow green. 

2. Verbal Inchoatives which have the Supine as well as 
Perfect of the Simple Verb, 

r AboUscoj abolevi, cAoRtum, cease, am annihilated. 
i Exolesco, exolevi, exo^tum^ grow useless by age. So also dbaoktco. 
1^ Adolesco, addevit aduUumy grow up. See § 174. Oko. 
Coaksco (alifre), coalvi, coo/ihcm, grow together. 
Conct^sco (cup^e), concuphiy conetqntum, desire. 
Convalesco {vcUSre), convalui, eonvaHUum, recover health. 
Exardesco {ardire), exarsh exarsum, am inflamed. 
Indoiesco (dolSre), indolui, Uum, feel pain. 
Inveteraaco {inveterare), inveteravi, atum, grow old. 
Obdormisco (dormire)^ ivi, itum, fail asleep ; edormitcot sleep out. 
Revivisco (vivire)^ revixit revictum, recover life. 

Scisco (scire), scivi, scXtumf resolve, decree. Hence fkbUcUumy pojndi' 

[§ 205.] 3. Inchoatives derived from Nouns, 

d) Without a Perfect. 

Aegresco (aeger)^ grow sick. 

Ditesco (dives), grow rich. 

JDuIcesco (dtdcis), grow sweet. 

Grandesco (grandis), grow large. 

Gravesco and ingravesco (gravis), grow heavy, 

Incurvesco (curvus), become crooked. 

Integrasco (integer), become renovated. 

Juvenesco (Juvenis), grow young. 

Mitesco (miiis), grow mild. 

Mollesco (mollis), grow soft. 

Pingtiesco (pinguis), grow fet. 

Plumesco (pluma), get feathers. 

Puerasco, repuerasco (puer), become a child (again). 

Sterilesco (sterilis), become barren. 

Teneresco, tenerasco (tener), become tender. 

h) With a Perfect. 

Crebresco, increbresco, and percrebresco (creber)^ cr^i, grow frequent Of 

Duresco, cbduresco (ctvrus), durui, grow hard. 
Evixnesco (vanns), evanut, disappear. 
Innotesco (notus), innotui, become known* 
Macresco (tnacer), macrui, grow lean. 


Manst^sco (mansuettis), mansuevif grow tame, 

Maturesco (inaturua)^ maturuif grow ripe. 

Nigresco (niger), nigrui, grow black. 

Obmutesco {mutus), obmutuif become dumb. 

Obsurdesco (^surdut), cbsurdui, become deaf. 

Becrudesco {crudus), rearudid, to open again (of a wound that had been 

Vilesco and eviksco (viUs), evilui, become cheap or worthless^ 

CHAP. Lm. 


[§ 206.] The desiderative verbs in urio, e. g. coenaturio, 
dormituriOf empturio, have neither perfect nor supine with 
the exception of esurio, desire to eat. 

The following verbs differ, either in the perfect or in the 
supine, or in both, from the regular form (ivi^ Itum). 

Cio, civif eitum, regular ; but see § IBQ* 

Eo, ivi, Uum, with its compounds. See Defective Verbs, 

Fa rcio, Jarsi, fartum, far^e, stuff. 

Confercio and referciotfersitfertum, fill up; effereiOf tnfercio are con- 
jugated like the simple verb. 

FulciOf fulsiy fultum, fulcirCy prop. 

Haurio, hatisi, haustum (the part. fut. however, is also hau^ 
sums), haurire, draw. 

Qi^o, quivi or quii, quttum, quire. See § 216. 

Haucio, ratisi, rausum, raucire, am hoarse (rauciis), 

Saepio, saepsi, saeptum, saepire, hedge in. 

Sdlio, saluiy saltum, salire, spring. 

The regular verb soZtre, salt, must not be confounded with saiire, 
spring. The compounds desilio, exilio, insUio, m^e the perfect in 
silui ; the supine does not occur, but it might be formed by the termi- 
nation suUum. 

Sancio^ sanxi, sancitum and sanctuTn, sancire, decree, sanc- 

G 6 


Sarcioy sarsi, sartum, sarcire, patch. 

Sentio, sensiy sensuniy sentire, feel, think. 

Consentio, agree ; dissentifff disagree ; praeseniio, perceive beforehand* 
The compound assentio is not as common as the deponent asserUior. 

SepeUoy 'ivi, sepultum^ sepelirCy bury. 

Venio, venij ventum^ venire, come. 

Advenio, arriTe ; conveniot meet ; obveniot encounter ; pervenio, readi ; 
invenio, find. 

Vincioy vinon, vinctuniy vincire, bind. 
Amicio, amicium, amicire, clothe. 

Aperio, uiy rtum^ apertre, open. 

So (^rio and cooperio, coyer. But cnmperio makes compHrit camper* 
turn, comperire (is used in the present and infinitive, also as a deponent* 
comperior, comperiri), experience, and reperio, repiri (or r^)peri)f reper* 
turn, find. 

Ferio — ferire, strike. (In the active percussi is used as a 
perfect, and in the passive ictus sum.) 

Ferocio — ferocire, am wild or insolent 



AdminictdoTt aid. Aiucinor (also cdluc, and kaSw,), 
Adverser^ oppose my8el£ dote, talk idly. 

Adulor, flatter. Amplexort embrace. 

AemtdoTf rival. AnciUor, am a handmaid. 

*Altercor, quarrel. Aprlcor, sun mysel£ 

* The words to which an asterisk is prefixed are used also as activM» 
hut better as deponents. Some deponents have been omitted in the list* 
which are either of very rare occurrence or more commboly used es eo* 
tires. ilespectiDg the latter see the note at the end. 




Aqnor, fetch crater ; frumentoTi col- 
lect corn ; lignor, collect wood ; 
materior, fell timber; pabulor, 

Arhitror, think. 

ArchitectoTj build {archUectus). 

Argumentor, prove. 

Argutor, chatter, am argvtus, 

Aspemor, despise. 

Assentory agree, flatter. 

Auctidnort sell at auction. 

^ucupor, catch birds, am auceps, 

Aversor, dislike, avoid with horror. 

Auguror {augur)t 

* A uspicor (au8pex)t 
Hariolor (hariolus)^ 
Vaticinor {votes), 
Auxilior, aid. 

Bacchor, revel as a Bacchanal. 

CalumnioTf cavil. 

CaviUor, ridicule. 

Ckiupdnor, deal, retail. 

CausoTi allege. 

Ctrculor^ form a circle around me. 

ComissoTt feast. 

ComitoTy accompany (comes, active 

only in the poets). 
Commentary reflect upon, dispute. 
Concionor, harangue. 

* ConflictoTy contend. 
ConoTy attempt. 
Consilior, advise. 
Conspicor, behold. 
Coniemplor, contemplate. 
Conrncior, revile. 
Convivor, feast (conviva). 
ComlcoTy chatter as a crow. 
Criminory accuse. 
CunctoTy delay. 
Depeculory plunder. 

Despicory despise ; despicioy but de- 
spicatus is passive, despised. 

DeversOTy lodge. 

Digladiory fight. 

Dignor, think worthy. Cicero how- 
ever sometimes uses it in a passive 
sense, "I am thought worthy.** 

DedignoTy disdain. 

DominoTy rule (dominus). 

Elucubror, produce by dint of labour. 

Epuhr, feast. 

Exicror, execrate. 
*Fabrtcor,- fashion. 
Fabtdory confabtdoTy talk. 
Famtdor, serve (^famidiui), 
FeneroTy lend at interest (the active, 

"to restore with interest," occurs 
- in Terence ; in later writers it is 

the same as the -deponent). 
FerioTy keep holiday. 
Frustroti disappoint. 
FuroVy suffuTOVy steal. 
GlorioTy boast. 
GraecoTy live in the Greek style, 

that is, luxuriously. 
GrassoTy advance, attack. 
Gratificor, comply with. 
GraUtr and gratiilory give thanks, 

present congratulations. 
( GravoTy think heavy, is the passive 

HeUnoTy gluttonise (keUuo), 
HortoTy exhort; acUiortor, exhortor, 

Hospitor, am a guest (hospe8)y lodge. 
ImaginOTy imagine. 
Imitory imitate. 

IndignoTy am indignant, spurn. 
InfiHoTy deny. 
Instdiory plot. 

Interpretor, explain, aiA an interpres, 
JactdoTy throw, dart. 
JocoTy jest. 

Laetor, rejoice (laetus), 
Lamentory lament. 
Latrocinor, rob, am a latro. 
Lenocinor (alicui)y flatter. ' 
Libidinor, am voluptuous. 
LicitoTy bid at an auction. 
LucroTy gain. 
LuctoTy strive, wrestle (obhictor and 

reluctoTy resist). 
*LudiJicort ridicule. 
MachinoTy devise. 
Medicor, heal. 
MedUoVy meditate. 
Mercory buy. 

*Meridior, repose at noon. 
MetoTy measure out. 
Minor and minitory threaten. 
Mirory wonder ; demiroTy the same ; 

admiror^ admiie. 



Miseror, commiseror, pity. 
Moderovy restrain, temper. 
Moduhr, modulate. 
Morigeror, comply, am morigenu, 
Moror, dday ; trans, and intrans. ; 

comp. eommoror, 
*Muneror, remunercr, tdiquem o/t- 

qtta re, reward. 
MviuoTt borrow. 
NegotioTf carry on business, 
Nidulor, build a nest. 
NugoTt trifle. 

Nundinor, deal in buying and selling, 
Nutrlcor, nourish. 
Odoror, smell out. 
OminoT, prophesy; abominor, abo* 

Operor, bestow labour on. 
OplnoTf think. 
Opittdor, lend help. 

• OscitoTf yawn. 
Oscular, kiss. 
OtioVf have leisure. 
*Palpor, stroke, flatter. 
Parasltor, act the parasite (parasi' 

Patroeinor, patronize. 
Percontor, inquire. 
Peregrinw, dwell as a stranger. 
Periclitor, try, in later writers, am 

in danger. 
Phihsophor, philosophize. 
*Pigneror, take a pledge, bind by a 

Pigror, am idle (piger), 
Piscor, fish. 

♦ Popular, lay waste. 
Praedor, plunder. 

Praestolor, wait for, with the dat. 

or accus. (the quantity of the o 

is uncertain, though probably 

Praevaricor, walk with crooked legs, 

act dishonestly, as apraevaricator, 

that is, as a false accuser. 
Precory pray; comprecor, invoke; 

cfeprecor, deprecate ; imprecor, im« 


Prodior, fight a battle. 

Ratiocinor, reason. 

Recordor, remember. 

RefrSgor, oppose. 

Rimor, examine minutely, 

Rixor, wrangle. 

Rusticor, live in the country, 

Scitor, and sciscitor, inquire. 

Scrvtor, perscrUtor, search. 

Sector, the frequentative of sequor, 

follow ; auector, consector, ingeetor* 
Sermoeinor, hold discourse. 
Solor, coTisdlor, comfort. 
Spatior, expatior, walk. 
SpectUor, keep a look out. 
Stipulor, make a bargain ; adstipu* 

lor, agree. 
Stomdchor, am indignant, 
Suavior, kiss. 
Sujffragor (the contrary of refiragor), 

assent to. 
Suspicor, suspect. 
Tergiversor, shuflie. 
Testor and testificor, bear witness. 
Tricar, make unreasonable diflicul- 

ties {tricas), 
Tristor, am sad. 
TVuitnor, weigh. 
Tumultuar, make uproar. 
Tutor, defend. 
Viador, summon to triaL 
Vdgor and pdhr, wander. 
Veliftcor, steer towards (figuratively* 

gain a purpose), whence it is con- 
strued with the dat., as hotwri 

VelUor, skirmish with light troops. 
Veneror, venerate. 
Venor, hunt. 

Verecundor, feel shame at doing. 
Versor (properly, the passive of 

verso')^ dwell, am occupied in; 

aversor, detest; obvertor, flool 

Vociferor, vociferate. 
Urinor, dip under water (to void 

urine is urinam facere or reddere). 




Fateor,fassti8suinyfateriy acknowledge. 

Conjiteor, confeasut sum, the same, but usually, confess a crime ; prO' 
/tteoTf profess. 

Liceor, UcUus sum, with the accus., bid at an auction. 

PoUiceor, promise. 

Medeor, without a participle, for which medicatuSy from me^ 
dicariy is commonly used. 

* MereoTy meritus sum (merui is more common), deserve. 

Commereor, demereor, promerear, have the same meaning. 
Misereor, miserUus or misertus sum, pity. 
ReoTy rdtus sum, reri, think. 
Tueor, tuitiis sum, look upon, fig. defend. 

ContueoTt intueor, look upon. 

Vereor, verities sum, fear.. 

Revereor, reverence ; subvereor, slightly fear. 



From the obsolete apiscor, aptus sum, apisci, are derived : 

Adipiscor, adepttu sum, and indipUcor, obtain. 

Expergiscor, experrectus sum, eocpergisci, awake. 

Fruor,fruUus snd fructus su7n,fruiy enjoy. (Particip.yrwt- 
PerfruoTy perfiruetus turn, strengthens the meaning. 

J^ungovy functus sum^ fungi, perform, discharge. 

DefungWj ptrfwngor, completely discharge, fiuUU* 


Gradior, gressus sum^ gradi, proceed. 

AggredioTi aggresswt sum, aggr^di, assail ; congredior, meet ; digredior, 
depart ; egredioTf go out of; ingredior, enter on ; progrediar, advance ; 
regrecUoTt return. 

Irascor, irasci, properly an inchoative, grow angry ; iratus 
sum means only, I am angry* I have been or was angrjc 
may be expressed by sticcensuu 

Labor, lapsus sum, labi, fall. 

Colldhor, sink together ; dildbor, fall in pieces ; prolabor, fall down ) 
ddabor, rdabmr. 

LoquoVy locutus sum, loqui, speak. 

AUdquor, address; colloqttor, speak with; doquor, interhquori cbUh 
quor, speak against, revile. 

(From the obsolete miniscor,) 

ComminiscoTy commentus sum, comminisdt devise, imagine; reminiscor, 
reminisci, has no perfect ; recordatus sum b used instead of it. 

MdrioTy mortuus sum, (partic. fut., moriturusy) mori^ die. 

EmorioTf commorior, demorior, 

Nanciscor, nactus sum, nancisciy obtain. 
NascoTy natus sum, nasciy am born. 

InnascoTf renascor* 

Nitor, nisus or nixus sum, nitty lean upon, strive. 

Adnttar, strive for; connitor and enltor, exert myself; obnUoTy strive 

Obliviscory oblitus sum, oblivisci, forget. 

Paciscor, pactus sum (or pepigi), make a bargain. 

Pascor, partus sum, feed ; intransitive. Properly the passive 
of pascOy paviy pastum, give food. See above, Chap. LL 

Patior, passus sumy pati, suffer. 

Ferpetiorf perpessus sum, perpSti, endure. 

(From plectOy twine,) 

Amplecior and complector, complexus sum, embrace* 

Proficiscovy profectus sumy proflcisciy travel. 

QueroTy questus sumy queriy complain. ConqueroVy lament^ 

JRingor, ringiy grin, show the teeth, whence rictus. 


Sequor, secutus sum, sequi, follow. 

Assiquor and consequor, overtake, attain ; exequor, execute ; insequor, 
follow ; obsequor, comply with ; perseqwor, pursue ; prosequor, attend ; 
sttbsequor, follow close afler. 

Vehor, vectus surn^ vehi, ride, is properly the passive of 
veho, see § 192. Comp. circumvehoTy invehoTy praeter^ 

Vescor, vesci, eat. Edi is used as the perfect. 

IJIciscor, ultus sum, ulcisci, revenge, punish. 

Utor, usus sum, uti, use. Abutor, abuse. 

Devertor, praevertor, and revertor, see under verto* They 
take their perfects from the active form : reverti, reverie- 
ram, revertissem'; the participle reversus, however, is used 
in an active sense, one who has returned. 



Assentior, assensus sum,^ assentiri, assent. (As an active, as» 
sentio, assensi, assensum, assentire, it is not so common). 

Blandior, blanditus sum, blandiri, flatter. 

Eocperior, expertussum, experiri, experience, try. 

ConiperioTf am informed, is used only in the present tense, along with 
comperio ; the perfect therefore is compifrL 

Largior, largitus sum, largiri, give money ; dilargior, dis- 
tribute money. 

Mentior, mentitus sum, mentiri, lie ; emeniior, the same. 

Metior, mensus sum^ metiri, measure. 
Dimetior, measure out ; permetior, 

Molior, molitus sum, moliri, move a mass {moles), plan. 

AmoHoTf remove from the way ; demoUoTf demolish, and others. 

Opperior, oppertus sum, (also opperitus sum,) opperirij 
wait for. 

138 LATIN 6BAM31AB. 

Ordior, orsus sum, ordiri, begin. 
ExordioTf the same. 

Orior, ortus sum, onri, (partic. oritunis,) rise. The 
present indicat. follows the third conjugation: oreris, 
oritur, ortmur. In the imperf. subjunct. both forms orerer 

' and orirer are found. 

So also the compounds co-orior and exorior ; but adorior, under- 
take, entirely follows the fourth conjugation, adoriris, adoritur^ 

Partior, partUus sum, partiri, divide (rarely active). 
Potior, potitus sum, potiri, possess myself of. 
Sortior, sortitus sum, sortiri, cast lots. 

CHAP. LVin. 


[§ 211.] The term Irregular Verbs is here applied to those 
which depart from the rule not only in the formation of 
their perfect and supine, but have something anomalous in 
their conjugation itself. They are, besides sum (treated of 
before, § 156.), possum, edo, fero, volo, nolo, malo, eOy 
queo, nequeo, fio. 

1. Possum, I am able. 

. Possum is composed of p6tis and sum ; by dropping the 
termination of potis, we obtain potsum, possum. It there- 
fore follows the conjugation of sum in its terminations, but 
the consonants t, s, and f, produce some changes, when they 
come together. 

Indicative. Subjunctive. 


Possum, pot^a, potest, possim, possls, possit. 

possHmus, potestis, possunt, posslmus, posstUis^ possint 


potiram, poteras, poterat. possem, posset, pDsset. 

poteramusy 'eratis, 'Crant. possemus, possetis, possewt. 




potSro, poterist poterit. 
poterimus, 'eritis, 'irunt. 

poiui, potuisHfpotuit, pduerim, -eris, -erit 

w w 

potuimus, 'istis, -Srunt. potuerimtts, -Uts, 'int. 


potuiram, -eras, -erat. patuisstmt -isseSf "Uset. 

pottteramus, 'eratis, 'Crant, potuissemus, -issetis, -issenf. 

Future Perfect 
potitiro, potueria, potuerit 
potuerimus, potueritis, potuerint. 



Pres. & Imp, posse, 
Perf. & Flup. potuiase. 

(Potenshas become an adjective.) 

2. EdOf I eat. 

[§212.] The verb edo, edi, esum, edere, is declined 
regularly according to the third conjugation, but here and 
there it has syncopated forms, besides its regular ones, 
similar to the corresponding tenses of suniy except that the 
quantity of the vowel in the second person singular of the 
indie, present and of the imperative makes a difference, th^ 
e in es from edo being long by nature. The tenses in which 
this resemblance occurs are seen in the following table : — 



Sing. Edof ecHs, edit, 
(or is, Sst. ) 
Plur. edimus, editis, edunt, 
{istis. ) 


PrM i* ^'"^* *^^' ^*- 
^^^' \F\\iT, edite, Sste. 

p f Sing, edito, Ssto, 
" • \ Plur. editOf Ssto, editote, estate, 


Sing, ederem, ederes, ederet, 
(or Sssem, Ssses, gsset,^ 

Plur. ederemuSf ederetis, ederenU 
(or Sssemus, issetis, essent.) 

edere or Ssse. ' 

In the Passive only editur, Sstur; 
ederetuTf Sssetur, 


In the same way the compounds abedoy ambedOy comedo^ 
exedoy axidperedo are conjugated. 

3. Fero, I bear. 

[§ 213.] Fero consists of very different parts, perfect 
tun ; supine, latum ; infinitive, ferre ; passive, ferri. But 
with the exception of the present indicat. and the imperative, 
the detail is regular. 

Active. Passive. 

Indicative. Indicative. 

Pres. Sing. Fero^ ferst fert. Pres. ^mg, ferortferri$,fertur. 

Plur. feyimus, fertiSf ferunt. Plur. fertmur, ferimini, fe- 


IHPS3ATIVS. Imperative. 

Pres. Sing./cr, Flur, ferte. Pres. Sing, ferre. Thir, ferimini, 

Fut. Sing, ferto. T\ur. ferMe, Fut. Sing, fertor. Plur. /erttnfor. 
ferto, ferunto* fertor. 

Note, The rest is regular ; imperfect, ferSbam ; future, feram, -es ; 
future passive, ferart ferSris (^ferSre)^ feretur^ &c. ; present subjunctive, 
feraniy feras j passive, ferar, feraris, feraiur; imperfect subjunctive, 
ferremj passive, /efrcr. 

The compounds of fero — affero, antefSro, circumfero, confero, deferOf 
and others, have little that is remarkable. Avfero (originally abfero) 
makes abstuli, abhtum, auferre, Suffero has no perfect or supine, for 
susttdif Bublatum^ belong to toUo ; but tustinui is pommonly used as a 
perfect of suffero. 

4. Volo, I will. 5. Noh^ I will not 6. Malo, I will rather. 

[§ 214.] Nolo is composed of ne (for non) and voh; 
maio of mage (i. e. magis) and voloy properly mav6lOy ma' 
vellem, contracted mdlo, mdllerru 



Sing. Vdh 




non vis 



non vult 


Plur. vdumus 




non vidtis 








Sing, volebamf &c. nolebanif &c. 

Flur. vold>amu8, &c. nold>amus, &c. 


Sing, volamf voles, et, nolanif noleSy et. 
Plur. volemuSf etis^ eni, nolemus, etiSf ent 

Sing, volui 

voluisti, &c. 

Sing, volueramj &Ci 

vciuerOt is, &c 

Sing. vifUm 

Flur. vdlmua 

Sing, vdlem, &c. 
Flur. veUSmus, &c. 

Sing, volueritny &c. 
Flur. voluerimus, &c. 


noluifti, &c. 

nolueram, &c. 

Future Ferfect 
noiuero, is, &c. 










ncMem, &c. 
noUSmua, &c. 

noluerim, &c. 
no/ueHmiM, &c. 


Sing. vcluUsem, &c. notuissem, &c. 
Flur. vduissemus, &c. noZuiMemtM, &c. 


— 2d Fers. no/<, noZife. 

— 2d Fers. nolltOi noHtote. 
— • Sd Fers. noUto, nolunto. 

Ties, veUe 
J?i^ voluitte. 



malebam, &c. 
malebamus, &c. 

malain, nudeSf et, 
malemu8f etis, ent. 

malttisti, &c. 

maltieram. Sec. 

maluero, is, &c. 







maUemt &c. 
maJUSmus, &c. 

maluerimf &c. 
maltterlmuSf &c. 

mcUuissem, &c. 
ma/«t8«emtM, &c. 










7. Eoy I go. 

[§ 215.] The verb eo, m, itum^ ire^ is for the most part 
formed regularly, according to the fourth conjugation ; only 
the present, and the tenses derived from it, are irregular. 
Respecting the fat. iboy see § 162. 



Sing. Eoj is, it. Sing, earn, etu, eat. 

Plur. %mu8, ittSf eunt, Plur. edmui, edtU, eant. 


Sing, tbam, ibeu, ihat. Sing, trem, ires, iret 

Plur. ibamue, ibatiSf ihanU Plur. iremu*, iretis, irent. 

Future. Impzrativx. 

Sing. Ibo, ibis, ibit. Sing. t. Sing. 2. ito, 3. ito. 

Plur. ibimuB, ibitis, ibunt Plur. ite, Plur. 2. tVo^e. 3. eunto 


Pres. ire. 
PerC ivisse or iu«. 
^ Fut. iturum {-am, -urn) eMe. 

Gerund. Supine. 

Gen. eundi. Dat euiufo, &c. ttom, tto. 

Pres. iens, euntis. Fut. itonrs, -a, -urn. 

In the passive voice it exists only as an impersonal, ttur, 
itum est (See § 229.) Some compounds, however, acquire 
a transitive meaning, and accordingly have a complete 
passive : e. g. adeo, I approach ; meo, I enter ; praetereoy I 
pass by. These and all other compounds, abeo^ coeo, exeoy 
intereo and pereo (perish), prodeo, .redeo, have usually .only 


ii in the perfect : periiy redii. VeneOy I am sold, a neutral 
passive verb, without a supine, is composed of venum. and 
eoy and is accordingly declined like ire; whereas ambio, I 
go about, is declined regularly. according to the fourth con- 

[§ 216.] 8. Queoy I can. 9. Nequeo, I cannot. 

These two verbs are both conjugated like eo: perfect, 
quiviy nequivi (nequit)\ supine, qultumy nequttum. Most 
of their forms occur ; but with the exception of the present, 
they are not very frequent in prose. Instead of nequeoy 
non queo also is used, 


Sing. QtuOj quis, quit, Nequ&), iwn quis^ non quit. 

Plur. quimus, quitUt queunt, nequbnus, nequUis, nequSuni. ^ 

Sing. Qutbamt qutbat, &c. nequibafn, neqmbat, -ant. 

Sing. Quibo, Plur. ^ttt^Kfi^ Sing. — Plur. nequibunt 


Sing. Quivi, quivit, nequivi^ nequisti, nequivit (iit), 

Plur. ■ quiverunt, _. nequiverurU or 



neqmercUf nequierant. 



Sing. QuMon, queas, queat, nequ^am, neqwat, nequeat. 

Plur. queamns, queatis, queanL nequeamus, nequeatis, nequeant^ 


Sing. Quirem, quiret, nequirem, nequireL 

Phir, ■ qmreni. ' nequiremus, nequirent 


Sing. ■ quiverit nequiverim, nequierit, neqmerinL 


Sing. ' nequUset. 

Plur. quissent. nequUsent. 

Quire, quivisse (qtdsse) nequire, nequivisse {nequhu). 

Participlx. « 

Qfdens (gen. queuntis). nequiens (gen. nequewUis). 

[§ 217.] 10. FiOy I become, or am made. 

Fio is properly an intransitive verb, the Greek ^uw, 
without a supine. But it is used also as a passive of facio, 
from which it takes the perfect /actus sum, and the latter 
then receives the meaning " I have become," along with that 
of "I have been made." The infinitive ^en has the passive 
termination. In the present, imperfect, and future, it follows 
the third conjugation ; for the i belongs to the root of the 
word, and is long, except in^^ and those forms in which an 
r occurs in the inflection. (See § 16.) 





Sing. Fio, /is, Jit. . 
Plur. fmus, Jitis, Jiunt. 

Jiamus, fiatis, fiant. 



Sing. Jiebam, as, at. 
Plur. Jiebamus, atts, ant 

Ji^rem, es, et, 
Jieremus, etis, ent. 



Sing. Jiam, fies, fiet. 

Jieri (Jactum esse, fachtm (ri). 

Plur. fiemus, Jietis, fient. 

Part. Pres. is wanting. 

The rest is supplied by the passive forms of facere : partic factutffn* 
ciendusi perf. fitctus sum, eram, eroi infinit. factum esse, factum iri. 




The term Defective Verbs is here applied to those only in 
which the defectiveness is striking, and which are found only 
in certain forms and combinations; for there is, besides, a very 
large number of defective verbs, of which certain tenses are 
not found on account of their meaning, or cannot be shown 
to have been used by the writers whose works have come 
down to us. Many of them have been noticed in the lists of 
verbs in the preceding Chapters. We shall here treat of the 
verbs ajo and inquam^ I say ; fariy to speak ; the perfects 
coepi^ meminiy novi and odi; the imperatives apagCy ave, 
salve, vale ; cedo and quaeso ; and lastly oiforem. 

1. Ajo, I say, say yes, or affirm. 


Sing. Ajot ditt dit. 
Plur. — — ajunt. 

Sing, ajebanif ajebaa, ajebat, 
Plur. ajebamu8t aJdnUia, tgebcmt* 




of^cM, ajai. 

Sing. — — dfi< (like the present). sical. 

(The imperative at is obsolete. 
The participle ajem is used only as 
an adject, instead of affirmqtivu$, ) 

All the rest is wanting or unclas- 

[§ ^19.] 2. Inqtumiy I say. 
This verb is used only between the words of a quotation^ 





Sing. Inqtuan, inquis, inquit, 
Plur. inquXmutt inqidtis^ inquiunt. 


■ inquias, inquiat. 



Sing. inqtiidMm, &c. 
Plur. inguiebamuSf &c. 


— inquies, inquiet. 






inque, inquUo, 



[§ 220.] 3. Fari^ to speak, say. 

This very irregular verb, with its compounds affariy effdriy 
profarif is, generally speaking, more used in poetry than in 
prose. The third persons of the present, fatuvy fantur^ 
the imperative fare^ and the participle fatus^ a, ww, occur 
most frequently. The ablative of the gerund, /amfo, is used 
in a passive sense even in prose, in the phrase yamfo audire, 
to know by hearsay. The first person /br, and the subjunc- 
iiYQ fer^ feris, fetur^ &c. do not occur. 

[§ 221.] 4. Coepi, 5. Memini, 
I have begun. I remember. 

6. Novi, 
I know. 

7. Odiy 

I hate. 

These four verbs are perfects of obsolete presents, which 
have gone out of use, with the exception of nosco, and coepio, 
coepere. They consequently have those tenses only, which 
are derived from the perfect. In meaning, memtnif noviy and 
odi are presents ; noviy I know, shows the transition most 
clearly, for it properly means " I have learnt to know." Hence 
the pluperfect has the meaning of an imperfect : memineram, 
I remembered; noveraniy I knew; oderam^ I hated, not "I 
had hated,'- and the future perfect has the signification of a 
simple future, e. g. odero^ I shall hate ; meminerOy I shall re- 
member. Otherwise the terminations are quite regular. . 




Memini, Novi, 



meminUii, novisti (iiotH), 



meminiU naviU 



tneminimu8, novimus. 



meministis, novistis (nostia). 



memineruni, noverunt (norunt). 


coeperttmf &o. 

memineram, &c. novtram, &c« 


oderamt &ۥ 


eoepero, &c . 

meminero, &c. novero^ 

odero, &e. 




€oeperimt &c. 

coepissemy &c. 




menUnerim, &c. * noverim, &c. 

(norim, ) 


memnisKttt, &c» novistem, &c. 



only the sing, me- * 

mento and plur. 

f}ieinmtM6. notnsae* 


oderinif 8cc, 

odissenit &a 

Perf. pass, eoeptut 
Fut act. coefturus. 


(^perosuSf exosuSt with an 
active meaning). 


[§ 222.] 8. Apagcy 
be gone. 

9. Av€^ 

10. Salve, 11, VaU, 
haiL farewelL 

Nate, Ap&ge b the Greek imperative &iray€ of ^T^fytt, and is therefore 
joined with the accus. : apage Utaa torores I away with them 1 apage te, 
get thyself ofi^ or, with the omission of the pronoun, apagtt begone 1 ScU' 
veo, which rarely occurs, may be regarded as the present of salve. Vole 
and ave are regular imperatives of valeot I am well, and aveo, I desire ; 
and they are mentioned here only on account of their change of meaning. 

The plural is, tw&e, wlvitey vall^j the imperat fut. avSto, salv&o, 
valeto. The future is salvebis, wiUbi*, and the infinitives avere, itdvere, 

[§ 223.] 12. Cedo^ give, telL 

This word is used as an imperative in familiar lanffnage, 
for da and diCf both with and without an accusative. A. plu- 
ral cette for cedite occurs in old Latin. (The complete verb 
cedOf yield, has a long e,) 

H 2 


[§ 224.] 13. Quaeso, I beseech. 

Quaeso is originallj the same as quaero, but in good prose 
it id generally inserted in another sentence. Besides this first 
person singular, we find only the first person plural qtuiesu-' 

14. Forem, I should be. 

This imperfect subjunctive, which is otherwise conjugated 
regularly, has arisen from fuerem of the obsolete verb /uo, 
and belongs to sum. It is equivalent to essem ; the singular 
exists complete, but of the plural we have only forent, Iti 
infinit. fore is equivalent to futurum {am^ umy as, of, a) 



|]§ 225.] 1 . The term Impersonal Verbs strictly applies only 
to those of which no other but the third person singular is 
used, and which do not admit a personal subject (I, thou, he), 
the subject being a proposition, an infinitive, or a neuter noun 
understood. (See § 441. &c.) Verbs of this kind are : 

Miseret (me), I pity, perfect misertum or miserttum est, 
Piget {me), I regret, piguit or pigitum est 
Poenitet (me), I repent, poenituit, fut. poenitebit, 
Pudet (me), I am ashamed, ptiduit or puditum est 
Taedet (me), I am disgusted with (taeduit very rare), per^ 
taesum est 

Oportet, it is necessary, oportuit, fut oporfebit, * 

[§ 226.] 2. Besides these impersonals, there are some 
others, which likewise have no personal subject, but yet are 
4ised in the third person plural, and may have a nominative 
(at least a neuter pronoun) as their subject. Such v^s are: 

Libet (mihi), I like, choose ; perf. libuit or libitum est 
JLicet (mihi), I am permitted ; perf. licuit or licitum est 


Decet (me\ it becomes me, and dedecet, it does not become 
me ; perf. decuit, dedecuit 

Liquet, it is obvious ; perf. licuU, 

[§ 227.] 3. There is- also a considerable number of verbs 
which are used impersonally in the third person, while their 
other persons occur with more or less difference in meaning. 
To these belong : interest and refert in the sense of " it is of 
importance to," with which no nominative can be used as a 
subject ; further, acddit^Jity evenit, and contingit, it happens; 
accedity it is added to, or in addition to ; attinet and pertinet 
(ad aliqttid), it concerns ; condiLcit, it is conducive ; convenity 
it suits ; constaty it is known or established ; expedite it is 
expedient ; delectat and juvctty it delights, pleases ; faUity 
fugity and praeterit mcy it escapes me, I do not know ; placety 
it pleases ; perf. placuit and placitum est ; praestaty it is 
better ; restaty it remains ; vacaty it is wanting ; esty in the 
sense of licety it is permitted or possible, e. g. est vidercy non 
est dicere verum, 

[§ 228.] 4. The verbs which denote the changes of the 
weather: pluit, it rains ; ningity it snows ; grandinaty it hails; 
lapidat (perf. also lapidatum est)y stones fall from heaven ; 
fuXguraJt and fulminaty it lightens (with this difference, that 
fulminat is used of a flash of lightning which strikes an ob- 
ject) ; tonaty it thunders ; lucesdt and illucescity it dawns ; 
vesperascity the evening approaches ; — in all these cases the 
subject understood is supposed to be deics or coeluniy which 
are in fact often added as their subjects. 

[§ 229.] 5. The third person singular passive of a great 
many words, especially of those denoting movement or say- 
ing, is or may be used impersonally, even when the verb is 
neuter, and has no personal passive, e. g. currituvy they or 
people run ; itur^ ventum esty clamatuTy fietuvy scribitury 
bibituvy &c. 

[§ 230.] 6. All these impersonal verbs, as such, have no 
imperative, the place of which is supplied by the present 
subjunctive, e. g. ptideat te, be ashamed of! The participles 
also (together with the forms derived from them, the gerund 
and the infinitive future) are wanting, with a few exceptions^ 
fiuch as libensy pudendus. 

H 3 




[§ 281.] The formation of new words from others pre- 
viously existing takes place either hj DerivatioTiy that is, 
the addition of certain terminations; or by Composition. 
In regard to derivation, we have to distinguish primitive 
and derivative words ; and, with regard to composition, 
simple and compound words. We shall first treat of 

Note. We have hitherto treated of the changes which one particular 
form of nouns and verbs, which was supposed to be known (the nomina- 
tive in nouns, and the infinitive in verbs), may undergo in forming cases 
and numbers, persons, tenses, moods, &c. But the origin of that fom^ 
itself, which is taken as the basb in inflection, is explained in a special 
branch of the study of language which is called Etymology, Its object is, 
to trace all the words of the language to their roots, and therefore leadd 
us from the Latin to the Greek language, since both are nearly allied, 
and since the Greek was developed at an earlier period thaa the Latin. 
We cannot, however, here enter into these investigations, and must con^ 
tent ourselves with ascertaining, within the Latin language itself the ' 
most prominent rules in the formation of new words from other more' 
simple ones ; a knowledge of these rules is usefril to the beginner, sine^ 
it facilitates his acquiring the language. We shall confine ourselves 
to nouns (substantive and adjective) and verbs, for the derivation and; 
composition of pronouns and numerals have been discussed in a former 
part of this work ; with regard to the (unchangeable) particles, on the. 
other hand, etymology is necessary, as it supplies the place of inflection. 

I. Verbs. 

Verbs are derived either from other verbs or from nouns. 

A. With regard to the former, we distinguish four classes 
of verbs : 1. Frequentatives ; 2. Desideratives ; S. Diminu- 
tives; and 4. Inchoatives, 

1. Frequentatives follow the first conjugation, and denote* 
the frequent repetition or an increase of the action, ex- 
pressed by the primitive verb. They are derived from the' 
supine by changing the regular dtuniy in the first conju- 
gation into Uoy (tare; other verbs remain unchanged, the 
termination of the supine, um^ alone being changed into o, 


are. Of the former kind are, e. g., clamo, clamito ; impero, 
imperito; rogitOy voUto; of the latter, domOy domitumy do'- 
mito ; adjuvoy adjutumy adjuto ; and from verbs of the third 
conjugation, curro, cursurOy curso ; canOy cantuniy canto; 
dicOy dictuMy dicto ; noscOy notuniy noto ; and so also acceptOy 
pulsoy defensoy gestOy qtuissoy tracto. Some of these latter 
frequentatives, derived from verbs of the third conjugation, 
serve again as primitives from which new frequentatives are 
formed, as cursitOy dictUoy defensito. 

Some few frequentatives with the termination itOy itarey 
are not derived from the supine, but from the present of the 
primitive verb : a^itOy noscitOy quaerito. Some frequenta- 
tives have the deponential form, as amplexor from amplectoTy 
minitor from minor y tutor from tueory scitor and sciscitor from 

£§ 232.] 2. Desideratives end in iirioy urire ; they fol* 
low the fourth conjugation, and express a desire of that 
which is implied in the primitive. They are formed from 
the supine of the latter, e. g. esuriOy esuriSy I want to eat, 
from edoy esum ; so also dicturio from dtctum, empturio from 

r§ 233.] 3. Diminutives have the termination ilhy illarey 
which is added to the stem of the primitive verb, without 
any further change, and they describe the action expressed 
as something trifling or insignificant ; e. g. cantillare from 
cantare, to sing in an under voice, or sing with a shaking ; 
eonsoribillarey scribble ; sorhillare from sorberey sip. The 
number of these verbs is not great. 

[§ 234.] 4. Inchoatives have the termination scoy and 
follow the third conjugation. They express the beginning 
of the act or condition denoted by the primitive ; e. g. caleo, 
I am warm, calescoy I am getting or becoming warm ; areo, 
I am dry, arescOy I begin to be dry ; langiteOy I am languid, 
languescoy I am becoming languid. It frequently happens 
that a preposition is prefixed to an inchoative, as in timeoy 
pertimesco ; taceoy conticesco. The vowel preceding the ter- 
mination scOy scerCy is either a (asco), e {esco)y or i (isco), 
according as the inchoative is derived from a primitive of the 
first, second, or third and fourth conjugation (in the last twQ 
cases it is t) ; e. g. 

lahasco from labare, totter. 
pallesco from pallerCy be pale^ 

H 4 



ingemisco from gemere^ sigh. 
obdormisco from dormirey sleep. 

Many inchoatives, however, are not derived from verbs; 
jbut from substantives and adjectives ; e. g. 

puerascOf I become childish, from puer. 
maturesco, I become ripe, from maturus^ a, unu 

All inchoatives take their perfect and the tenses derived 
from it, from the primitive verb, and where no primitive 
verb exists, from a supposed form of it. (See Chap. LII., 
the list of the most important inchoatives.) It must, how- 
ever, be observed, that not all verbs ending in sco are incho- 
atives. See § 203. 

[§ 236.] B. In regard to the derivation of verbs from 
nouns, the language in general follows the principle of giving 
the termination of the second conjugation to verbs of an in* 
transitive signification, and that of the first to such as have 
a transitive signification. Thus we have, e. g. 

ia) flostflorisi Jlorere, bloom. 

frons, frondis, frondere, havefo« 

vis, virea, virere, be strong. 

lux, Ittcis, lucere, shine* 
b) numerut, numerate, count. 

siffntan, signare, mark. 

frata, fraudUifraudare, deceive. 

nomen, nominis, nominare, name. 

vulnut,, vulneris, vtdnerare, wouncL 

arma, armare, arm. 

and from adjectives, 
albus, albere, be white. 
eahnu, cohere, be bald. 
flaoua, flavere, be yellow. 
hehes, hebere, be blunt or duU. 
aUnu, aJbare, whitewash. 
aptus, aptare, fit. 
W}er, a, urn, Hberare, liberate. 
celeber, brie, bre, celebrare, makfi 

frequent, or celebrate. 
memor, memorare, mention* 
communis, communieare, com!* 

Both* kinds are found compounded with prepositions ; e. g. 
Laqueus, iUaqueare, entwine ; acervus, coacervare, accumulate \ sHrptf 
extirpare, extirpate ; cavus, excavare, hollow out. 

The observation of § 147. must be repeated here, that 
many deponents of the first conjugation (in ara) are derived 
from substantives for the purpose of expressing " to be that 
which the substantive indicates ;" e. g. among the first verbs 
in the list there given, we find ttemulari, ancillary architec' 
tart, aucupari, atigurari; and in like manner : cameSy comi" 
tisy comitari; dominuSy dominari ; fur, furaru 


n. Substantives. 
[§ 236,] Substantives are derived — 

A. From Verbs. 

1. Bj the termination or, appended in place of the um of 
the supine in transitive verbs, to denote a man performing 
the action implied in the verb ; e. g. 

amator^ monitor^ lectovy auditory 

adulator^ fautor^ condttor, conditory 

adjutoTy censoTy petitory largitory 

and a great many others. Those which end in tor form 
feminines in trix, &sjautrixy adjutrix, victrix. In regard to 
the masculines in sor^ the formation of feminines is more 
difficult, but tonsor makes tonstrix; defensory defenstrix; 
and expulsor makes expultrix, 

.. Some few substantives ending in tor are formed also from 
nouns; as aleatory gambler, from alea ; janitory from jamm; 
viator from via, 

2. The same termination or, when added to the imaltered 
stem of a word, especially of intransitive verbs, expresses 
the action or condition denoted bv the verb substantively ; 
e. g. paverey pavor, fear ; furerey furory fury ; niterey nitory 
shine or gloss. So also, e. g. 

clamory albor, horrory favoTy ardor, 

amory ruhory ti?nor, maerojy splendor* 

[§ ^'^7*] ^' ^y^o terminations, viz. io, gen. ionisy and usy 
gen. uSy when added to the supine after llirowing off the um, 
express the action or condition denoted by the verb abstract" 
edly. Both terminations are frequently met with in sub- 
stantives derived from the same verb, without any material 
difference, as concursio and concursuSy consensu) and con^ 
sensus; so also contemptio and contemptuSy digressio and 
digressuSy motio and motuSy and others. 

In this manner are formed from actives and deponents^i 
fbr example, 

a) accuhitio. motio, lectio* auditio, 
ciinctatio, cautio, ultio, sortitio, 
acclamatio, admonitio, actio* largitio* 

b) metus, fietus, cantus, ambitus* 
sonitus. visus, congressus* ortus. 

Note, A third tennination producing pretty nearly the same meaning 
SB ^ra ; as in pi^turoy painting ; cunjectura, conjecture \ cudura^ ^\^* 

H 5 

l54 lATIN GftAMMAtt. 

tivation. Sometimes it exists along with the other two, a& In potifio, 
positus, positura ; censio, census, censum. Usually, however, one of tb^m 
is preferred, in practice, with a special meaning. Thus we have merrflrfM, 
the market, and tnercatura, commerce. 

[§ 238.] 4. The termination meny or more frequently 
mentum, denotes the means of attaining what the verb 
expresses ; e. g. solamen, a means of consolation ; nomen 
(from novimen\ a means of recognising, that is, a name; 
tegumentum, velamentum, adjumentum £rom adjuoare^ a 
means of relief, condimentum from condire^ condiment^ 
i. e. a means of seasoning ; documentuniy a document, 2^ 
means of showing or proving a thing. Similar words are : 

aUevamentum. monumentum. addUamentum. experimentum, 
vmamentum, fonientum, alimentum. blandimentum. 

Some substantives of this kind are derived from nouns; 
thus from ater, black, we have atramentum. The connect- 
ing vowel a before mentum, however, may show that a link 
was conceived to exist between the primitive ater and the 
derivative atramentum, such, perhaps, as a verb atrare, 
blacken. In like manner we have calceamentum, a covering 
for the feet ; captllamentum, a head-dress, wig. 

[§ 239.] 5. The terminations hulum and culum (or ulum, 
when c or g precedes) denote an instrument or a place 
serving a certain purpose.; e. g. venabulum, a hunter's spear ; 
vehiculum, a vehicle ; jaculumy a javelin ; cingulum^ a 
girdle ; stabulum, a stable. So also, 

umbraculum, cubiculum, ferctdum, vinculum* 

The termination culum is sometimes contracted into clum, 
as in vinclum ; and clum is changed into cmm^ and bulum 
into brum, when there is already an / in the stem of the 
word ; e. g. fulcrum^ support ; lavacrum, bath ; sepulcrum, 
sepulchre ; fiagrum, scourge ; ventilabrum, A similar mean- 
ing belongs to trum in aratrum, plough ; cktusirum, lock ; 
rostrum, beak. Some words of this class are derived from 
substantives, as iuribulum, censer (tus, turis); acetabulum; 
vinegar cruet. 

6. Other and less productive terminations are a and o, 
which, when appended to the stem of the word, denote the 
subject of the action : conviva, guest ; advenOy stranger ; 
scriba, scribe ; erro^ vagrant ; bUfo^ drunkard. By means 
of the termination to words are derived from substantives, 
denoting a trade to whick a person belongs, as pellio, furriery 


'ium expresses the effect of the verb and the place of the 
action; e. g. gaudium, joj; odium, hatred; aedificiuni^ 
building, edifice ; re* and confugium, place of refuge ; comi^ 
Hum, place of assembly. 

-i^o expresses a state or condition, and mostly a diseased 
one : vertigo, giddiness ; prurigo^ itch ; and others. 

[§ 240.] B. From other Substantives. 

1. Diminutives, or voQahula demtnutOy are mostly formed 
by the terminations uHSls, ula, ilium, or ciilus, a, um, ac- 
cording to the gender of the primitive word : ultis, a, um, 
is appended to the stem after the removal of the termination 
of the oblique cases, e. g. virga, virgula ; puer, puerulus ; 
rex {regis), regulus. So also, 

portula. nummulus, rapulum, facula, 

litterula, horiidus. oppidulum, adolescentulus. 

Instead of ulus^ a, um, we find olus, a, um, when the termi- 
nation of the primitive substantive, us, a, um, is preceded 
by a vowel, e. g. 

JUiolus, ghriola* ingeniolum, 

alveolus, lineola, horreolum. 

The termination ciiltis, a, um, is sometimes appended to the 
nominative, without any change, viz. in words ending in / 
and r, and in those ending in os and us of the third declen- 
sion, which take an r in the genitive ; e. g. 

corculum. Jraterculus, Jiosculus, munusculum, 
' tuberculum, sororcula, osculum, corpusculum. 

And so also animalculum, uxorcula, laterculus. Sometimes 
the s of the nominative terminations is and es is dropped, 
as in 

igniculus, aedicula* nubecula, diecula, 

pisciculus, pellicula. vulpecula, plebecula. 

In words of other terminations of the third declension, and 
in those of the fourth, i steps in as a connecting vowel 
between the stem of the word and the diminutive termi- 
nation cuius, cula, culum ; e. g. 

ponticulus, denticulus, versiculus, anicula. 
particular ossiculum, articulus, comiculum, 
coticula reticulum, sensiculus, geniculum, 

a 6 


The termination ellus, a, uniy occurs only in those words 
of the first and second declensions which have ly x, or r, in 
their terminaticms* Thus oculus makes ocellus; Uzbuia, 
tabella ; etsinusy aselhis; liber ^ Ubellus; libra, libeUa^ 
lucrum^ lucellum. So also popellu$, fabella, lameUoy piUella, 
agellusj ctUtellus, AcMlum, fiagelluMiy labeUumy sacelluw^ 
The termination illusj a, um, occurs more rarely, as in Inicil- 
lunij sigillum, tiffiUum; codicillus, lapilltis, anguiUa* The 
termination unculus, a, um, is appended chiefly to words in 
o, gen. onis or inis ; as, 

sermunculus. raHuncuku homunculuSm 

pugiunculus. quaestiuncula. virguncula. 

[§ 241.] .2. The termination ium appended to the radical 
syllable of the primitive expresses either an assemblage of 
things or persons, or their relation to one another ; e* g. 
collegay collegium, an assembly of men who are coUegae 
(colleagues) of one another ; so conmvium, repast, or 
assembly of convivae ; servitium, the domestics, also servi- 
tude ; sacerdotium, the office of priest ; minister, minis- 
terium, service. When this termination is appended to 
verbal substantives in or, it'denotes the place of the action, 
as in repositorium, repository ; conditorium, a place where 
a thing is kept, tomb; auditorium, a place where people 
assemble for the purpose of listening to a person. 

[§ 242.] 3, -arium denotes a receptacle ; e. g. granarium^ 
a granary or place where grain is kept ; armarium (armia\ 
a cupboard ; armamentarium, arsenal, or place where the 
armamenta are kept. So also plantarium and seminarium, 
columbarium, tabiUarium, 

[§ 343.] 4. 'Stum appended to the names of plants denotes 
the place where they grow in great number ; e. g. quercutx 
guercetum, a plantation of oaks ; so also vinetum, lauretum, 
esculetum, dumetum, myrtetum, olivetum; and with some 
change, salictum (from salix), pasture, instead of ^aUcetum, 
virguUum instead of virguletum, arbustum from arbos (for 
arbor), instead of arboretum, 

[§ 244.^ 5. 'lie appended to names of animals indicates 
the place m which they are kept ; e. g. bubile or bovile, statt 
of oxen ; equile, stable (of horses) ; so also caprile, hoedik, 
ovile. All these words are properly neuters of adjectives, 
but their other genders are not used. 

2*^245.] 6. With regard to patronymics, or names of 


descent, 'which the Latin poets have adopted from the 
poetical language of the Greeks, the student must be referred 
to the Greek grammtur. The most common termination is 
^uies, as Priamusj Priamldes; Cecrops, Cecropides; names 
in ems and cles make ides ; e. g. AtrideSy PeUdes, HercicUdae* 
l^ames in €M of the first declension make their patronymics 
in &des; as AevieaSy Aeneades, The termination iades 
should properly occur only in names ending in ius, such as 
TkestiuSf Thestiades ; but it is used also in other names, 
according to the requirements of the particular verse; as 
LaerteSy Laertiades; Ailas^ Atlantiades; Telamon, Tela' 

The feminine patronymics are derived from the mascur 
lines by tdes being changed into is, ides into m, and iades 
into ias; e. g. Tantalides, TarUalis; Nereus, Nereis; 
ThestiuSy ThesHas. ' Aeneades (from Aeneas) alone makes 
the feminine Aeneis, because the regular feminine, Aeneas, 
would be the same as the primitive. 


[§ 246.] C, From Adjectives. 

- 1. The termination ttas is the most common in forming 
substantives denoting the quality expressed by the adjective 
as an abstract notion, and is eqmvalent to the English 
itt/. The adjective itself in appending itas undergoes the 
same changes as in its oblique cases. Thus from atrox, 
atroci, we obtain atrocitas ; from cupidus, cnpidi, cupiditas, 
-So also cavax, capacitas; celer, celeritas; crudelis, crttde' 
Htas ; facilis, facilitas; clarus, claritas; verus, Veritas. 
Lihertas and paupertas are formed without the i, sxidfaeultas 
and difficultas with a change of the vowel, as in the adverb 

' The adjectives in itis make their substantives in ietas ; 
e. g. anxietas, pietas, varietas; those in stus make them in 
stas : honestas, venustas, vetustas. 

2. Another very common termination is ia, but it occurs 
only in substantives derived from adjectives of one termi- 
nation, ia being added to the crude form of the oblique cases. 
'From audax, we have atidacia, and from concors, concordia. 
So also clemens, dementia; constans, constantia; impudentioy 
elegantia, appetentia. Some adjectives in us and er, how- 
ever, likewise form their substantives in ia; e. g* miser^ 
miseria; angustta, angustia; perfidtis, perfidia^ 


[§ 247.] 3. There are numerous substantives in which 
tudo is appended to the case of the adjective ending in t; 
e. g. aegritudoy altittich, mtzgnitudo; and in polysyllables 
in tu8y tudo directly grows out of this termination, as in 
cansuetudOy mansitetudo^ inquiettidoy soUicitudo. Some of 
these substantives exist along with other forms, as becUitudo^ 
claritudOf Jirmitudo, lenitudo, and sanctitudo^ along with 
heatitas, claritas, JirmitaSy &c. Valetudo stands alone. 

4. Substantives in itia^ from adjectives in uSj are of more 
rare occurrence, as justitia from Justus. So €ivaritiay 
laetitia, maestitiaf pudicitia ; but also tristitia from tristis, 

5. The termination edo occurs only in a few substantives; 
as albedo^ dulcedo^ pinguedo, 

in. Adjectives. 
Adjectives are derived — 

A. From Verbs. 

[§ 248.] 1. With the termination bundus, chiefly firom 
verbs of the first conjugation, e. g. errabundus from errare^ 
grattdabundus from gratulari^ populabundus from populari. 
Their signification is, in generd, that of a participle present^ 
with the meaning strengthened, a circumstance which we 
must express in English by the addition of other words; 
e. g. haesitabundus, full of hesitation ; deliberabunduSy full 
of deliberation ; mirabundus, full of admiration ; venerabun^ 
duSy fuU of veneration ; lacrimabundtis, weeping profusely. 
There are but few adjectives of this kind derived from verbs 
of the third conjugation : fremebundus^ gemebundus, furi' 
bundusy Ifidibundtis, moribunduSy nitibundus. There is 
only one from a verb of the second conjugation, viz. pudi* 
bundus ; and likewise one only from a verb of the fourth, 

Some verbal adjectives in cundus are of a similar kind : 
facundiiSy eloquent ; iracundus^ irascible ; verecundus^ full 
of bashfulness ; rubicundus^ the same as rubens, reddish. 

[§ 249.] 2. The ending tdus, chiefly in adjectives formed 
from intransitive verbs, simply denotes the quality expressed 
by the verb : 

caliduSf from calere, rubidus, from rubere, 

algidusy from algere. turgidtM, from turgere^ 

madidus, from madere. rapidtts, from rapertm 


' 3. The terminations His and bilis denote the possibility of 
a thing in a passive sense ; e. g. amahilisy easy to love, hence 
amiable ; placahilis^ easy to be conciliated ; delebilis, easy to 
be destroyed ; vincibilis, easy to be conquered ; facilis, easy 
to do; docilts, docile ^fragilis^ fragile. Some of these adjec- 
tives, however, have an active meaning : horrUnlis, produ- 
cing horror, horrible; terribUis, terrible, that is, producing 
terror 'y/erttlis, fertile. 

4. -ax appended to the stem of the verb expre^es a pro« 
pensity, and generally a faulty one : 

edctx and vorax. * audctx, 

loquax, rapax* 

[§ 250.] B. From Substantives, viz. 

a) From Appellatives : 

1. The ending etis denotes the material, and sometimes* 
similarity, e. g. 

ferreus, li^neus, plumbeus, virginetis, 

aureus, citreus, cinereus, ignetcs, 

argenteus, baxeus, corporeus, vitreus. 

2. 'icus expresses belonging or relating to a thing ; e. g« 
elassictis from elassis ; civtcus^ relating to a citizen ; domini- 
cus, belonging to a master ; bellicus, relating to war, &c. 

3. The termination tits has the same meaning, but assumes 
also a moral signification, e. g. civilis and hosiilis, the same 
as civicus and hosHcus, but also answering to our civil and 
hostile. So serviliSy senilis, anilis, juvenilis, ptierilis, virilis. 

4. The endings aceus and icius sometimes express a ma- 
terial and sometimes the origin, e. g. chartaceus, papyraceus, 
patricius, tribunidus. 

[§ 251.] 5. The termination alts (in English al) is ap-. 
pended not only to words in a, but also to substantives of 
other terminations, in which case, however, the termination is 
appended to the crude form of the oblique cases ; e. g. ancora, 
eonviva, letum — ancoralis, canvivalis, Utalis ; but from rex, 
regis, we have regalis ; virgo, virginalis ; sacerdos, sacerdo- 
talis ; caput, capitalis. So also auguralis, comitialis, anna*: 
lis, JluviaUs, tnortalis, and others. 

The ending oris is somewhat more seldom^ axvd y^"^*^* 


pally occurs in such words as Contain an / ; such as, artict^ 
laris, consularis, popularis, puellaris, vulgaris, ApoUinaris* 

The termination atilis denotes fitness for the thing ex- 
pressed by the root ; as, aquatilis, Jiuviatilis, volatilis, 

6. The termination ius occurs most frequently in deriva- 
tives from personal nouns in or ; e. g. accusatorius, amatof' 
iuSy aleatontis, censoritiSy imperatoriusy praetorius* It 
occurs more rarely in substantives of other terminations, 
though we have regitiSy patrius, aquUonius, 

[§ 252.] 7. 'inus is found especially in derivatives from 
names of animals (e^ecially to denote their flesh), e. g. 

asinint^, Jerinus, haedinus, anserinus, 
caninus. equinus, caballinus, anatinus. 

camelimis. taurirvus, artetinus. viperintie. 

And in a few derived from names of other living beings, e. g. 
divinus, masctdinus, marinus. 

The termination inus, on the other hand, occurs chiefly in 
derivatives from names of plants and minerals, to denote the 
material of which a thing is made ; e. g. cedrtnus^ fagimu^ 
adamanttnusy crystallintis. See § 20. 

8. The termination arius expresses a general relation to 
the noun from which the adjective is formed, but more par* 
ticularly the occupation or profession of a person ; e. g. 

coriarius, carhonarius. scapharius, ostiarius* 
statuarius, aerarius, navictdarius. consiUariui. 

sicarius, argentarius. codicarius, classiarius. 

9. The ending osus denotes fulness or abundance ; as ii^ 

aerumnostis. aquosus, bellicosus, 

animosus. lapidosus* ccdiginosus, 

artificiostis, vinosus. tenebricosus^ 

<icttu)su8. portuosus. salhiosus, 

10. The termination lentus denotes plenty, and is com^ 
monly preceded by the vowel m, and sometimes by 6 : 

Jrattdulenttis, vinolentus, pulvertdentus, 
turbulentus, opulentus, violentus. 

11. Less productive and significant terminations are: 
"Onus which denotes belonging to a thing : urbanus, mom' 
tanttSy humanus ; — Ivus generally denotes the manner oi 
nature of a thing : furtimis, votivus, aestivus ; -^ emus de- 

notes origia : /ratemus^ maternusy paternus^ infemus, eX' 


terntiS, The same termination and umus occnr in adjectives 
denoting time : vemtts, hihernus^ hestemus^ diumus^ nactur' 
nus ; — Uvmus occurs in finitirmLs, tegitimus, maritimus, 

[§ 253.] 12. A very extensive class of derivative adjec- 
tives end in atus, like participles perfect passive of the first 
conjugation, hut thej are derived at once from suhstantives, 
without its being possible to show the existence of an inter- 
mediate verb. Thus we have, e. g., aurum and auratus^ 
gilt ; but a verb aurare does not occur, and its existence is 
assumed only for the sake of derivation. Some adjectives of 
this kind are formed from substantives in is and end in ItuSy 
as aurlttts^ provided with ears ; pellittis, covered with a skin; 
turritus, having towers. Some few are formed by the end- 
ing utus from substantives in us, gen. us ; as comutus^ astu* 
tus. Those in atus are very numerous, e. g., 

barbatus, calceatus, aeratus, 

togatus, clipeatus, dentatus, 

galeatus. oculatus. falcatus, 

[§ 254.] b) From Proper Names. 

We may here distinguish four classes : — 1. names of men, 
2. of towns, 3. of nations, 4. of countries. 

1. The termination ianus is the most common in forming 
adjectives from Roman names of men, as TuUktnuSy Sev'^ 
vilianuSf Crassianus, Marcellianus, PauUanus, Caesarianus^ 
Catonianus, Ciceronianus : anus occurs less frequently ; as 
CinnanuSy Gracchanus, SuUanus. The termination inus is 
found chiefly in derivatives from names of families, e. g. 
Messalinusy PauHnus, Biifinus, The termination eus, as in 
CaesareuSy Herculeus, is used only by poets. 

There are two terminations for forming adjectives from 
Greek names of men, eus or !«« (in Greek uoq) and tew*, 
as Jlomericus, Platonicus, Socraticus^ AchiUeuSy UpicureuSy 

[§ 255.] 2. From names of places, and chiefly from those 
of towns, adjectives are derived ending in ensiSy inus, as and 

a) -ensisy also from some common or appellative nouns, 
e* g. castrensis from castra ; circensis from circus ; and from 
names of towns : CannaCy Cannensis; CatinOy Catinensis ; 
Arindnum, Ariminensis; Comuniy Comensis; Mediolanumy 
Mediolanensis ; Sulmo, Sulmonensis ; from (Greek) towns 
in ia (ea) : AntiochensiSy Nicomedensis^ 


/3) -inus from names in ia and ium ; e. g. Ameriay Ameri" 
nils; Aricia, Aricirms; Fhrentiay Fhrentinus; Caudium^ 
Caudinus ; Clusium^ Clusinus ; Canusium, Camisinus, An4 
so also from Latium, LatinuSy and from Capitoliumy Capi* 

y) -as (for all genders) is used less extensively, and forms 
adjectives only from names of towns in «wi, though not 
from all. It occurs in Arpinum, Arpinas ; Aquinum^ Aqm- 
nas ; Privemumy Privemds ; Cctsilinum, CasilincLS (along 
with Casilinensis), But Ravenna also makes Ravennasi 
Capena, Capenas ; Ardea, Ardeas, 

S) -amis from some appellative nouns, as montamts, fon" 
tanus, urbanus (from mons^fonSy urbs^) and from names of 
towns in a and ae; e. g. Roma^ Romanus ; Alba, Alhanus; 
Sparta, Spartanus ; Cumae, Cumanus; St/racusae, Syra^, 
cusanus ; Thebae, Thebanus ; also from some in um and t ; 
TiisculuiUy Tusculanus; Fundi, Fundanus, 

' [§ ^^'] ' ^feek adjectives, howeTer, formed from names of towns, or 
such as were introduced into Latin through the literature of the Gre^la, 
follow different rules which must be learned from a Greek grammar. 
We will here only remark that the most frequent ending is ius ; e. g. - 
Aegypitts, AegypHua ; Lesbos, Leshius ; RhoduSf Bhodius ; Gorin/Atu^ 
Corinthius ; Ephesus^ Ephesius ; CAttM, Chlus (instead of Chiitui) ; Laee^ 
daemon, Lacedaemonius ; Marathon, Marathoniusi Salamis, SakmUniitsi 
Eretria, Eretrius, Names in a take the termination aettg, as Smymot 
Smymaeug; Tegea, Tegeaeus; Larisstt, Larissaeus ; Perga, Perffotus^ 
In the case of towns not in Greece, even when they are of Greek origu\ 
we most frequendy find the termination Inus : Tarentum, Tarentinus ; 
Agrigentum, Agrigentiniu ; Centuripae, Centuripinus ; Metcytontumf Meta- 
pontinus. It not unfrequently happened that the Romans formed acfjee^ 
tives from Greek names of towns in their own way, and without any 
regard to the Greek fomu ; e. g. Atheniensis instead of Atkenaeus, The* 
bonus instead of Thebaeus, Syracusanus along with Syracttsitts, The 
Greek ending evs was most commonly changed into ensis ; and irTjs into 
anuSf as in Panormitanus, Tyndcuritanus, especially in all the Greek 
names of towns compounded with polisj as Neapolitanus, Megalopolitanta* 
The terminations ens and itis, however, are often retained in Latin, 

[§ 257.] 3. From names which originally belong to na- 
tions, adjectives are formed in icus and more rarely in itis ; 
e.g. from Afer, Britannus, Gallus, Germanus, Italus, we have 
the adjectives Africus, Britannicus, Gallictis, Italicus, &c.; 
Syrus, Syrius ; Cilix, Cilicius ; Thrax, Thracius, Other 
names of nations are at once substantives and adjectives, as 
Graecus, Etruscus, Sardus, 

f§ 258.] 4. The names of countries, with some exceptions) 


such as Latium and Samrdumy and those borrowed from the 
Greek, AegyptuSy Perm, are themselves derived from the. 
names of nations ; e. g. Britannia^ Gallia, Italia, Thracia, 
sometimes with slight changes, as in Sardi, Sardinia ; and 
Siculi, Sidlia, PVom some of these countries, adjectives 
are formed with the terminations ensis and anus, as Hispa^ 
niensisy Siciliensis ; AfricanuSy Gallicanus* 

[§ 259.] C. From other Adjectives. 

Diminutives are formed fix)m some adjectives by the ter*. 
minations ulus, olus, cuius, and eUus, according to the rules 
which were given above, § 240. Thus we have parvulus, 
horfidulus; dureolus ; pauperculus, leviculus; misellus, puU 

• [§ ^0.1 Besides derivation new words are also formed by 
eomposition. In examining such words we may consider 
either the first or the second part of which a compound 

The first word is either a noun, a verb, or a particle. The 
second remains unchanged, e. g. henefado, beneficium, male' 
dieOy satago ; a contraction takes place only in nolo, from ne 
(for non) and vole, and in mala, from mage (for magis) and 
vdlo. Prepositions are used more frequently than any other 
particles in forming compound words. Respecting their 
rignification and the changes produced in pronunciation by 
tto meeting of heterogeneous consonants, see Chap. LXVI. 
. There are only a few words in which verbs form the first 
part of a compound, and wherever this is the case, the verb 
faeio forms the latter part, as in are/ado, calefacio, made* 
fado, patefado, condocefado, commonefado, assuefado, and 
cansuefacio. The only change in the first verbs (which be- 
long to the second conjugation) is that they throw off the o 
of the present- 
When, the first word is a noun (substantive or adjective), 
it regularly ends in a short i, which is the connecting 

patridda. armiger. particeps* aequiparo, 

artifex, aquilifer. ignivomus, amplifico. 

tuhicen. capripes, misericors. breviloguens* 

causidicus. camivorus, rupicapra. alienigena, 

aedijico. belligero. stuliddium, vUipendo. 


So also centifolia rosa, cenHmanus GygeSy from eevUumt A 
coptraction takes place in tiblcen for tibiicenj from tibia and 
canOf whereas in tubicen and Jldicen the connecting vowel is 
short according to the rule, there being no i in the words 
tuba a.nd fides. When the second word begins with a vow^ 
the connecting i is thrown out, as in ma^nanimtis^ uncmimUf 
with which we may compare unimanus and uniformis. 

Those words, the parts of which are declined separately, 
may likewise be regarded as compounds, although they form 
one word only in so far as they are commonly written as 
such ; as respublica, jtisfurandum, or those of which the 
first word is a genitive, as senatOsconsultum, plebiscitunif 
duumvir, triumvir, 

[§ 261.] The latter word in a compound determines to 
what part of speech the whole belongs. In compositions 
with particles, the second word either remains unchanged, or 
undergoes only a slight variation in its voweL This varia- 
tion must be here considered, especially with regard to the 
radical vowel of the verb ; for the vowels i, OfU, a and e re- 
main unchanged, as in ascriboy c&mminor, apponOy exeSlOy 
addUcOy illabor, subrepo ; but a and e and the diphthong ae 
frequently undergo a change : 1. a remains only in the oond* 
pounds of caveoy maneo, and traho ; but in most other cases 
it is changed into ^ e. g. constituo from statuoy accipio firom 
capio, abjicio from jaeio, arripio from rapioy incido from cad/Oi 
adigo from ago ; so also attingo from tango, eonfringo £roa 
frango ; it is changed into e in ascendo, aspergo, confenim^ 
2. e sometimes remains unchanged, as in appetOy covUego^ 
conterOy congero, but sometimes it is changed into {; €LiM» 
f!rom sedeo, abstineo from teneo, arrigo from regOy aspieio 
from specie. Both forms occur in the compounds of l^ere^ 
e. g. perlegoy read through ; intelVigOy understand. 8, The 
diphthong ae remains unchanged only in the compounds of 
haereo, as adhaereo ; it is changed into f in the compounds 
of caedo, laedo, quaerOy e. g. incido, iUldo, inquiro. Other 
particulars may be gathered from the lists of irregular verbs. 

In the composition of nouns with verbs, the second word 
undergoes more violent changes, and the rules already given 
respecting derivation must be taken into account here. But 
nouns are also formed in composition with verbs by the mere 
abbreviation of the ending, and without any characteristic 
syllable of derivation. Thus we have from geroy claviger, 
armiger; from fero, dstifer, signifer ; from jfacioy ardfex^ 


pontifex ; from capio^ princepSy pardceps. Compound 
ftdjectives are derived from verbs by the termination us^ 
which is appended to the verbal stem : mortiferus, ignivo' 
mUfy dulcisonus, like consonuSy camivoruSy caitsidicus ; and 
from substantives with a very slight or no change at all, e. g. 
ceniimanus, capripesy misericorSy uniformis. 




S96SL] L As the adjective qualifies a substantive, so the 
verb qualifies a verb, an adjective (consequently a parti? 
jciple also), and even another adverb ; e. g. prudens homo 
prudenter agit; felix homo felidter vivit; eximie doctus; 
domus celerUer extnusta ; satis bene scripsit 

2. Adverbs belong to those parts of speech which are in* 
capable of inflexion, for they have neither cases nor any 
other forms to denote the difierence of persons, tenses, or 
'moods. But an adverb approaches nearest the declinable 
parts of speech, inasmuch as it is derived from adjectives or 
participles, and takes the same degrees of comparison as the 
Ifttter. We have, therefore, in the first place to consider the 
eQrmology of adverbs and then their degrees of comparison. 

With regard to their etym.ology, adverbs are either simple 
<wr primitive (primiHva\ or derived {derivda). We shall first 
-treat of derivative adverbs ; their nmnber is great, and cer« 
-tain laws are followed in their formation. 

[§ 263.1 3. By far the greater number of derivative ad^* 
^vorbs end in e and ter^ and are derived from adjectives and 
■ participles (present active and perfect passive). 

Adjectives and participles rnusy Oy umy and adjectives in 
jtr^ Oy um (that is, those which follow the second declension), 
make adverbs with the termination e» Thus altusy longtiSy 
meieiiusy doctuSy emendakis, omatusy make the adverbs altCy 
4omgey tnolesie, doctey emendaUy ornate. With regard to 
a^ectivet in 6r, a, um^ the fprmation of adverbs varies ac« 


cording as they throw out the e in the oblique cases- or retain 
it (see §48. and ol.), for the adverbs follow the oblique 
cases. Thus l^er and miser make libere and misere ; hnt 
aeger {aegri) and pulcher (pulchri) make aegre and pulckre. 
Bonus makes the adverb hene^ from an ancient form benus. 
Bene and male are the only adverbs of this class that end in 
a short e, 

[§ 264.] 4. All other adjectives and the participles in ns 
(consequently all adjectives which follow the third declen- 
sion) form their adverbs in ter, and retain the changes which 
occur in the genitive. The genitive is is changed into tfer, 
except the genitive in ntis (from the nom. in ns\ which 
makes the adverb in nter ; e. g. elegans, eleganter ; amans, 
amanter; conveniens^ convenienter ; \mt par, pariter ; utilis, 
utiliter; tenuis, tenuiter; celer, eris, celeriter ; saluber, saht- 
briter, and so dXm ferociterySimplidtery dupliciter, concorcUter, 
audaciter (or more frequently contracted into atulactery 

[§ 265.] 5. Although in grammar an adverb is assigned 
to every adjective, yet the dictionary must frequently be con* 
suited, for there are some adjectives whose very signification 
does not admit the formation of an adverb, as, for example^ 
those which denote a material or colour ; while with respect 
to others we can say no more than that no adverb of them is 
found in the writers whose works have come down to us, -as 
of the adjectives amens, dirus, discors, gnarus, rudis, trux^ 
imbellis, immobilisy inflexibiUs, and other compounds of the 
same kind. Of vetus the adverbs are vetuste and antiqucy and 
oi fidus, fideliter, which are derived from other adjectives <^ 
the same meaning. The adverb magne does not occur, but 
its irregular comparative magis, and the superlative maxime, 
are of ve^ common occurrence. 

[§ 266.T 6. Sometimes particular cases of adjectives sop* 
ply the place of the regularly formed adverbs in e and ter; 
a) of some adjectives in us, a, urn, and er, a, urn, the abkp 
tive singular in o is used as an adverb ; e. g. arcano and 
secrete, secretly ; dto, quickly ; continuo, immediately ; ere^ 
bro, frequently ; /also, wrongly; liquido, clearly; man^ratio, 
manifestly; necessario, necessarily; perpetuo, perpetually; 
precario, by intreaties; raro, rarely; sidulo, sedulously; sern, 
too late ; serio, seriously ; subito, sudd^y ; tuto, safely. Ti> 
these must be added some adverbs formed from participles: 
auspicctto, consulto, directo, fettinato, neo' or imfp inMi Oy u 
provito, iterato, merito, sotHUk 


[§ 967.] 7. h) In some adjectives of the third declension 
the neuter singular supplies the place of the adverb ; as fot" 
die, difficUe, recens, stdflime, impune. To these we must add 
some belonging to adjectives of the second declension : ce» 
terumy commodum, plerumque, plurimum, potissimum, mul- 
turn, nimiumy parumy and lastly the numeral adverbs ^mmt^m, 
iierumy tertium, quartum^ &c., which have also the termina- 
tion o (see § 123.), and postremum {p\ and ultimum (o)» 

[§ 268.] 8. A considerable number of adverbs have the 
termination im; they are for the most part derived from par- 
ticiples ; e. g. caesim, punctim, conjunctiniy contemptim, cur' 
«tm, nominatim, passim (from pandere), praesertim (from 
fwotf and sero), privatim, raptim, sensim, statim. Adverbs 
of tills kind however are formed also from other parts of 
speech, but they generally take the participial termination 
atim, even when they are not derived from nouns of the first 
declension : gradatim, ostiatim, paulatim, singulatim. Also 
t&r^esHm (connected with /estinare), furtimy singultim, viri' 
ttm, vicissim, 

[§ 269.] 9. A smaller class of adverbs is formed from 
houns by the termination ttus, generally to denote origin 
from that which is expressed by the primitive ; as coelituSy 
from heaven ; funditusy radidtusy from the foundation, radi* 
eally. Some are derived from adjectives, as aTitiquituSy di' 
mnituSy and humanitus. 

£§270.] 10. A large number of adverbs, lastly, arises 
from the adverbial use of different cases of substantives, and 
from the composition of different parts of speech. In this 
manner arose the adverbs of time: noctUy vesperi, maney 
tempore or tempariy diu and dudum, quamdiuy tamdiuy ali* 
quamdiu, interdiu, hddie, quotidicy quotanniSy postridiey 
perendiey pridicy nudius tertius (from nunc dies tertius, the 
day before yesterday, or the third day from the present), 
nudius quartuSy nudius quintuSy nudius tertiusdecimus, pro* 
pediemy initioy principioy repente and derepente (ablative of 
repens)y imprimisy protenus and prottntfis (from pro and the 
preposition tenus)y alidSy partim (the same as partem)^ 
adutuniy modoy postmodoy alterniSy interdumy cummaximey 
tummaximey pautisper, tantispery denuo (i. e. de novo)y iUico 
(properly in loco)y interedy praeteredy hactenus. So also the 
adverbs of place : forisyforasy domumy domi and domoy ruSy 
rwri and rure, humi and humoy insuper, obviamy peregre^ 
praetto, recta (scil. via), una. 


• [§ 271.] The mode or manner of an action, in answer to 
the question how f is expressed by adverbs of the same class ; 
as sponte^ forte njidfortuito,forsitan {fors sit an), nimirumy 
scilicet, videlicet, utpote (from ut and pote, properly "as 
possible," hence " namely," or " as"), dumtcLxat, praeterqwtm, 
quomodo, quemadmodum, admodum, quamohrem, quapropter, 
quantopere, tantopere, mctximopere and summopere, alioqui 
or alioquin, ceteroqui, or ceteroquin, f rostra, nequicquam^ 
gratis (from gratiis), vtUgo. 

CHAP. Lxm. 


[§276.] 1. Thb Simple or Primitive Adverbs are few in 
number, when compared with the derivatives, especially 
with those derived from a^eotives, and ending in e and ter. 
The signification of the latter depends upon that of theip 
adjective, and has generally a very definite extent ; but the 
primitive adverbs express the most general circumstances 
that are considered in connection with a fact, and answer 
to the questions how ? when ? where ? whether ? but they 
ere for this reason deserving of particular attention, together 
with their compounds and derivatives. 

2. To this class belong the negative particles : non^ hamdt 
and ne; the affirmatives: ruie, quidem, and utiqiie, certainly 
(from which word the negative adverb netUiqtuim, by no 
means, is formed), nempe, namely, surely, and the interna 
gative cur, why? the words which express, in a general 
way, the mode of an action, viz. paene, fere, and femi^ 
nearly, almost ; temere, at random ; rite, duly, accor^dng to 
custom ; vix, scarcely ; ninds (and nimium, see § 267.)» too 
much; satis or sat, enough, sufficiently; saliem, at lawt; 
sic and ita, so, thus ; and item and ittdem, just so, and the 
double form identidem, which, however, has assumed the 
meaning of a particle of time, '* constantly," '^ one time like 
the ether;" perinde and proinde (derived from inde), as 
though, like ; secus, otherwise, differently ; immo (that is^ in 
fnodo\ in some numner ; the adverbs of place ; u^friam and 
usguam^ somewhere ; nusquam^ no where ; procul, f^r ; prtf^ 


near; ubi, where? ibi^ there; unde, whence? inde, hence, 
togetiier with their numerous compounds and correlatives, of 
which we shall speak presently; the adverbs of time : quando, 
when? with its compounds aliquandoy once; quandoque, at 
some time ; qtiandocunque, whenever ; quondam, formerly ; 
nunc, now ; tunc and turn, then ; unquam, ever ; nunquam, 
■ n^ver ; jam, already; etiam (from et and jam) and quoque, 
also ; etiamnunc and etiamtum, still, yet ; semel, once ; bis, 
twice (the other adverbial numerals, see Chap. XXXTTI.) ; 
saepe, often ; usque, ever ; heri or here, yesterday ; eras, to- 
morrow ; olim, formerly ; mox, soon after ; simul, at once ; 
tandem, at last or length ; demum, not until ; from inde are 
derived deinde and exinde, or abridged dein and eocin, there- 
upon, afterwards ; subinde, immediately after, or repeatedly ; 
deinceps, in succession ; denique, lastly : further, the adverbs 
with the suffix per : semper, always ; nuper, lately ; parum^ 
per and paulisper, for a short time ; tantisper, for so long, 
commonly to indicate a short time, '^for so short a time." 
(See § 270.) 

. Most of the prepositions are originally adverbs, but as 
they usually take the case of a substantive after them, they 
are regarded as a distinct class of the parts of speech. But 
they must still be looked upon as adverbs when they are 
joined with a verb without a case ; as i prae, go before ; 
pone subit conjunx, " behind there follows the wife.*' Hence 
it happens that clam, secretly, and coram, in the presence 
of, are generally reckoned among the prepositions, whereas 
palam, publicly, is universally called an adverb, though it is 
formed precisely in the same manner. Ante and post, when 
' used as adverbs, generally have the lengthened forms anted 
and posted (also antehac and posthac), but occur as adverbs 
also without any change of form. 

[§ 288.] 3. The Adverbs of Place, mentioned above, 
.ubt, where ? and unde, whence ? together with the adverbs 
derived from the relative pronoun, viz. qtto, whither? and 
qua, in what way ? stand in a certain relation to other ad- 
verbs, demonstratives, relatives, and indefinites, which are 
.formed in the same manner. All together form a system of 
adverbial correlatives, similar to that of the prqnominal 
ad[jectives. (See above, § 130.) The interrogative form is 
.the simplest, and (as in English) is the same as that of the 
relative. The rdative acquires a more general meaning, 
eithe]: by being doubled, or by the 3ufl^ cunqt^e, w|uoh is 




expressed in English by " ever," as in " wherever.** With- 
out any relative meaning, the simple form acquires a more 
general signification by the suffix que^ or by the addition of 
the particular words vis and lihet. The demonstrative is 
formed from the pronoun t^, and its meaning is strengthened 
by the suffix dem* The indefinite is formed by the prefix 
ali^ or before a vowel alicy from aliquis* We thus obtain the 
foUowing correlative adverbs :— 






Ubi, where ? nbi, where. 

ibi, there. 

alicubi, some- 

vhlqne, ") ^ 







Unde, whence ? 

unde, whence. 

inde, thence. 

alicunde, from 





some place. 


• every- 


undeKbet^ ^ 


Quo, whither? 

quo, whither. 

€o, thither. 








' every 



Qua, in what 

qua, in the 

ea, in that 

aZtguct, in some 



direction? in 

way in which. 




. every 

what way. 





[§ 289.] To these we must add those which are formed 
by composition with alitis^ nuUus, uter, and answer to the 
question where? aVihi, elsewhere; nuUibi, nowhere (for 
which, however, nusquam is more commonly used) ; utrubi 
or utroln, in which of two places ? with the answer utrobigue 
in each of the two places. Inibi is a strengthening form of 
i6t, and signifies "in the place itself." To the question 
whence ? answer aliunde, from another place ; utrimque, from 
both sides. To the question whither ? answer a/to, to another 
place ; to utro, to which of two sides ? answer utroque^ to 
both sides, and neutro, to neither; further, quopiam and 
quoquam^ to some place ; intrOy Into ; retro, back ; tdtro, be 
yond ; citro, this side. 

We add the correlatives to the question whither? quorswm 
or quorsus f (contracted from quoversum or quoversus}, Tbe 
answers to them likewise end in us and um : korsum, hither; 
a^orsum, towards another place; quoquoverswsy towards evay 


i; inir&rsumy inward. ; prorsum, forward ; re^or^um, back* 
ward^ and others. 

J§ 991.] 4, The above-mentioned demonstratives, iW, there, 
e^ hence, and eo, thither, are used only with reference to 
relative sentences, which precede ; e. g. ubi te keri vidt^ ibi 
noUm te iterum conspicere, where I saw thee yesterday, there 
I do not wish to see thee again ; unde venerat, eo rediit, he 
returned thither, whence he had come. More definite demon- 
stratives, therefore, are requisite, and they are formed in 
liatin from the three demonstrative pronouns by means of 
apecial terminations. 

The place where ? hic^ tstic, UliCy (there), 
whither? huc^ istuc, illuc, Tthither). 
whence? hinc, istinc, iUincy (thence). 

These adverbs are employed with the same difference which 
we pointed out above (§ 127.) as existing between the pro- 
nouns Aic, iste^ and tUe^ so that hic^ huc^ and hinc point to the 
place where I, the speaker, am ; xsdcy istuc, and istinc, to the 
place of the second person, to whom I speak ; and illic, illucy 
and illinc to the place of the third person or persons, who are 
spoken of. The following are compounds of hue and hinc : 
adhucy until now ; hucusque, as far as this place ; ahhinc and 
dekincy from this moment (counting backwards). 



[§ 293.] 1. The Comparison of Adverbs is throughout de- 
pendent upon the comparison of adjectives, for those adverbs 
wily have degrees of comparison, which are derived from 
adjectives or participles by the termination e (o) or ter ; and 
wherever the comparison of adjectives is wanting altogether 
or partly, the same deficiency occurs in their adverbs. 

2. The comparative of adverbs is the same as the neuter 
of the comparative of adjectives, and the superlative is de- 
rived from the superlative of the adjectives by changing the 
termination us into «; e. g. docHor^ doetma^ e^egonAwr^ eW 

I 2 


gantius; emendaiior, emendatms; superlative: docHssimuiy 
doctissime ; elegantissime, emendatissime ; summuSy summe. 
The positives in o (e. g. citOy raro) also make the superlative 
in e ; meritissimo and tutissimo however are more commonly 
used than meritisdme and ttUissime, 

[§ 2^*] 3« The primitive adverbs, and those derived from 
other words by the terminations im and ttts^ together with 
the various adverbs enumerated in § 270. folL, that is, in 
general all adverbs which are not derived from adjectives 
and participles by the endings e (or o instead of it) and ter, 
do not admit the degrees of comparison. The only exceptions 
are diu and saepe: diutius, diutissime; saepius, saepissime, 
Nuper has a superlative nuperrimey but no comparative. 



[§ 295.] 1. Prepositions are indeclinable words, or, to use 
the grammatical term, particles, which express the relations 
of nouns to one another or to verbs : e. g. a town in Italy ; a 
journey through Italy ; my love for you ; the first century 
after Christ ; he came out q/'his house ; he lives near Berlin; 
on the Rhine, &c. They govern in Latin either the accusa- 
tive or ablative, and some (though mostly in a different sense) 
both cases. Their Latin name is derived from the fact of 
their being placed, with a few exceptions, before the noun. 
We have already observed (§ 276.) that a considerable num- 
ber of these particles are properly adverbs, but are justij 
reckoned among the prepositions, as they more or less 
frequently govern a case. Apart from their etymology, and 
considering only their practical application in the la^guage^ 
we have the following classes of prepositions: — 

1. PreposxtuyM with the Accusative* 

Ady to, or up to. 
Apudy with, near. 
.^^USff, before (in regard to both time and place)^ 


Adversus and adversum, against. 
Cw, (dtra, on this side. 
Circa and circum, around, about. 
Circiter, about (indefinite time or number). 
ContrUy against. 
Mrgoy towards. 
JExtrOf without. 

Infray beneath, below (the contrary of supra), 
Intery among, between. 
Intray within (the contrary of extra). 
Juxta, near, beside. 
Oby on account of. 
Penes, in the power of. 
Per, through. 
Pone, behindc 

Posty after (both of time and space). 
Praeter, beside. n 

Prope, near. 

* Propter, near, on account oft 
Secundum, after (in time or succession), in accordance with, 

as secundum naturam vivere. 
Supra, above. 
Trans, on the other side. 
Versus (is put after its noun), towards a place ; e. g. in Gal-- 

Ham versus, Massiliam versus. 
Ultra, beyond. 

2. Prepositions with the Ablative. 

A, ah, ahs {a, before consonants ; ah, before vowels and some 
consonants ; and ahs only in the combination of ahs te 
for which, however, a te also is used), from, by. 

Absque, without (obsolete). 

Coram, before, or in the presence of. 

Cum, with. 

De, down from, concerning. 

E and ex (e before consonants only, ex before both vowels 
and consonants), out of, from* 

Prae, before, owing to. 

Pro, before, for. 

Sine, without. 

Tenus (is put after its noun), as far as, up to. 

1 3 


3. Prepositions toith the Accusative and Ablative, 

In, with the accus. — 1. into, on, to, to the question Whither ? 

— 2. against. With the ablat. in, on, to the question 

Where ? 
Suby with the accus. — 1. under, to the question Whither? — 

2. about or towards, in an indefinite statement of tim^ 

as sub vesperam, towards evening. With the ablat. 

under, to the question Where? Zfesub is also used in 

this sense. 
super, with the accus., above, over ; with the ablat, upon, 

concerning, like de. 
Subter, under, beneath, is used with the accusative, whether 

it expresses being in or motion to a place ; it rarely oc» 

curs with the ablative and is in general little used. 

[§ 324.] As regards the position of prepositions, it waa[ 
remarked above, that versus and tenus are placed after their * 
case. The same is the case with the four prepositions antt^, 
contra, inter and propter, when they ' are joined with a 
relative pronoun ; e. g. quos inter, for inter .quos, Theat 
same four prepositions ante, contr(h inter, and propter, 
together willi the monosyllabic ob, post, de, ex, and tit, are 
frequently placed between the adjective and subaftantive; 
e. g. medios inter hostes, magna ex parte, aliquot post menses, 
and still more frequently between the relative pronoim and 
the substantive ; e. g. qua in re, quam ob causam. The 
preposition cum is always placed after or rather appended to 
the ablative of the personal pronouns me, te, se, nobis and 
vobis; as meeum, tecum, nobiscum, <&c. The same is com- 
monly the case with the ablatives of the relative pronoun, 
quo, qua, and quibus, but we may also say, cum quo, cum 
qua and cum quibus. 




[§325.] The majority of the prepositions are used also 
to form compound words, especially verbs, modifying, 
by their own meaning, that of the words to which they are 
joined. The prepositions themselves dOten undergo a change 
in their pronunciation and orthography, on account of the 
initial letter of the verb to which they are prefixed. But 
there is no established usage, and we find, e. g. sometimes 
adlaqttar, and sometimes alloquor^ and in like manner impono 
and inponoy conlega and coUega, But we prefer the system 
of assimilation. 

Ad remains unchanged before vowels, and before the con- 
sonants d, jy Vy m ; before other consonants it undergoes an 
assimilation, that is, the d is changed into the letter which 
follows it, and before qu into the kindred c, as in acquirOy 
acquiesco. Its signification remains the same as usual, as in 
adjungoy assumOy offerOy apponOy cdldquor. 

Ante remains unchanged; its meaning is ^'befpre,^ as in 
antepdnOy antefero, 

Cireum remains unchanged, and retains, in writing, its m 
even before vowels, although in pronunciation it was lost. 
Only in circumeo and its derivatives the m is often dropped, 
as circueo. Its meaning is "around," "about," as in cir'* 
cumdgOy circumdoy circumfero. 

Inter remains imchanged, except in the word intelligo. 
Its meaning is "between" or "among," as in interponoy 

Ob remains generally unchanged, and undergoes the 
assimilation only before c, fy ^, and p. Its meaning of 
"against'' or "before" appears in opponoy offerQy occurroy 

[§ 326.] Per remains unchanged, except in pellicio. The 
r is dropped only in the word pejerOy I conmiit a peijurium. 
Its meaning is *' through," as in perlegOy perluceOy perago. 
When added to adjectives it strengthens their meaning 
(§ 107.)> but in perftdtts and perjuruSy it has the power of a 
negative particle. 

P^t remains unchanged, except in pomoerium and pomeri^ 

I 4 


dianus, in which st is dropped ; its meaning is ** after," as in 

Praeter remains unchanged, and signifies " passing by," as 
in praetereo, praefermitto. 

Trans remains unchanged before vowels, and for the 
most part also before consonants ; but trado, tradtico^ trajido, 
are more frequent than transdo, transduco, transficio. 
When the verb begins with «, the s at the end of trans is 
better omitted, and we should write transcribo, transilio. 
Its meaning "through," "over," or "across," appears in 
franseOf trajicioy and transmittOy I cross (a river; ; trado, 

[§ 327.] Ay ah, absy viz. : a before m and v ; ah before 
vowels and most consonants; in aufero (to distinguish it 
from affero) and aufugio, ah is changed into av or au. ; ahs 
occurs only before c and t. Its meaning is "from" or 
" away," as in amittOy avehory abeo, abjicioy abradoy aufero, 
abscondo, abstineo, 

De, "down" or '*away from," as in dejictOy descendo, 
detrahoy deterOy rub off; despicioy look down upon, despise. 
In some compounds, especially adjectives, it has a negative 
power, as in decdhry deformiSy demenSy desipio, despero. 

E and ex, viz. : ex before vowels, and bfefore consonants 
sometimes e and sometimes ex : ex before c, p, qy s, t, except 
in escendo and epoto ; before f it assimilates to it ; e is used 
before all the other consonants, except in exlex. The s after x 
is generally thrown out, as exequory exiliuniy expecto, extinguo. 
Its meaning " out of " or " from," appears in ejicioy emineo, 
endtOy eripioy effero (extuli), excello, exponOy exquirOy extraho, 
^xaudioy exiffOy exulcero, &c. The idea of completion is 
implied in several of these compounds, as in efficioy enarro, 

[§ 328.] In is changed into im, before b and p and 
another my and is assimilated to / and r. Its meaning is 
"in" or "into," as in incurro, impono, illidoy irrumpo. 
When prefixed to adjectives and participles it has a negative 
power, e. g. indoctuSy incautusy ineptus (from aptus), insi- 
picnSy improviditSy imprudensy imparatuSy the negative of 
paratuSy because there is no verb imparo. 

Prae remains unchanged, and its meaning is " before," afl 
mpraeferOy praecipioy praeripio. 

Pro remains unchanged. For the purpose of avoiding 
Jh'atus, a d la inserted in prodeo, prodigoy and in those forms 


of* the verb prosum in which the initial e would cause hiatus, 
as prodes, pradesty proderam. (See above, § 156.) Its 
meaning '* forth" or " forward^" appears in proferOy procurro, 
prodeo, projido, prospicio. 

• [§ ^^0 ^^^ remains unchanged before vowels, but under- 
goes assimilation before consonants, or the b is dropped. Its 
meaning is ^' under," as in summitto, suppono, susHneo ; or 
**from under," as in subducOy summoveOy surripio; an 
approach from below, is expressed in subeo, succedo, stispicio, 
look up to, esteem; and to do a thing instead of another 
person, in subsorHor. It weakens the meaning in such 
verbs as subrideo, subvereor, and in adjectives, such as sub' 
absurduSy subtristiSy subnestictis, subobscurus. In this last 
sense the b is not assimilated to r, 

Supevy " above," as in superimponOy superstOy supersedeoy 
set myself above, or omit. 

• Subtevy " from under," as in subterfugio. 

Com for cum appears in this form only before by p, m ; 
before /, n, r, the final m is assimilated to these letters, and 
before all other consonants it is changed into n. Before 
vowels the m is dropped, e. g. coeOy cohaereoy and in addition 
to this a contraction takes place in cogo and cogito (from 
coagOy coagito). The m is retained only in a few words, as 
comesy comitiumy comitor, comedo. It signifies " with" or 
** together," as in conjungo, conferOy componoy collidOy colUgOy 
corradOy coeo, coalescOy cohaereo. In some verbs and par- 
ticiples it merely strengthens the meaning, as corrumpo^ 
co?icerpOy confringo, consceleratus. 

[§ 330.] Note. We must not leave unnoticed here what are called the 
inseparable prepositions, that is, some little words, which are never used 
by themselves, but occur only in compound verbs and adjectives, where 
they modify the meaning in the same way as the above-mentioned se* 
parable prepositions. The following is a list of them : 

Arab (from the Greek 3i/A4>/)* "around,** "about," as in ambio, arahuro 
(anbustiiSt) amhigOf ambiguus. In amplectar, amputo, the b is dropped on 
account of the p ; before palatals amb is changed into an ; e. g. ancep$, 
angnire, and also before/, in the word anfractus. 

Dis or di, denotes separation, as in disjicio, diripio^ distraho, digeroy 
diJudicOf dispono, dissero, distinguo, dimitto (to be distinguished from 
demitto). It strengthens the meaning in discupio. 

Re signifies "back :*' remitto^ rejicio, revertor. Before a vowel or an h^ 
A d'la inserted : redeo, redigo, redhibeo. The d in reddo, I give back, is of 
a diflRsrent kind. Re denotes separation in resttlvo, revello, retegoy reeingo, 
r«dudo^ refringoy reteco;^ and in relego, rebibo, and others, it denote^ 

1 5 ' 


Set ** aside," " on one side :" tedueo, ievoeo, ieeubot ttpono, sefungo. In 
adjectives it signifies «* without :" 99euru9, iobrius for tOfritu {mm ebrius), 
Moeor§ for secors. 

The prefixes ne and w are of a somewhat different nature : ne has 
negative power, as in nefas, nemo (ne homo), nescio, Te is likewise negative, 
but occurs in a much smaller number of words, vi«. in vesanuM and teeon 
(veeordia), senseless. In tftgrandia and vepaUidug, it seems to denote 

CHAP. Lxvn. 


[§331.] 1. Conjunctions are those indecKnable parts of 
speech which express the relations in which sentences stand 
to one another. They therefore are, as it were^ the links of 
propositions, whence their name conjunctions. 

2. In r^ard to ^eir form (Jiffura)^ they are dther simple 
or compound. Of the former kind are, e. g, eiy tiCj tst, ied, 
nam: and of the latter atque^ iiaquey attameny nqt^dem, 
enimvfrOy verumenimvero. 

3. In reference to their signification, thej may be divided 
into the following classes. 'Diey denote : 

[§ 339.] 1. A tmum {canfunciiofies copuUuivue)^ as et^ aCt 
attfHfy and the enclitic ^ne, as well as the negative belcmg* 
iuu: to the verb, neque or tiec, or doubled so as to become an 
amirmative, fwe {neque) hom, equivalent to eL JStiam and 
yno^tit also belong to ^lis class, together with the adverbial 
%iem and Uidem. As these particles unite things which are 
(U' a kind, so the disjunctive coigunctions, signifying ^ or," 
iH>uneot things which are distinct from each other. They 
aro uui^ vely Vxt suffix ve^ and she or seu. 

A'ttiv, ^c Unev«r used bdbreTowek (which, bowerer, do not include 
p ur b«lbr* an A ; mtfm oocun most frequently befivre tow^s, but before 
iH^^Minanta also. 

KHem alanda bafci« the w«rd wladi bat dw iTBiphains, and qwoqit 
idWf It %Vh<m proposiOoni vnr %» be ffmrntUiii, tUam is better t^ 

*rh« l«atln lanfuaf* Is iba4 of dovblii^ Ibe eotuunctioos of tbM 
klmi w\whfhy words and proftosidoiis ai« more empbatieally brangbt 
Ull<l«r uuv {^«Na i4«l^ 'i:Vftl^i)i^ji^««^^«^»a'*isexpreaedl7 • 

coHJtjKonoKs* 179 

et — que, 
que — et, and 

que — que, which is found only in poetry. 
Negative propositions are conneeted in English by ** neither —•nor," and 
ip Latin by 

neque-^neqwt, or nee-— nee. 
Propositions, one of which is negative and the other affirmative, ** on the 
one hand, but not on the other/' or '* not on the one hand, but on the 
otlier/* are connected by 

ef — neque 
Our "either — or,** is expressed by aut — aut, or vel — reZ. Sive-^ 
rive leaves it undecided, as to how a matter is to be taken. Modo-^ 
tnodo, and nunc — nunc, are equivalent to sonuHmet—aomeUmes ; gimm— - 
turn to hath — and, 

[§340.] 2. The following express a comparison^ "as," 
"like," "than as if" {conjunctiones comparativae) : ut or 
utiy sicut, velut, prout, praeut, the poetical ceuy quam^ tarn-* 
qaaniy qtmsiy ut si, ac si, together with ac and atquCy when 
they signify " as," which is the case after adjectives and 
adverbs denoting similarity or disst^imilarity, such as pavy 
aeaue, juxta, perinde, alius, aliter, &c. 

L§ ^^^*] ^* ^^^ following express a concession with the 
general signification " although" (conjunctiones conoessivae) : 
etsi, etiamsi, tametsi (or tamenetsi), quamquam, quamvis, 
quantumvis, quamlibet, lic^, together with ut in the sense 
of "even if or "although," and quum, when it signifies 
" although." 

[§ 342.] 4. The following express a condition, the funda- 
mental signification being "if" (cor^juncUones conditio fiales): 
si, sin, nisi or ni, simddo, dummddo, if only, if hut (for which 
dum and modo are also used alone), dummodo ne, or simply 
tnodo ne or dumne, 

[§ ^^^'l ^* ^^^ following express a conclusion or infer'* 
ence with the general signification of " therefore ; " " conse- 
quently" (conjunctiones conclusivae): ergo, igitur, itaqucy eo, 
ideo, iccirco, proinde, propterea, and the relative coiyunc- 
tions, signifying "wherefore;" quapropter quare^ guamol^ 
rem, quocirca, unde. 

[§ 345.] 6. The following express a catise, or reason, 
with the meaning of "for," and "because" (conjunctiones 
causales) : nam, namque, enim, etenim, quia, quod, quoniam, 
qu^gpe, quum, quando, quandoquidem, siquidem, 

.] 7« The following express a pt^rpose ot obj^ct^ 

I 6 



with the signification of " in order that," or, *' in order that 
not" {conjunctiones Jinales)\ ut or uti^ quo, tie or ut ne, neve 
or neUy quin, quominus, 

[§ 348.] . 8. The following express an opposition, with the 
signification of "but" {conjunctiones adversativae)\ sed, 
autem, verum, vero, at, at enim, atqui, tamen^ attamen, sed- 
idmen, veruntdmen, at vero, enimvero, verumenimverOy ce- 

[§ 350.] 9. Time is expressed by the conjunctiones tern- 
porales: quum, quum primum, ut, ut primum, uhi, postquam, 
antequam and priusquam, quando, simulac or simulatque or 
simul alone, dum, usque dum, donec^ quoad, 

[§351.] 10. The following interrogative particles likewise 
belong to the conjunctions : num, utrum, an, and the suffix 
ne, which forms with non a special interrogative particle 
nonne ; also ec and en, as thej appear in ecquis, ecquando 
and enumquam, and numquid, ecquid, when used as pure in- 
terrogative particles. 

Note. Num and ec (en) and their compounds give a negative meaning 
to direct questions, that is, they are used in the supposition that the answer 
will be " no ;" e. g. numpvtaa me tarn dementem ^isse ? you surely do not 
believe that, &c. 

Utrum in accordance with its derivation (from uter, which of two) is 
used only in double questions, and is followed by an, 

[§ 355.] 11. Most conjunctions are placed at the begin- 
ning of the proposition, which they introduce; only these 
few, enim, autem, vero, together with quidem and quoque, 
are placed after the first word of a proposition, or after the 
second, when the first two belong together, or when one of 
them is the auxiliary verb esse. Quidem and quoque, when 
belonging to single words, may take any place in a proposi- 
tion, but they are always placed after the word, which has 
the emphasis. Itaque and igitar are commonly used with 
this distinction, that itaque stands first, while igitar is placed 
after the first, and sometimes even after several words of a 
proposition. But tamen may be put either at the beginning 
of a proposition, or after the first word. 


CHAP. Lxvm. 



S§ 359.] 1. Interjections are sounds uttered under the in- 
fuence of strong emotions. They are indeclinable, and stand 
in no close connection with the rest of a sentence ; for the 
dative and accusative, which are joined with some of them, 
are easily explained by an ellipsis. See §§ 402. and 403. 

2. The number of interjections in any language cannot be 
fixed. Those which occur most frequently in Latin authors 
are the following. 

a) Of joy : to, iu, ha, he, hahake, etwcy euax. 

b) Of grief: vae, heu, ekeu, ohe, au, hei, pro, 

c) Of astonishment: o, en or ecce, hui, hem^ ehem, aha, 
atat, papae, vah ; and of disgust : phui, apage. (See § 222.) 

([) Of calling : heus, o, eho, ehodum; of attestation: joro, 
also written proh, 

e) Of praise or flattery : eia, euge, 

S§ 360.] 3. Other parts of speech, especially substantives 
adjectives, adverbs and verbs, and even complex expres- 
sions, such as oaths and invocations, must in particular con- 
nections be regarded as interjections. Such nouns are : pax 
(be still !) ; maluniy indignum, nefandum, miserum, miser a- 
Ifile — to express astonishment and indignation ; made, and 
with a plural macti, expresses approbation. Adverbs : nae, 
profecto, cito, bene, belle! Verbs used as interjections are, 
quaeso, precor, oro, obsecro, amabo (to all of which te or vos 
may be added), used in imploring and requesting. So also 
age, agite, cedo, sodes (for si audes), sis, sultis (for si vis, si 
vvltis), and agesis, agedum, agitedum, 

[§ 3^1'] 4* Among the invocations of the gods, the fol- 
lowing are particularly frequent : mehercule, mehercle, her- 
cule, hercle, or mehercules, medius fidius, mecastor, ecastor, 
pol, edepol, per deum, per deum immortalem, per deos, per 
Jbvem, pro (or proK) Juppiter, pro sancte (supreme) Jup- 
piter, pro dii imm^rtales, pro deum fidem, pro deum atque 
nondnum fidem, pro deum or pro deum immortalium (scil. 
fidem), and several others of this kind. 




CHAP. Lxrx, 

[§ 362.] 1. The subject of a proposition is that of which 
any thing is declared, and the predicate that which is declared 
of the subject. 

The subject appears either in the form of a substantive, oi^ 
in that of an adjective or pronoun, supplying the place of a 
substantive. Whenever there is no such grammatical sub- 
ject, the indeclinable part of speech or proposition which 
takes its place, is treated as a substantive of the neuter gen* 
der. (Comp. § 43.) 

[§ 365.] 2. The predicate Appears either in the form of a 
verb, or of the auxiliary esse combined with a noun. 

The predicate accommodates itself as much as possible to 
its subject. When the predicate is a verb, it must be in the 
same number as the subject; e. g. arbor viret, the tree is 
green; arbores mrenty the trees are green. When the predi- 
cate is an adjective, participle, or adjective pronoun, combined 
with the auxiliary esse, it takes the number and gender of 
the subject, and esse takes the number of the subject, e. g. 
puer est modestus, Ubri sunt mei^ prata sunt secta* 

When the predicate is a substantive with the auxiliary 
esse, it is independent of the subject both in regard to number 
and gender ; e. g. captivi militum praeda fuerant ; amiciHa 
vinculum quoddam est hominum inter se. But when a sub* 
stantive has two forms, one masculine and the other feminine, 
as rex, regina; magister, magistra ; inventor, inventrix; cor^ 
ruptor, corruptrix; praeceptor, praeceptrix, the predicate 
must be in the same gender as the subject ; e. g. licentia cor^- 
ruptrix est morum; stilus optimum est dictndi effector et nuh 


gister. When the subject is a neuter the predicate takes the 
masculine form, the latter being more nearly allied to the 
neuter than the feminine; e. g. temjms vitae magister est 
When the subject is a noun epicene (see § 42.), the predicate 
follows its grammatical gender ; as aquila volucrum regiruz^ 
fida ministra Jovis. 

It is only by way of exception that esse is sometimes con- 
nected with adverbs of place, such as aliquis or aliquidpropey 
propter, longe, procul est, or when esse signifies " to be in a 
condition ;" e. g. rectissime sunt apud te omnia, everything 
with you is in a very good state or condition. 

[§ 9^-] Nde, Collective nouns, that is, such as denote a multitude 
of individual persons or things, e. g. mvltiiudo, turba, vis, exercihu,juventu9, 
TttKnUtas, gens, fjkhs, xndgns, sometimes have a plural verb for their pre- 
dicate. For the same reason a plural verb is sometimes joined as 
predicate with qyitque and Jerque. 

[§ ^^'] ^* When nouns are combined with one another, 
without being connected by the verb esse, or by a relative 
pronoun and esse, in such a manner as to form only one idea, 
as in ''a good man," the adjective, participle, or pronoun 
follows the substantive in gender, number, and case ; e. g. 
huic modesto puero credo, hanc modestam virginem dUigo. 

When two substantives are united with each other in this 
way, they are said to stand in' apposition to each other, and 
the one substantive explains and defines the other ; e. g. 
oppidum Paestum, arbor laurus, Taurus mons, Socrates 
vir sapientissimus. The explanatory substantive (substan- 
tiffum appositum) takes the same case as the one which it 
serves to explain; e* g. Socratem, sapientissimum virum, 
Aikenienses interfecerunt They may differ in number and 
gender, as urbs Athenae ; pisces signum ; fratrem tuum, 
delicias meas, vidi ; but when the substantive in apposition 
has two genders, it takes the one which answers to that 
of the other substantive. The predicate likewise follows 
the substantive which is to be explained, as TtdUola, deli- 
ciolae nostrae, tuum munusculum flagitat ; Quum duo 
Julmina nmtri imperii subito in Hispania, Cn. et P» Sci" 
piones, extincti occtdissent, for the words duofulmina, though 
placed first, are only in apposition. When plural names of 
places are explained by the apposition urbs, oppidum, civitas, 
the predicate generally agrees with the apposition ; e. g. 
Voisimi, oppidum Tmcorum opulentissimum, concrematum 

184 LATIN GR\M1ffAR. 

O vitae phiiosophia dux (magistra), virtutis indagatrix eX" 

pultrixque vifiorum ! 
Pythagoras vdut genitricem virtutum frugalitatem omnibus 

ingerebat (commendabat). 

[§ S71.] 4. When a relative or demonstrative pronoun 
refers to a noun in another sentence, tlie pronoun agrees 
with it in gender and number ; e. g. tarn modestus ille ptier 
esty quern vidistij de quo audivistiy cujus tutor es, ut omnes 
eum diligant 

[§ ^"^-3 Note. Exception to this rule : when a word of a preceding 
proposition or this proposition itself, is explained by a substantive with 
the verbs es«e, dicere, vocare^ appellare, noniinare, habere, putare, &c or their 
passives, the relative pronoun usually takes the gender and number of the 
explanatory substantive which follows ; e. g. Thebae ipacne, quod Boeotiae 
caput est ; animal plenum rationis, qtiem vocamus hominem ; domidlia coH" 
juncta, qvm urhea dicimus ; Romae fanum Diana/e populi Latini cum 
populo Romano fecerunt: ea erat confession caput rerum Romam esse; Si 
omnia facienda sunt, quae amid veUnty non amicitiae tales, sed conjnrationm 
putandae sunt, i. e. such things or connections cannot be looked upon as 
friendships, but are conspiracies. So also : ista quidem vis, surely this is 
force ; haec fuga est, non profectio; ea ipsa causa hdlifuit, for id ipsum, &c 
Idem velle et idem nuUe, ea demumfirma amicitia est. 

[§ ^^^•] ^' ^Vlien the subject consists of several nouns in 
the singular, the predicate is generally in the plural, if either 
all or some of those nouns denote persons ; but if they denote 
things, either the singular or plural may be used. If, how- 
ever, one of the nouns is in the plural, the predicate must 
likewise be in the plural, unless it attach itself more espe- 
cially to the nearest substantive in the singular. 

Antonius et Octavianus vicerunt Brutum et Cassium apud 

Cum tempus necessitasque postulat, decertandum manu est, 

et mors servituti turpitudinique anteponendcu 
Benejicium et gratia homines inter se conjungunL 
Vita, mors, dimtiae, paupertas omnes homines vehemenHsr 
• sime permovent 

[§ 376.] 6. With regard to the gender, which the predi-' 
cate (an adjective, participle, or pronoun), takes, when it 
belongs to several nouns, the following rules must be ob- 
served : — 

a) When the nouns are of one gender, the predicate (ad- 
jective, participle, or pronoun,) takes the same. 


b) When they are of different genders, the masculine (in 
case of their denoting living beings) is preferred to the 
feminine, and the predicate accordingly takes the masculine. 
When the nouns denote things, the predicate takes the 
neuter, and when they denote both living beings and things 
mixed together, it takes either the gender of the living 
beings, or the neuter. 

Jam pridem pater mihi et mater mortui sunt. 

Labor voluptasquey dissimilia naturd, sodetate quadam inter 

se naturali juncta sunt, 
Janeyfac aetemos pacem pacisque ministros ! 
Momani, si me sceltis Jratrisy te senectus absumpserit, regem 
. regnumque Macedoniae suafutura sciunt. 

Or the predicate (adjective, participle, or pronoun), agrees 
only with one of the nouns^ and is supplied by the mind for 
the others ; this is the case especially, when the subject con- 
sists of nouns denoting both living beings and things. 

Thrasybulus contemptus est primo a tyrannis atque ejus soli* 

L» Brutus exulem et regem ipsum et liberos efus, et gentem 

Tarquiniorum essejussit. 
Hominis uiilitati agri omnes et maria parent. 

[§ 378.] 7. When the personal pronouns ego, tu, nos, voSy 
c(Hnl?ined with one or more other nouns, form the subject of 
a proposition, the predicate follows the first person in pre- 
ference to the second and third, and the second in preference 
to the third. 

^t tu et Tullia, lux nostra^ valetis, ego et suavissimus Cicero 

Quid est quod tu aut ilia cum Fortuna hoc nomine queri 
' possitis? 




[§ ^^*] 1* "^^"^^ subject of a proposition is in the nomina- 
tive (see § 362.), and the noun of the predicate only when it 
is connected with the subject by esse or the similar verbs : 
apparere, appear ; existere^ ficri^ evadere, come into exist- 
ence, become ; videri, seem, appear ; manere, remain ; or the 
passives of the actives mentioned in § 394. ; viz. dieiy appeU 
lariy eacistimarij haberiy &c. ; e. g. Justus videhatuTy he ap- 
peared just; rex appellahatur, he was called king. Th^ 
personal prcmouns egoy tUy ille, no^ voSy and iUi are implied, 
in the terminations of the verb, and are expressed only when 
they denote emphasis or opposition. 

In rebus angustis animosus atqueforHs appdre, 

Appitis adeo novum sibi ingenium indueraty utplebicola re* 

pente omnisque aurae popvlaris captator evaderet 
Ego reges ejeciy vos tyrannos introducUis ; ego libertateniy 

quae non eraty peperiy vos partam servare non vtdds^ says 

L. Brntus to the Romans. 

Note. The construction of the accusative with the Infinitive is llie 
only case in virhich the subject is not in the nominative, but in the' 
accusative. (See § 599.) In this ease the noun of the predicate, with 
the above-mentioned verbs, ia likewise ia the accusative. 

[§ S81.] 2. The nominative is sometimes not expressed it 
Latin, and the word homines is understood with a verb ift 
the third person plural active, in such phrases as laudant 
kunc regenty they, or people, praise this king ; dicunty tnh 
dunty ferunt hunc regem esse justuniy people say that this 
king is just. 



[§ 382.] 1. The accusative denotes the immediate object of 
an action, and is therefore joined to all transitive verbs, 


whether active or deponent, to express the person or thin^ 
affected hv the action implied in such verbs ; e. g. pater amai 
(tuetur)filium. When the verb is active, the same proposi- 
tion may be expressed without change of meaning in the 
passive voice, the object or accusative becoming the subject 
or nominative ; thus instead of pater amat Jiliumy we may 
^j fiUus amatur a patre. 

The transitive or intransitive nature of a verb depends 
entirely upon its meaning (see § 142.), which must be learned 
from the dictionary. It must however be observed that many 
Latin verbs may acquire a transitive meaning, besides their 
original intransitive one, and accordingly govern the accnsa- 
tive ; e. g. doleo signifies, I feel pain, or I am sorry ; but it 
has also a transitive meaning, I lament, and may therefore 
govern an accusative ; e. g. doleo casum tuum, I lament thy 
Biisfottone. Real intransitives are, by way of exception, 
joined sometimes with the accusative of some neuter pronoun; 
e. g. hoe gaudeo, hoc Uietor^ I rejoice at this ; unum omnes 
student; but not gaudeo hanc rem, or student hanc rem. 

[§ 386.] 2. Intransitive verbs which imply motion, as ire, 
vaaerey volare^ and some also which imply '^ being in a place," 
najtxeerey stare, and sedere, acquire a transitive meaning by 
being compounded with a preposition, and accordingly govern 
the accusative. This, however, is generally the case only in 
verbs compounded with the prepositions circum, per, praeter, 
trans, and super, and in those compound verbs which have 
acquired a figurative meaning. Such verbs become perfect 
transitives, and the accusative which they take in the active 
form of a propositicm as their object, becomes the nominative 
of the subject, when the proposition is changed into the pas- 
nve form ; e. g. fiumen transitur, societas initur, mors pro 
republica obitur. With other compounds the accusative is 
only tolerated, for generally the preposition is repeated, or 
the dative is used instead of the preposition with its case 
(§ 415.). 

[ § 3^7 J Note. Hence we commonly say, e. g. accedo ad te, 1 step up to thee, 
or ttbi, 1 join thee ; but rarely accedo muros or terram, Adno, I swim up to, 
commonly ad naves, urbenh or navibus, urbi ; but rarely naves, urbem. Homo 
advoJvitvr ad genua, or genihus ; advolvitur genua also may be said. Some 
compound verbs (though not those compounded with circwn, per, praeter, 
tran§ and super) either lose their intransitive meaning altogether, or 
retain it along with the transitive one, and accordingly govern the ac- 
cusative either exclusively, or only in their particular transitive meaning. 
Of this kind are adeo and convenio in the sense of ** I step up to a ^er«o«L 


for the purpose of speaking to him ;'* ttggredior (and adonnr^j coeo, I con- 
clude, e. g. an alliance; excedo and egredioTt I transgress, e. g. the 
bounds ; obeo, I visit, undertake ; occumbo (mortem), I suffer death, or 
die ; nubeo, I undertake. But every thing depends upon the meanii^ of 
such verbs, which must be learned from a Dictionary. 

r§ 38a] 3. The active verbs deficioy juvo, adjiivo, defugio^ 
ejffugio, profugioj refugio^ and subterfugio, and the deponents 
imitor, sequor, and sector govern the accusative. They are 
real transitives and the actives have a personal passive. 

Fortes fortana adjuvat. 

Nemo mortem effugere potest 

Gloria virtutem tanquam umbra seguitur. 

Note, The compounds of sequor (§ 209. ) likewise govern the w^ 
cusative : obseqtior, I comply with, alone governs the dative. . 

[§ 390.] 4. Five impersonal verbs (§ 225.), v^hich ex- 
press certain feelings, viz. piget (I am) vexed ; pudet (I am) 
ashamed ; poenitet (I) repent ; taedet (I am) disgusted, ana 
miseret, (I) pity, take an accusative of the person affected. 
As to the case by which the thing exciting such a feeling is 
expressed, see § 441. 

Decety it is becoming, and its compounds likewise govera 
the accusative of the person, but they differ from the above- 
mentioned impersonal verbs, inasmuch as decet and its xsomr 
pounds may liave a nominative for their subject, though not 
a personal one. 

Candida pax homines, trux decet iraferas, 

[§ ^^1*] ^' "^^^ verbs docere (teach) with its compounds 
edocere and dedocere and celare (conceal), have two accusa- 
tives of the object, — one of the thing, and another of the 
person, as AntigontLS iter, quod habebat adversus £umenem, 
omnes celabat, 

Fortuna belli artem victos quoque docet 
Catilina juventutem, quam illexerat, muUis modis mala fad'* 
nora edocebat 

Note, When such a proposition takes the passive form, the aocusative 
of the person becomes the nominative, as omnes celahantur ab Antigono; 
but the thing may remain in the accusative, e. g. Latinae legianee tonga 
sodetate militiam liomanam edoctae ; omnes belli artes edoctus. But the 
thing may be e:[Lpressed also by the preposition de, as celatus sum atekae 
de re ; judices de his rebus docentur. 

[§ 393.] 6, The verbs posco, reposco, Jlagito, I demand ; 
^ro, rogOf I entreat j interrogo and percontor, I ask or in-. 


quire, also admit a double accusative, one of the person, and 
another of the thing, but the verbs which denote demanding 
or entreating also take the ablative of the person with the 
preposition ab^ and those denoting inquiring may take the 
ablative of the thing with de. Peto^ postulo and quaero are 
never used with a double accusative, but the first two have 
always the ablative of the person with ab^ and quaero with 
ab, de or ex, 

NuUa salus bello, pacem te poscimus omnes. 

Legati Hennenses ad Verrem adeunt eumque simulacrum Cer 

reris et Victorian reposcunt 
PusUmem quendam Socrates apudPlatonem interrogat quae" 

dam geometrica. 

C§ ^^O *^' Th® following verbs (which in the passive 
Voice have two nominatives) have in the active two accusa- 
tivesy one of the object and the other of the predicate : di- 
cerey vocare, appellare, nominare, nuncupare, also scribere 
and inscribere ; ducere, habere, Jtidicare, existimare, nume* 
rare, putare (arbitrart), inteUigere, agnoscere, reperire, 
imvenire, facere (pass, fieri), reddere, instituere, constituere, 
creare, deligere, designare, declarare, renunHare, and others ; 
sepraebere, se praestare. Thus we say in the active, Cicero* 
nem universus populus adversus Catilinam consulem decla* 
ravit, and in the passive, Cicero ab universo populo consul 
dedaratus est 

Somulus urbem, quam condidit, Romam vocavit, 
Socrates totius mundi se incolam et civem arbitrabatur. 
Bene de me meritis gratum me praebeo. 
Scytharum gens antiquissima semper habita est 

[§ 395.] 8. The accusative is used with verbs and adjec- 
tives to express the extent of time and space, in answer to 
the questions: — how far? how long? how broad? how deep? 
how thick ? e. g. nunquam pedem a me discessit, he never 
moved one step from me ; a recta consdentia non transver- 
sum unguem oportet discedere, not one finger's breadth ; fossa 
duos pedes lata or longa ; eogitationem sobrii hominis punc' 
tum temporis suscipe, take, for one moment, the thought of a 
rational man ; tres annos mecum habitavit, or per tres annosy 
which however implies that the period was a long one. The 
ablative is not often used in this sense. 


Campus Marathon ah Athenis circUer miliapassutUn decern 

Quaedam bestiolae unum tantum diem vwunL 
Decern armos Trcja oppugnata est ab universa Graeeicu 
Lacrimans in carcere mater nodes diesque assidebat 

[§ 397.] Note. Old, in reference to the years which a person hag lived, 
is expressed in Latin by nattts, with an accusative of the time ; e. gi. 
JDecMsU Alexander mensem unum, annos tres et triginta natm, 

[S 398.] 9. The names of towns, and not unfreqnentlj of 
small islands, are put in the accusative with verbs implying 
motion, without the preposition in or ady which are required 
with the names of countries ; e. g. Juvenes Romani Athenas 
studiorum causa projicisci solebant 

We maj here mention at once all the rules relating to the 
construction of the names of towns. When they denote the 
place whence, they are in the ablative ; when the place where? 
in the dative (locative). When we have to express ** through 
a town," the preposition per is required. 

N{ae» With regard to names of towns denoting the place where 9 there 
is no difficulty when they belong to the first declension or are plurals, as 
Romae, at Rome; Athenis, at Athens. If the names belong to the secmid 
declension they take the termination i, as Beneventi, Tarenii, &c., for 
-the ending t is an ancient form oS the dative of the second declension ai 
in uni, nuUl, When a name of a town belongs to the 3d declensioikt it 
often happens that by a natural change the t of the dative or locative has 
become e, e. g. Ckirikagini, Anxuri, Tibvri, Lacedaemoni, but also Car' 
thagine, Lacedaemone ; and the change of Carthcigini into Carthagine is 
precisely similar to the change of heri into here, 

Deruaratus quidam, Tarquinii regis pater, tt/rannum Cypsc" 

lum quod f err e non poterat, Tarquinios CorifUho fugit, et 

ibi suasfortunas constituiL 
Dionysius tyrannus Syracusis expulsus Corinthi pueros do* 

Romae Consules, Athenis Archontes, Carthagine Suffetes, sive 

judices, quotannis creabantur, 

[§ 399.] Note 1. When the words uf1>s, op/ndum, locus, &c. follow the 
names of towns as appositions, they generally take a preposition ; e. g. 
Demaratus Corinthius se contvlit Tarquinios, in urbem Etruriae fioresr 
ttssimam. In answer to the question where 9 however, the simple ablative 
may be used, but never the dative or genitive ; e. g. Archias Antioehiae 
maius est, ceUhri quondam urhe et copiosa (or in celebri urbe). Whexi these 
words, with their prepositions, precede the names of towns, the latter are 
invariably put in the same case ; e, g. ad urhem Ancyram, ex urbe Bomi^ 
ex cppido TAermis, in oppido Athenis^ in oppido Adrumeto, 


[§ 400.] Noie 2. The words domus and rus are treated like the names 
of towns, ccHisequently domum (also domo$ in the plur. ) and rtM, home, 
into the country ; domo and rure, from home, from the country ; domit 
run (more frequent than rure), at home, in the country. Domi also takes 
the datives meae, tuaef suae, nostrae, vestrae, and cdienae ; but if any other 
adjective is joined with it, or if the name of the possessor is added in the 
getutive, a preposition is commonly used; e. ^. in ilia domo, in domopulh- 
fiea, m privcfta domo, in donto Caesaris or ipsius. In the case of daauan • 
and domo, the rule is on the whole the same. Humi, on the ground, is 
used in the same way in answer to the question where 9 and heMi and 
ndHHae, always in combination with, or in opposition to, domi: beUi 
domique, or domi heRique, domi militiaeque, at home and in the camp. 

£S 401.] The poets may express by the accusative any 

loGuity answering to the question whither? as Italiam fato 

profugus Laviniaque venit litora ; Speluncam Dido dux et 

Trojarms eandem deveniunt; Verba refers aures non per- 

venientia nostras. 

£§ 402.1 10. In exclamations the accusative of the per- 
son or thing wondered at is used, either with the interjec- 
tions o, heu, eheu, or without them ; e. g. ffeu me miserum ! 
O wretched man that I am ! heu dementiam eocistimantium ! 
O the folly of those who believe ! &c. ; me miserum ! 
Huncine hominem ! hancine impudentiam, judices ! hancine 
audaciam ! Ofallacem hominum spem fragilemque fortu^ 
nam et inanes nostras contentiones ! 

[§ 403.] Note, With these as with all other interjections the vocative 
'also is lued when the person or thing itself is invoked. Vae and hei are 
usually joined with the dative, as vae m*sero mihi I vae vktis I Ecce and <n 
are preferred with the nominative. 

[§ 404.1 11. The following prepositions govern the accu- 
sative : CMy apud, ante, adversus and adversum, cis and citra, 
circa and circum, circiter, contra, erga, extra, infra, inter, 
inira, juxta, oh, penes, per, pone, post, praeter, prope, prop* 
ter, secundum, supra, trans, versus, ultra, and in and sub 
when, joined with verbs of motion. Respecting super and 
subter see § 320. 

CHAP. Lxxn. 


[§ 406.] 1. The dative is the case of reference, or if we 
icompsM it with the accusative, the case denoting tft.e Tenuot^t 


object; for as the accusative serves to denote the effect or 
that which is acted upon, in contrast to the agent or active 
subject, so the dative denotes that with reference to which 
the subject acts, or in reference to which it possesses this or 
that quality. Hence the dative is used — 

4i) With all transitive verbs, along with the accusative, either 
expressed or understood, to denote the person in reference to 
whom or for whom a thing is done ; e. g. date panem pan- 
peribtis, mitto tibi librum, suadeo tibi, nuntiavit imperatorif 
promisit militibus. This rule implies that the person for 
whose benefit or loss anything is done, is expressed by the 
dative (dativus commodi et incommodi); e. g. Pisistratus 
sihif non patriae, Megarenses vicit; Non scholae^ sed vitae 

[§ 406.] b) With intransitive verbs, which though they 
usually do not govern any case, may yet express that the 
action is done with reference to something or somebody. We 
mention here especially vacare, nubere, and supplicare, Vaeo 
signifies " I am free," hence vaco alicui rei, I have leisure 
for a thing or occupy myself with it, as vaco philosophiae, 
Nubo originally signifies " I cover ;" and as according to an 
ancient custom the bride on her wedding-day covered he^ 
face, she was said nubere alicui viro, " to cover herself for a 
man," that is, " to marry." Supplico signifies " I am a sup- 
pliant " (supplex\ hence supplico alicui, I implore a person. 

Homo non sibi soli natus est, sed patriae, sed suis. 

Civitas Romana inter bellorum strepitum parum olim vacabat 

liberalibus disciplinis, 
Flures in Asia mulieres singulis viris solent nubere, 
Neque Caesari solum, sed etiam amicis e^'us omnibus pro te, 

sicut adhucfeci, libentissime supplicabo, 

[§ *^'*i Note. Suadeo tibi hanc rem, has nothing that is strange to ust 
as we use the same construction in English. Persuadeo denotes tbeeom^ 
pletion of suadeo^ and must be noticed here because its construction difiecs 
from that of our verb " to persuade." We use the passive form " I am 
persuaded," but in Latin we must say hoc (or any other neuter pronoun) 
fniM persuadetur, as the construction is managed in such a way as to make 
the clause which follows the subject : persuadetur mihi, perntaswn miMtstt 
mihi perfuasum habeo. 

Mihi quidem nunquam pertuaderi potuitt animosy dum in corportbus etsaii 
mortalHnu, vivere, quum exittent.ex Ai<, emori, 

[§ ^^O ^* "^^6 dative is joined with all adjectives (and 
adverbs) whose meaning is incomplete, unless a persoii or an 


object is mentioned for or against whom, for whose benefit 
or loss the quality exists. Of this kind are those which ex- 
press utility or injury, plecisantness or unpleasantness, in^ 
^nation or disinclination, ease or difficulty, suitableness 
or unsuitableness, similarity or dissimilarity, equality or m* 

Adjectives expressing a friendly or hostile disposition to- 
wards a person, sometimes take the prepositions in, ergo, ad- 
versus, instead of the dative ; and utilis, inutilis, aptus, ineptus^ 
generally take the preposition ad to express the tMng for which 
any thing is useful or fit ; e. g. homo ad nullam rem utilis ; 
locus aptus ad insidias ; but the person to or for whom a 
.thing is useful or fit, is idways expressed by the dative. 

Cams nonne similis lupo ? atque, ut Ennius, '^ simia quam 

similis, turpissima bestia, nobis!" 
Fidelissimi ante omnia homini canis et equus, 
Invia virtuti nulla est via. 

Cunctis esto benignus, nulli blandus, paucis familiaris, omni" 
' bus aequus. 

Note. The adjectives similis^ assimilist coniimiUs, dissimilis, par and dis- 
par, take the genitive, when an internal resemblance, or a resemblance ia 
character and disposition, is to be expressed. 

r§ 412.1 3. Hence the dative is joined with those intrant 
aitive verbs which express the same ideas as the adjectives 
mentioned in § 409., and also with those denoting, to com- 
mand, serve, trust, mistrust, approach, threaten, and to be 
angry. The following list contains the principal ones : pro- 
sum, auxilior, patrocinor, subvenio, medeor ; noceo, obsum, 
officio, incommodo, insidior ; faveo, indulgeo, studeo, parco^ 
adUlor, blandior, assentior; adversor, refragor, obsto, invideo,^ 
4iemulor, obtrecto, convicior, maledico ; impero, pareo, cedo, 
'Obedio, obtempero, servio, inservio, ministro, fido, confido, 
appropinquo, minor, irascor, stomachor, succenseo. To these 
must be added the impersonals convenit, it suits ; conducit 
and expedit, it is conducive, expedient ; dolet, it grieves. The 
beginner must take especial care not to use the passive of 
these verbs personally, to which he might easily be tempted 
by the English equivalents ; e. g, / am envied, I am molested, 
I am scolded, I am spared, and the like. In Latin the pas^ 
^ve is impersonal : mihi invidetur, obtrectatur^ incommo^ 
JMiAT^ mihi maledicitur, parcitur. 



Probus invidet neminu 
Philosophia medetur animis, 

Antiochus se nee impensae, nee labori, nee periculo parsurum 
poUicebatur, donee liberam vere Graeciam atque in ea 
- principes Aetolos feeisset 

Demosthenes ejtcs ipsiics artis, eui studebat, primam lifteram 
• non peterat dicere. 

[§ 415.] 4. Verbs compounded with the prepositions ad^ 
ante, eon, in, inter, ob, post, prae, sub, and super, preserving, 
as compounds, the meaning of the prepositions, may be joined 
with a dative instead of repeating the preposition, or an 
equivalent one with the case it requires : e. g. Romani leges 
incidebant in aes, or aeri ; natura inscripsit in mentibtcs nos- 
tris, or mentibtcs nostris ; comparare bellum cum pace, or pad 
They are either transitives, and as such have an accusative 
besides, or intransitives without an accusative of the object 

The following are the most important transitive verbs of this kind : 
fiddof affhro, afflgo, adhiheo, adjicio^ adjungoy admoveOy aJRgo^ af^ico ; ctr- 
cumjicio ; comparOj compono, conferoj conjungo ; immisceo, impono, imprimo, 
incldOf includo, inferos ing^ro* injicio, insiro, inuro ; interjicio, interpono; 
objiciOi offundot oppono ; posthabeOy postpone ; praefero, prae/icio, prcieponOi 
'suljicio, supponOf subitemo. 

The following are intransitive : accedOf acquiesco, adhaereOt aUudoy camua, 
arrepOf assideo, asplro ; antecello ; cohaereOf coHHdoy congruoy consentio, oon- 
sdno ; exceUo ; inctdoy incubo and incumbo, indorinioy inhaereoy inhiOy 
'immorior, immdror, innascoTy insisto ; interjaceoy intervenio ; obripo, obsiripot 
cbversor i praemineOy praesideo, praevcUeo; sitccumbo, supersto, superviva, 
and the compounds of esse : adsuniy insumj intersum, praesutHf sttbaumt 

[§ 416.] It must be remarked in general that the preposi- 
tion or one equivalent to it, is usually repeated in verbs com- 
pounded with ad, eon, and in : e. g. adhibeo, confero, eon" 
jungo, eommunico, comparo, imprimo, inseribo, insum, and 
also interest in the sense of "there is a difference;" e. g. 
studium adhibere ad diseiplinas ; eonferte {comparate, con- 
tendite) hane pacem cum illo belio; hospitio et amiciiia 
meeum eonjunctus est; consilia sua mecum communicavit ; 
in hac vita nihil inest nisi miseria. 

[§ 417.] The compounds of verbs of motion are constraed 
with either the dative or the accusative, and some compounds 
ofJ€ieer€, stare and sedere, follow their analogy. (See § 386.) 
-Hence the verbs of excelling, if their simple verbs denote mo- 
tion, are mostly construed with the accusative, and aniecdh, 
/^raecelio and praemineo, which at least admit the accusadf^ 
follow their example. 


[§ 418.] 5. The verbs aspergo and inspergo, circumdo^ 
and circumfundo, dono and impertio, exuo and induo^ are 
used, either like the above-mentioned transitives, with an 
accusative of the thing and a dative of the person, or with 
an accusative of the person and an ablative of the thing ; 
e. g. circumdo alicui ctistodias, or drcumdo aliquem cus" 
todiiSy and consequently in the passive voice ctistodiae tibi 
tircumdantur or (tu) circumdaris eustodm. So also : ma-* 
euUis aspergo vitae tuae, or maculis vitam tuam aspergo; 
dono tibi pecuniam, or pecunia te dono ; impertio tibi taudeSf 
or laudibus te impertio, &c. 

[§ 419.] 6. With passive verbs the dative is sometiines 
used, instead of ab with the ablative. 

Quidquid in hac catisa mihi susceptum est, Quirites^ id 

omne me rei publicae causa suscepisse confirmo. 
Barbarus hie ego sum, quia non intelligor ulli, 

• iViofe. It is a rule of the Latin language always to join the dadre in- 
stead of ab with the ablat to the gerund and the participle future passiTe ; 
^ g. moriendum mihi est. See § 649. 

[§ 420.] 7. Esse with the dative of a person expresses 
the Enghsh " to have," e. g. sunt mihi multi libriy I have 
many books, t\\e same as habeo multos libros, 

JSomini cum deo similitudo est 

An nescis, longas regibus esse manus ? 

[§ 421.] Hence mihi est nomen or cognomen (also cogno^ 
mentum) signifies "I have a name," that is, "my name is" 
or "I am called." The name itself is put either in the 
nominative or the dative, being attracted by the dative of 
the person. 

Syracusis est fons aquae dulcis, cut nomen Arethusa est, 
Consules leges decemvirales, quibus tabulis duodecim est 
nomen, in aes incisas, in publico proposuerunt 

Note, The same is the case with the (passive) expressions datum, 
inditum, factum est nomen; e. g. TarquiniuSf cut cognomen Superbo ex 
moribus datum. The name itself is commonly put in the dative also with 
the active verbs dare, addere, indere, dicerCf ponere, imponeref tribuere alicui 
nomen ; e. g. dare alicui cognomen tardo ac pingui ; desipiunt omnes aeque 
ac tu, qui tibi nomen insano ponuere ; but it may also be put in the same 
case as nomen, that is, in the accus., as : atirps viriUs, cui Ascaniumparentet 
dixere nomen. 

The name may be expressed also by the genitive, according to the 
li^eneral rule that of two substantives joined to each other, one is put in 
Che genitive ; e. g. MeteUus praetori cut ex virtutt Mooedoiuci iwriMuvndsAMn^ 

K 2 


eraU This, howcTer, is not the ordinary practice in the case of real prefer 
names, but is generally confined to surnames. j 

[§ 422.] 8. With the verbs esse^ dare^ mittere and venire^ 
and others of the same meaning, besides the dative of the 
person, another is used to express the purpose, intention, 
and destination. 

Note, Dare belongs to this class both in its sense of '< to give,** and iit 
that of ** to put to one's account." Its analogy is folio wecf by nuttn and 
rdinquo. The following verbs have a similar meaning : apponere^ duceret 
habere, trihuere and vertere. Esse, in this respect, is equivalent to the 
English " to do,*' in ** it does him honour,*' and the passives Jieri, dari, 
diici, haberi, tribui, v^rtif have a similar meaning. Proficisci is sometimes 
construed like ventre. 

Virtutes hominibus decori gloriaeque sunt 

Attains^ Asiae rex, regnum suum Romanis dono dedii. 

Mille Plataeenses Atheniensibus adversus Persas auxilio 


'Note. There is a great variety of datives of this kind ; e. g. dono 
aliquid muneri, praemio • rdinquo milites auxilio, subsidio, praesidio, cut* 
todiae ; tribuitur or datur mihi vitio, crimini, odio, probro, opprobrio, laudif 
^aluti, utiliUUi, emolumento, &c. 

CHAP. Lxxm. 


[§ 423.] 1. When two substantives not expressing the same 
thing are united with each other so as to form the expressiou 
of only one idea, one of them is in the genitive. This genitive, 
dependent upon a substantive, is in Latin of a double kind, 
according as it expresses either the subject or the object. 
The genitive is subjective, when it denotes that which does 
something or to which a thing belongs ; e. g. hominum fctcta, 
liber pueri: it is objective when it denotes that which is 
affected by the action or feeling spoken of; e. g. amor vir* 
tutis, taedium laboris, desiderium otii, remedium doloris. 

The objective genitive is used very extensively in Latin, 

foT it is not only joined with those substantives which are 

derived from verbs gOYerning the c^icusative — e. g. expug*. 


Tkttio urbis, the taking of the town; indagatio veri, the 
investigation of truth ; scientia linguae, the knowledge of a 
language; amor joa^nae, the love of one's country; cupiditas 
pecuniae, desire for money ; but with those also, the cor- 
responding verb of which requires either a different case,, 
or a preposition ; e. g. taedium laborisy disgust for work ; 
fiduda virium suarum, confidence in his own strength ; con- 
tenHo honorum, a contest for honours, &c« 

Nuper Gn, Domitium scimus M. Silano, consulari kominiy 

diem dixisse propter ufdus hominiSy Aegritomari, patemi 

amici atque nospitis, injurias. 
Est autem amicitia nihil aliud, nisi omnium divinarum 

humanarumque rerum cum benevolentia et caritate summa 

tnitium et causa belli (civilis) inexplebilis honorum Marii 

fames (fuit). 

Note. Something analogous to the Latin subjectWe and objective 
genitive occurs in English in such expressions as *' God's love,*' that is, 
the love which God shows to men, and the ** love of God," that is, the 
love which men bear to God. Tlie Latin language having no such means 
of distinguishing, is frequently ambiguous; e. g. fuya ?ioniinum may be 
either " the escape from men," or " the flight " or "escape of men," and in 
all such combinations as metus hostiunt, injuria mti/terum, Judicium Ferris, 
tritanphus Bqjorunif opinio deorumy the genitive may be either subjectiva 
(active) or objective (passive) , but the context generally shows what is 
meant. In case of any real ambiguity, a preposition may be used 
in Latin instead of the genitive ; e, g. ex injuria in or adversus vmlieres, 
in qpinione de diia. This is the case especially with substantives denoting 
a disposition, either friendly or hostile towards any thing ; e. g. amor 
{animus) meus erga te ; odium, ira, simultas adversus inimicum. In general, 
however, a preposition is much more rarely used in joining two sub- 
stantives, and it is a part of the conciseness of the Latin language 
to express the relation of the genitive, if possible, by the genitive 

[§ 426.] 2. The genitive in the connection of two sub- 
stantives also expresses the external condition or the internal 
nature of a thing ; and if any of the tenses of esse, fieri, 
haheri, appears in such a combination, the genitive id not. 
dependent upon these verbs, but must be explained by the 
omission of a substantive, such as homo and res. This at the 
same time constitutes the difference between the genitive 
of quality (genitivus qualitatis) and the ablative of quality 
with the verb esse. But as there is a special part of speech 
to express qualities, viz., the adjective, the quality can be 
e;q>re8sed by a substantive only when this substantw^ \te.^ 

K 3 

198 ULim GRAMSiAB. 

is qualified bj an adjective. We cannot saj, for example,^ 
homo ingenii, a man of talent (which is expressed by hmno 
ingemo9us\ but we may say homo magni, summiy exocHerUis 
mgenii. Again, we cannot say homo annorum, but we may 
say homo viginti or quadraginta annomm, Comp. § 468. 

Athemenses belli duos duces deligunty JPericlemy spectatae 

virtutis virum, et Sophoclem, scriptorem tragoediarum, 
Titus fctcilitatis tantae fuit et lU>eralitatis, ut nemini quid' 

quctm hegaret, 
Hamilcar secum in Hispaniam duxit filium HanmbaUm 

annorum novem. 
Spes unica populi Romani, L, QuincHuSy trans Tiberim 

quattuor jugerum colebat agrum, 

[§ 487.] Note, The genitive thus serves to express all the attributes of 
a person or thing, relating to its extent, nnmber, weight, duration, age,- 
and the like, provided such attributes are expressed by the immediate con- 
nection of substantives. Thus we say colossus centum viginti pedum^ a 
colossus of 120 feet in height; corona parvi ponderist sl cioxra of little, 
weight; Aristides exilio decern annorum muitatus est; but when the ad* 
jective longus or lotus is added, we must say fossa guindecim pedes lata ; 
in like manner j^r decern annorum^ but piur decern aainos natus* (§ 395. 

foil.) : 

[§ 429.] 3. The genitive is used to express the whole, of 
which anything is a part, or to which it belongs as a part| 
This is the case: a) with substantives denoting a certain 
measure of things of the same kind ; e. g. modius, medhnnum 
tritici, libra /arris, magna vis auri, jugerum agri, ala eq^^^ 
turn. This genitive may be termed genitivus generis, b) 
With all words which denote a part of a whole {genitivus 
partitivus) where we often use the preposition, *'of" or 
" among." All comparatives and superlatives belong to this 
class of words ; e. g. doctior horum (duorum) juvenum ; doc* 
tissimus omnium; eloquentissimus Romanorumy and also all 
words implying a number, whether they are real numerals^ 
or pronouns and adjectives, as quia, aliquis, quidam, utery 
alter, neuter, alteruter, uterque, utervis, aliquot, solus, 
nulluSy nonnulliy multi, pauci; or substantives, as nemo, 
pars, numerus. The genitive belonging to the superlative 
of adjectives is retained also with superlatives as adverbs. 
Thus we say optimus omnium est, and also optime omnium 

Graecorum oratorum praestantissimus fait Demosthenes, 
Ibpultis Momanus legem djtdxi^ vX oonmlum alter ex pieb$ 


Ikto sunt aditus in Ciliciam ex SyricL, quorum uterque pavm, 
vis praesidiis propter angiistias intercludi potest. 

' Note, Instead of the pcenitive we may also use the prepositions ex and 
tiller, and sometimes de, but never ab. 

The words uter, alter, neuter, differ from quit, aKvs, nuUui, by their 
referring to a whole consisting of only two. The difference between 
noetri, vettri, and nostrum, vestrum is that the forms ending in urn are 
used as partitive genitives ; comp. § 131. 

[§ 432.1 4. The neuters of pronouns and of some adjec« 
tives usea as pronouns, are joined with a genitive for two 
reasons : first, because in meaning they have become substan- 
tives, and secondly, because they express a part of a whole. 
Such neuters are : — hoc, id, illudy istud, idem, quid and quod 
with their compounds {aliquid, quidquid, quippiam, quid" 
quam, quodcunque), aliud; tantum, quantum, aliquantum, 
multum,' plus, plurimum, minus, minimum, paulum and nt- 
mmm with their diminutives and compounds ; tantulum, tan* 
tundem, quantulum, quantulumcunque, &c. To these we must 
add nihil, nothing, which is always used as a substantive ; 
and the adverbs satis, enough ; parum, too little ; abundey 
affdtim, abundantly. 

It is however to be observed that these neuters are used 
as substantives only in the nominative and accusative, and 
that they must not be dependent upon prepositions. 

Qfumtum incrementi Ntlus capit, tanium spei in annum est 
JProeellae quanta plus habent virium, tanto minus temporis. 
I^thagoras, quum in geometria quiddam novi invenissety 

Musis bovem immolasse didtur, 
Justitia nihil expetit praemii, nihil pretii. 
Satis eloquentiae, sapientiae parum in Catilinafuit, 

[§ ^^'l ^^^^' 1"^® genitive joined with these neuters is often not a 
real substantive, but the neuter of an adjective, which is used as a sub* 
Ktantive, as above quiddam novi. It must be observed here, that only 
adjectives of the second declension (in um) can be treated as substantives, 
and not those of the third in e, nor the comparatives in us. We may 
therefore say aliguid novum and aUquid novi, but only aUquid memorabile^ 
andgravius cUiquid; and not aliquid memorabilis, or aliquid gravioris, 

[§ ^^^'l ^' "^^ neuters of adjectives in general, both in 
the singular and plural, are sometimes used as substantives, 
and joined with a genitive, e. g. exiguum campi ante castra 
erat, for which it would be more common to say, exiguus 
tampus; in ultima Celtiberiae penetrare^ suvxvml tectcyrui^ 

K 4 


ohtinere, instead of in ultimam Celtiberiam penetrare^ and 
summa tecta obtinere, 

[§ 436.] 6. Many adjectives denoting a relation to a thing 
(adjectiva relativa), especially those which express partak' 
in/jf, desirinffy fulness^ experiencey capacityy or rememberingy 
and their contraries, are joined with the genitive of a sub* 
stantive or pronoun. Thus we say memor promissi, remem- 
bering a promise ; compo^ mentis, in possession of his mind. 
.Such relations are expressed in English by prepositions. 

The following in particular are construed in this way:— 
particepSy expers, consors, exsors ; cupidtiSy studiostiSy aviduSy 
avarus ; plenits, capax, insatiabiUsyfecunduSyfertiliSy/eraXy 
sterilis ; peritus, imperituSy consciuSy inscitiSy gnaruSy ignarus, 
rudis, prudens, providtiSy compoSy impoSy potens and impdtens: 
memor, immemory tenaXy curiosus, incuriosus, 

•Pythagoras sapientiae studiosos appellavit philosophoSd 
- Themistocles peritissimos belli navalis fecit Athenienses* 
Venturae memoresjam nunc estate senectae, 
Nescia mens hominumfati sortisque futarae, 

[§ 438.] 7. The participles present active are joined with 
a genitive when they do not express a simple act or a mo- 
rnentary condition, but, like adjectives, a permanent quality 
or Condition. The following list contains those most in 
use: — amanSy appetenSy colens, fugierf^, intelltgens, tnetuenSf 
kegligensy observansy retinens, tolerans, patiens, impatiens, 
temperans, intemperans ; e. g. amans patriae, Gracchi aman- 
dssimi pubis Romanae, appetens laudisyftigiens laborisy immi' 
nentium intelligens, officii negligens, miles patiens or impa^ 
tiens solis, pulveris, tempestatum. 

Epaminondas adeo fait veritatis diligenSy ut ne joco guidem 

Romani semper appetentes gloriae praeter ceteras gentes at-' 

que avidi laudis fuerunt 

[§ 439.] 8. With verbs of reminding, remembering and 
forgetting {admoneo, commoneo, commonefacio aliquem ; mC' 
mini, reminiscor, recordor^ also in mentem mihi venit; obit* 
viseor), the person or the thing, of which any one reminds 
another or himself, or which he forgets, is expressed by the 
genitive; but there are many instances also in which the 
thing is expressed by the accusative. 

Jtfedicus, ut primum mentis compotem esse regem sensit, modo 


mains sororumque, modo tantae victoriae appropinquantis 

admonere non destitit, 
Hannibal milites adhortatus est, ut reminiscerentur pristinae 

virtutis suae, neve mtdierum liberumque (for et liberoruni) 

Tu, C. Caesar, oblivisci nihil soles, nisi injurias, 
Ulud semper memento : qui ipse sibi sapiens prodesse nequity 

nequicquam sapit, 

a44i.] 9. The impersonal verbs pudet, piget, poenitet, 
t and miseret, require the person in whom the feeling 
exists to be in the accusative, and the thing which produces 
Jhe feeling in the genitive. The thing producing the feeling 
may also be expressed by an infinitive, or by a sentence with 
gtu>d or with an interrogative particle, e. g. pudet me hocfe* 
cisse, poenitet nie quod te offendi, non poenitet me quantum 
profecerim. As to the forms of these verbs, see § 225. 

Malo, me fortunae poeniteat, quam victoriae pudeat. 
Eorum nos magis miseret, qui nostram misericordiam non 

requirunt, quam qui illam efflagitant 
Socratem non puduit fateri, se multas res nescire* 
Quern poenitet peccasse, paene est innocens, 

[§ 448.] Note. The personal verbs misereor and miserescot " I pity," 
are joined with a genitive, like the impersonal verb miseret. Miserari and 
cofnmiferari (to pity), on the other hand, require the accusative. 

Pudii requires a genit. also, in the sense of ** being restrained by shame 
•or respect for a person." 

[§ 444.] 10, The verbs of estimating or valuing and their 
passives {aestimare, ducere, facere, fieri, habere, pendere, 
putare, taxare and esse) are joined with the genitive, when the 
value is expressed in a general way by an adjective, but with 
the ablative, when it is expressed by a substantive. (Comp. 
§ 456.) Genitives of this kind are: — magrd, permagni, 
pluris, plurimi, maximi, parvi, minoris, minimi, tanti, quatiti, 
and the compounds tantidem, quantivis, quanticunque : but 
never multi and majoris. The substantive to be understood 
with these genitives is pretii, which is sometimes expressed 
(with esse). 

Si prata et hortulos tanti aestimamus, quanti est aestimanda 

virtus f 
Mea mihi conscientia pluris est, quam omnium sermo, 

[§ 445.] The same rule applies to general 8tatemf^tvt& ^^ 

K 5 


price with the verbs of buying, selling^ lending^ and hiring 
{emerCy vendere, the passive venire, condticerey locare^ and as 
passives in sense, stare and constare, prostare and licere^ to 
be exposed for sale). But the ablatives magnoy permagnoy 
plurimoy parvOy minimo, nihiloy are used very frequently in- 
stead of the genitives. 

Mercatores non tantidem vendunty quanti emerunt 
Nulla pestis humano generi pluris stetity quam tra, 
Non potest parvo res magna constare, 
Parvo fames constat, magno fastidium. 

r§ 446.] 11. The genitive is used to denote the crime or 
offence, with the verbs accuso, incuso, argtw, interrogOy in* 
simuhy increpOy infamo ; convincOy coarguo ; jtidicOy damnoy 
condemno ; absolvOy liberOy purgo ; arcessOy cito, defero, pos* 
tuloy reum facioy alicui diem dicoy cum aliquo ago. The 
genitive joined to these verbs depends upon the substantive 
crimine or nomine, which is understood^ but sometimes also 

Mildades proditionis est accusatus, quod, quum Parum ex- 

pugnare possety e pugna discessisset 
Thrasybulus legem, tulity ne quis ante actarum rerum accttsa* 

retur neve multaretur, 

[ § 447.] Note. Hie punishment, with the verbs of condemning, is 
commonly expressed by the genitive ; e. g. capitis, jnoriiSf mtUtae, jMcvnioe, 
qfiadrupli, octupli, and less frequently by the ablative, tapiie, tnorte, tmdta, 
pecunia. The ablative, however, is used invariably when a de6nite sum 
is mentioned ; e. g. decern, quindectm, milibus aeris. Sometimes we find 
the preposition ad or an .* adpoenam, ad beatias, ad metaUa, in metaHum, in 

[§ 448.1 12. The genitive is used with the verbs esse and 
Jleriy in tne sense of "it is a person's business, office, lot, or 
property," the substantive res or negotium being understood : 
e. g. hoc est praeceptorisy this is the business of the teacher ; 
non est mearum virium, it is beyond my strength ; Asia 
Romanorum facta est, Asia became the property of the 

But instead of the genitive of the personal pronouns mei, 
tuiy suiy nostriy vestri, the neuters of the possessives meum, 
tuumy suum, nostrum, vestrum esty erat, &c., are used. 

Cujusvis hominis est errare, nullius nisi insipientis in errore 

ABLAtlTE CASE.^ 208 

Sapientis judicis est, semper non quid ipse velit, sed quid lex 

et religio cogat, cogitare, 
Bella Galileo praeter Capitolium omnia hostium erant. 
Tuum est, videre quid agatur, 

[§ 449.] 13. A similar ellipsis takes place with the imper- 
sonal verb interest, it is of interest or importance (to me), the 
person to whom any thing is of importance being expressed 
by the genitive ; but instead of the genitive of the personal 
pronouns, the possessives mea, tua, sua, nostra, vestra, are 
used. The same is the case with the impersonal refert (pro- 
bably a compound for remfert), which has the same meaning. 
These possessives in the case of interest are accusatives neu- 
ter plural, commoda being understood ; but in the case of 
refert the a of those pronouns is long, which is accounted for 
by supposing that originally the phrase was rem fert meam, 
tuam, &c. The thing which is of interest or importance is 
not expressed by a substantive, but sometimes by the neuter 
of a pronoun ; e. g. hoc mea interest, and usually by an accusa- 
tive with the infinitive, or by ut and the interrogative parti- 
cles with the subjunctive: e. g. multum mea interest te esse 
diltgentem, or ut diligens sis, (utrum) diligens sis nee ne. 

Semper Milo, quantum interesset P. Clodii, se perire, cogi* 

Caesar dicere solehat, non tarn sua, quam reipublicae inter* 

esse, uti salvus esset 
Quid refert, utrum voluerim fieri, an factum gaudeam ? 

[§ *^'Ji Note. The degree of importance is expressed by adverbs or 
neuter adjectives, or by their genitives: magisy magnoperey vehementery 
parwity minimey torn, tantopere ; multumy plusy plurimumy permvUumy mfinitumy 
mirum quantuniy minuSy nihily aliquid, quiddaniy tanturoy quantum ; tanti, 
quanti, magniy permagni, parvu 



[§ 461.] The Ablative serves to denote certain relations 
oi* substantives, which are expressed in most other languages 
by prepositions. 

K 6 


iVb/e. This is an important difference between the ablative and the 
other oblique cases ; for the latter expressing necessary relations between 
nouns, occur in all languages which possess cases of inflection, and do not, 
like the French or English, express Uiose relations by prepositions. But 
the ablative is a peculiarity of the Latin language, which might indeed 
be dispensed with, but which contributes greatly to its expressive con- 

1. The ablative is used first with passive verbs to denote 
the thing by which any thing is effected (ablativus rei efficient 
tis\ and which in the active construction is expressed by the 
nominative : e. g. sol mundum illustraty and sole mundus 
illustratur; fecunditas arborum me delectat, and /ecunditcUe 
arborum detector. If that by which any thing is effected is 
a person^ the preposition ab is required with the ablative, 
with the sole exception of the participles of verbs denoting 
" to be bom " (natuSy genitits, ortus), to which the name of 
the father or family is generally joined in the ablative without 
a preposition. Ab cannot be used with the ablative of a 
thing by which any thing is effected, unless the thing be 

Dei providentid mundus administratur. 

Non est consentaneum, qui metu non frangatur, eum frangi 

cupiditatej nee qui invictum se a labore praestiterUy vinci 

a voluptate. 

[§ 452.] 2. An ablative expressing the cause (ablativus 
causae) is joined with adjectives, which, if changed into a 
verb, would require a passive construction : e. g./essus, aeger, 
saucius (equivalent to qui fatigatus, morbo qffectuSy vulne' 
ratus est) — and with intransitive verbs, for which we may 
generally substitute some passive verb, of at least a similar 
meaning, as interiit fame, consumptus est fame ; gaudeo ho- 
nore tuo, delector honore tuo. Thus verbs expressing feeling 
or emotion are construed with the ablative of the thing which 
is the cause of the feeling or emotion, as doUofratris morte, 
lacrimabat gaudio. Sometimes the prepositions propter and 
per are used instead of such an ablative, and when a person 
is described as the cause of an emotion, they are just as neces- 
sary as ab is with passive verbs. 

We must notice in particular the following verbs : — Gh' 

rior, I boast ; laborOy I suffer from ; nitor and innitor, I lean 

upon ; stOy I depend upon a thing ; fido and cofiftdoy I trust 

in a thing, and the verbs constare, contineri, to consist of, 

are coDstrued with the ablat. to daiiote that of which a thing 


l^nsists ; but constare is joined more frequently witli ex or 
!«, and contineri in the sense of " to be contained in a thing," 
is generally used with in ; nitor with in and the ablat, and 
fido and conjido with the dat. 

Concordia res parvae crescunt^ discordia maximae dila- 

Est adohscentis majores natu vereri exque his deligere opti' 

mos et probatissimos^ quorum consilio atque atcctoritate, 

Virtute decet, non sanguine niti. 
Diversis duobus vitiiSy avaritia et luxuriay civitas Romana 

Delicto dolere, correctione gaudere nos oportet 

[§ 454.3 'Note, With transitlTe verbs also, the cause or the thing in 
consequence of which anything is done, b not expressed by the ablative 
but by the preposition propter or a circumlocution with causa, e. g» 
instead c£ joco dicere,joco mentiriy we find joct causa dicere or mentiri; hoc 
onus suscepi tuS causa; honoris tui causS, propter amicitiam nostrcmu 
When the cause is a state of feeling, the best Latin writers prefer a cir- 
cumlocution with the perfect participle of some verb denoting ** to in- 
duce ; " e. g. to do a thing from some desire, cupiditate duetto, motus, 
captus, &c, 

[§ 455.] 3. An ablative is joined with verbs of every kind 
to express the means or instrument by which a thing is done 
{ablativus instrumenti). Thus we say manu ducere aliquem^ 
to lead a person by the hand ; equOy eurrUy nave vehi, the 
horse, carriage, and ships being the means of moving. 

Benivolentiam civium blanditOs colligere turpe est, 
Comibus tauriy apri dentibus, morsu leones, aliae fuga se, 

aliae {bestial) occultatione tutantur, 
i^aturam eocpellas furca^ tamen usque recurret 

Note. When a person is the instrument by which anything is effected, 
the ablative is rarely used; but generally the preposition per, or the cir- 
cumlocution with operd^ alicujus, which is so frequent, especially with 
possessive pronouns, that me^, tuu, suS, &c. operS are exactly the same 
as per me, per te, per se, &c. 

[§ 456.] 4. Hence with verbs of buying and selling, of 
estimation, value, and the like, the price or value of a thing 
Ss expressed by the ablative, provided it is indicated by a 
definite sum or a substantive. 

Note, Respecting the genitive in general expressions, see % 444^^ 


where it is observed that, contrary to the general rule, the ablaUve^ 
magnOt permagno, plurimo, parvo, minimo, are often joined to verbs denoting 
"to buy" and *«sell" 

Darius mille talentis percussorem Alexandri emere voluit 

Viginti talentis unam orationem Isocrates vendidit, 

Denis in diem assibus anima et corpus militum aestimantur. 

[§ 457.] 5. The ablative is joined with nouns (both sub- 
stantive and adjective) and verbs to express a particular 
circumstance or limitation, where in English the expressions 
"with regard to," "as to," or "in" are used: e. g. Nemo 
Homanorum Ciceroni par fuit, or Ciceronem aequavit eUh 
quentid, in eloquence, or with regard to eloquence. Hence 
a great number of expressions by which a statement is 
modified or limited, as med sententid, frequently with the 
addition of quidem; natione Syrus^ a Syrian by birth; 
genere facile primus ; Hamilcar cognomine Barcas, &c, 

Agesilaus claudus fuit (claudicabat) altero pede. 
Sunt quidam homines, non re, sed nomine* 

[§ 460.] 6. The ablative is used with verbs denoting 
plenty or want, and with the corresponding transitives of 
filing, endovnng, depriving. {Ablativus copiae aut inopiae,) 
Verbs of this kind are: — 1. abundare, redundare, affluere, 
circumfluere,Jlorere,vigere; carere, egere, indigere, vacare; 
2. complere, explere, implere, cumulare, satiare; afficere, 
donare, omare, augere ; privare, spoliare, orbare, fraudare, 
nudare, exuere, and many others of a similar meaning. 

Germania rivis Jluminihusque abundat 

Quam Dionysio eratmiserum, carere consuetudine amicorum, 

societate victHs, sermone omnino familiari ! 
Arcesilas philosophus quum acumine ingenii Jioruit, turn 

admirabili quodam lepore dicendi. 
Consilio et auctoritate non modo non orbari, sed etiam augeri 

senectus soleL 
Mens est praedita motu sempitemo. 

[§ 461-3 Note 1. We must pay especial attention to the verb afficere^ 
properly " endow with,** but it is used in a great many ways, and may 
sometimes be translated by " to do something to a person : " afficere 
aliquem honore, benejiciot laetitia, praemiOf iffnominia, injuria, poerut, inortty 
sepultura. Notice also praeditus, endowed, equivalent to affectus, 

f§ 46^.] Note 2. The adjectives denoting fuU and empty are some* 
.times joined with the ablative although as adjectiva relativa they take a 


genitive (see § 436). Mefertus, filled, as a participle of the verb refercip 
has regularly the ablative. 
Ituj^eo IS very frequently joined with a genitive. 

[§ 464.] 7. Opus esty there is need, is used either as an 
impersonal verb, in which case it takes, like the verbs 
denoting want, an ablative, e. g. duce (exemplis) nobis Optis 
esty or personally, in which case the thing needed is ex- 
pressed by the nominative, e. g. dux nobis opus esty exempla 
nobis opus sunt The latter construction is most frequent 
with the neuters of pronouns and adjectives. 

Athenienses Philippidem cursorem Lacedaemonem miserunt, 

ui nuniiaret, quam celeri opus esset auxiUo, 
Themistocles celeriter quae opus erant reperiebat, 

[§ 465.] 8. The ablative is joined with the deponent 
verbs utor, fruovy fungovy potior and vescovy and their com- 
pounds abutovy perfruoTy defungor and perfungor, 

Hannibal quum victoria posset utiyfrui maluit. 

Qui adipisci veram gloriam volety justitiae fungatur of- 

^umidae plerumque lacte etferina came vescebantur, 

[§ 466-3 Note. The five deponents here mentioned were joined in the 
eany language with the accusative, whence afterward their participle fut. 
pass, continued to be regularly used. Potior occurs also with the gen- 
itive ; e. g. reffnh imperii, and especially in the phrase rerum potiri, to 
assume the supremacy. 

[§ 467.] 9. The adjectives dignus, indignus and contentus 
are joined with the ablative of the thing of which we are 
worthy, unworthy, and with which we are satisfied. Dig- 
nariy to be deemed worthy, or, as a deponent, to deem 
worthy, is construed like dignus, 

Quam multi luce indigni sunty et tamen dies oritur I 
Quod cuique temporis ad vivendum datur, eo debet esse con^ 

[§ 468.] 10. The verbs of removingy preventingy deliver ^ 
ingy and others which denote separation, are construed with 
the ablative of the thing, without any of the prepositions 
aby de or ex ; but when separation from a person is expressed 
the preposition ah is always used. The principal verbs of 
this class are: — pellerCy depellerCy expellerCy e^'icere, moverey 
amoverCy demoverCy remover e; abirCy exircy decedere, desistere, 
evadere; liberare, expedirCy solvere; arcere^ prohibere^ €x* 


cludere^ intercludere, abstinere ; together with the adjectives 
libeTj immunis, puruSy vacuus and alienuSy which may be 
used either with the preposition ab or the ablative alone, 
e. g. liber a delictis and Uber omni meiu, but the verbs 
exolverCy exonerare and levare, althoogh implying UbercUiani 
are always construed with the ablative alone. 

Note. The verbs which denote " to distinguish " and ** to differ,'* nt 
dixtingueny discertierey tecemere, differre^ dUcrtparey ditxidere, distare, abhor* 
rere^ together with alienare and tibalienarey are generally joined only with 
the preposition aby and the ablat. alone is rare and poeticaL 

L. Brutus civitatem dominatu regio tiberaviU 

Esse pro cive, qui civis non sit, rectum est non licere, usu 

vero urbis prohibere peregrinos sane inhumanum est, 
Apud veteres Germanos quemcunque mortalium arcere tecto 

nefas habebatur, 
Tu, Juppiter, hunc a tuis arts, a tectis urbis, a moenibus, a 

vita Jfortunisque civium arcebis, 

[§471.] 11. The ablative is used with esse (either ex- 
pressed or understood) to denote a quality of a person or a 
thing (ablativus qualitatisy, But the ablative is used only 
when the substantive denoting the quality does not stand 
alone (as in the case of the genitive, see §426.), but is 
joined with an adjective or pronoun-adjective. Hence we 
cannot say, e. g. Caesar fait ingenio, or homo ingenio, a man 
of talent (which would be expressed by an adjective), but 
we say Caesar magno, summo, or excellenti ingenio, or homo 
summo ingenio, 

Agesilaus staturafuit humili et corpore exiguo. 

Omnes habentur et dicuntur tyranni, qui potestate suntpef 

petua in ea civitate, quae libertate usa est, 
L, Catilifia, nobili genere natus, fait magna vi et animi el 

corporis, sed ingenio malo pravoque. 

Note. With regard to the difference between the ablative and the 
genitive of quality, the genitive is more comprehensive, all ideas of ' 
measure being expressed by this case alone ; but in o^her respects the dis- 
tinction is not very clear. Thus we may say homo magna prudentia or 
magnae prudentiae. But the ablat. depends upon esse, while the genit is 
in immediate connection with the noun. 

[§ *7^*] 12. If the manner in which any thing is done is 

expressed by a substantive, it usually takes the preposition 

cum; e.g. cum fide amicitiam colere ; litterae cum curn 

diltffentiaque scriptae ; cum roluptate avtdire» These ex- 


Jyressions are equiyalent to Jideliter colere, diligenter scriptae, 
Ubenter audire, &c. If an adjective is joined with the sub- 
jstantive, the ablative alone (ablativus modi) is generally 
iised, and the preposition cum is joined to it only when an 
additional circumstance, and not an essential characteristic of 
the action, is to be expressed. The substantives denoting 
manner, as modus, ratio, mos, and others, never take the 
preposition cum. 

Quid est aliud gigantum mode bellare cum diis, nisi naturae 

repugnare ? 
Legiones nostrae in eum saepe locum prqfectae sunt alacri 

animo et erecto, unde se nunquam redituras arbitraren^ 

£pamtnondas ajudicio capitis fnaximd discessit gloria, 
MUdadeSy cum Parum expugnare non potuisset, Athena^ 

magna cum offensione civium suorum rediit 

[§ ^^'•3 Note* If we compare the above rules with those given under 
Nos. 1. and 2., the ablative expressing company alone is excluded, for 
company is expressed by cuniy even in such cases as servi cum tells 
tomprehensi auntt cum ferro in cUiquem invadere, when we are speaking of 
instruments which a person has (if he uses them, it becomes an ablativus 
instrument!) ; further* Romam vent cum febri, I came to Rome as soon 
as the fever broke out ; cum nuntio exire, as soon as the news arrived \ 
cum oecCLSu solis copias educere, as soon as the sun set. 

[S 475.] 13. a) The ablative, without a preposition, is 
Used to express the point of time at which any thing hap- 

Qua node natus Alexander est, eadem Dianae Ephesiae tem- 

plum defiagravit. 
Pompejus extrema pueritia miles fuit summi imperatoris^ 

ineunte adolescentia maximi ipse exercitus imperator. 

[§ "^^^'l ^) The ablative is also used to express the time 
before and the time after a thing happened^ and ante and 
post are in this case placed after the ablative* The meaning, 
however, is the same as when ante and post are joined with 
the accusative in the usual order, just as we may sometimes 
say, in the same sense, " three years after," and " after three 
years," post tres annos decessit, and tribus annis post decessit. 
In this connection the ordinal numerals may be employed, as 
well as the cardinal ones : post tertium annum, and tertio 
anjio post, are the same as tribus annis post ; for by this, as 
by the former expressions, the Romans did not imply that a 


period of three full years had intervened, "but they included 
in the calculation the beginning and the end. When ante oi 
post stands last (as in tribtis annis post or tertio anno post), 
it may be followed by an accusative to denote the time after 
and before which any thing took place. 

Themistocles fecit idem, quod viginti annis ante apud nosfe* 

cerat Coriolantis. 
L. Sextius primus de plebe consul foetus est annis post E(h 

mam conditam trecentis dtwdenonaginta* 

[§ 47&] c) The length of time before the present moment 
is expressed by abhinc, generally with the accusative, but 
also with the ablative; e. g. Demosthenes abkinc annos prope 
trecentos fuitf and abhinc annis quattuor. The same mean- 
ing is also expressed by ante^ with the pronoun hie, as in 
ante hos sex menses ; ante haec tria saecuku 

[§ 479.] d) The length of time tvithin which a thing hap- 
pens may be expressed either by the ablative alone or by t^ 
with the ablative, or by intra with the accusative. 

Agamemnon cum universa Graecia vix decern annis unam 

cepit urbem. 
Senatus decrevit, ut legati Jugurthae^ nisi regnum ipsumqtti 

deditum venissent, in diebus proxinds decem Italia dece^ 


[§ 481.] 14. The ablative without a preposition is used 
in some particular combinations, to denote the place where? 
as terra marique, by land and by sea. Respecting names 
of towns, see § 398. The preposition in is omitted with 
the word loco (and locis\ when it is joined with an ad- 
jective, and has the derivative meaning of "occasion;" e.g. 
hoc locoy multis locis, aliquot lodis, secundo loco, meliore loco 
res nostrae sunt; but this is done more rarely when locus has 
its proper meaning of " spot " or " place." Libro joined with 
an adjective or pronoun, as hoc, prima, tertio, is used without 
in, when the whole book is meant, and with in when merely 
a portion or passage is meant. 

The poets observe no limits in the use of the ablative 
without in to denote a place where ? They further use the 
ablative without ex or ab to indicate the place whence ? 

[§ ^®3*] 15« '^^ ablative is used with adjectives in the 

comparative degree, instead of quam with the nominative, or 

In the construction of the accusative with the infinitive, instead 


of qwam with the accusative of the subject ; e. g. Nemo Ro' 
manorum fuit eloquentior Cicerone ; neminem Romanorum 
ehquentiorem fuisse veteres judicarunt Cicerone, The abla- 
tive instead of quam with the accusative of the object occurs 
more rarely, but when the object is a relative pronoun, the 
aUative is generally used. 

VUius argentum est auro, virtutibus aurum, 
Phidiae simulacris, quibus nihil in illo genere perfectius vi* 
demttSy cogitare tamen possumm pulckriora. 

[§ 485.1 Note I . Minust plus, and amjpUus, when joined to numerals 
are usecT with and without quam, generally as indeclinable words, and 
without influence upon the construction ; minus duo miKa hominum ex 
tamto exercitu effugerunt, instead of quam duo mUUa ; ampUus trecentos 
mtUUs (or trecentos amplius milites) habuit; cum trecentis non amj^ius mi" 
litSbus effitgit. 

[§ ^^-3 ^^^^ ^« "^6 English word *< still," joined with comparatiTes, 
is expressed by etiam, and sometimes by ve/, but never by adhue, 

t§ ^^'H 16. The ablative is used to express the measure 
or amount by which one thing surpasses another, or is sur- 
passed by it. Pauloy muUoy quo, eo, quantOy tanto^ tantulo, 
aliqtiantOy hoc, are ablatives of this kind. 

JBibemta dimidio minor est quam Britannia, 
Homines quo plura habent, eo cupiunt ampliora, 

£8 489.] 17. The ablative is governed by the prepositions 
ah (a, ahs)y absque, clam, coram, cum, de, ex (c), prae, pro, 
sine, tenus (is placed after its case) ; by in and sub when 
abey answer to the question where f and by super in the 
saise of de, " concerning," or " with regard to." Subter is 
joined indifferently either with the ablative or the accusative, 
though more frequently with the latter. 

The preposition in is generally joined with the ablative 
after the verbs of placing (pono, loco, colloco, statuo, constituo, 
and consido), although strictly speaking they express motion, 
and therefore should have in with the accusative. 

Aegyptii ojc Babylonii omnem cur am in siderum cognitione 

Herculem hominum fama, beneficiorum memor, in concilio 

coelestium collocavit. 




[§ 492.] The vocative is not in any immediate connedaon 
with either nouns or verbs, but is inserted to express the 
object to which our words are addressed. 



[§ 493.] 1. The tenses of the Latin verb are used on the 
whole in the same way as those of the English verb, with 
the exception of some peculiarities, which are explained in 
§ 500. folL (Comp. § 150.) The only general rule that can be 
laid down is this : we must first determine whether the action 
or condition to be expressed falls in the present, the past, or 
the future, and in what relation it stands to other actions or 
conditions with which it is connected. For example, /troi 
writing, and / had written, are both actions belonging to the 
past, but in regard to their relation they differ, {or in the 
sentence, " / was writing when the shot was heard^ the act 
of writing was not completed when the shot was heflrd; 
whereas in the sentence " / had written, when my friend 
arrived," the act of writing was completed when the other 
(the arrival of my friend) occurred. The same difference 
exists between, 1 shall write to-morrow, and / shall hate 
written to-morrow ; between / am writing to-day, i. e. I anf 
engaged in an act not yet terminated, and / have written W* 
day, which expresses an act already terminated. This last 
is the proper signification of the Latin perfect, as advenit 
pater, the father has arrived, that is, he is here now. Ho- 
race, at the close of a work, says : exegi monumentum aert 
perennius ; an orator, at the conclusion of his speech, says : 
dixi, that is, " I have done ;" and Virgil, with great emphasis: 
fuimus Troes, fait Ilium, i. e. we are no longer Trojans, 
Hium is no more. 
[§ 4Q4,] 2. The Latin \aiigvxa;g^^l\i^refore has two tenses 


for each of the three great divisions of time, — past, present, 
and future ; one expressing a complete and the other an in-» 
complete action. And the six tenses of the Latin verb are 
thus the result of a combination of time and relation, 

Cscribo, I write, or am writing — present time, and action going on. 
\acrip8i, I have written, — present time, and action terminated. 

{tcribebam, I was writing, or wrote, — past time, and action going on. 
scripseramy I had written, — past time, and action terminated. 

fscribam, I shall write, or be writing, — future time, and action no^ 

< completed. 

l^scripsero, 1 shall have written, — future time and action completed. 

3. The passive has the same tenses with the same mean- 
ings 5 but with this difference, that they do not express ah 
IM^OD, but a condition or suffering. 

flaudor, I am praised, — present time, and condition still going on. 
A laudatus «tfm, I have been praised, — present time, and condition tetm 
\^ minated. 

flaudahar, I was praised, — past time, and condition going on. 

< laudatus eram, I had been praised, — past time, and condition ter- 
[^ minated. 

Chiudahorf I shall be praised, — future time, and condition not completed. 
'< laudatus ero, I shall have been praised, — future time, and condition 
1^ completed. 

[S 496.] 4. The tenses of the present and past time, that 
is, the present, perfect, imperfect, and pluperfect, have also a 
Biilgonctive mood, as scribam, scripserim, scribebam, 8crip-» 
sissem^ and in the passive, scribar, scripttis sim, scriberer, 
scriptus essem. For the relations in which the subjunctive 
IB required, see Chap. LXXVUI. As tenses, these subjunc- 
tives do not differ from the tenses of the indicative. 

5. Neither the active nor the passive voice has a subjunc* 
live of the future, and the deficiency is supplied by other 
means. When the idea of futurity is already implied in 
another part of the proposition, some other tense of the sub« 
junctive supplies the place of the future, viz. the present and 
imperfect supply the place of the future subjunctive, and the 
perfect and pluperfect that of the future perfect. The choice 
of one or other of these four subjunctives is to be determined 
by the time expressed by the leading verb of the proposition, 
and hj the relation of the a<:tion, being either completed or 
not completed ; e. g. Affirmo tibi, si hoc beneficium mihi tri" 
butu, r%e magnopere gavisurumy and affirmabam tibiy si ilhui 


beneficium mihi tribueres, magnopere me gavisurum. It ii 
clear that tribuas and tribueres here supply the place of the 
future subjunctive, for in the indicative we say si mihi tri* 
bues — magnopere gaudebo. Again, Affirmo tibi^ si hot 
beneficium mihi tribueris, me quamcunque possim gratiam iHn 
relaturum, and affirmabat mihi, si illud beneficium ipsi tri' 
buissem, se quamcunque posset gratiam mihi relaturum, 
where tribueris and trtbuissem supply the place of the future 
perfect, for in the indicative we should say si hoc benefidum 
mihi tribueris (from tribuero), quamcunque potero gratiam 
tibi referam, when you shall have shown me this kindnesi. 
The same is the case in the passive voice : affirmo tibif si 
hoc beneficium mihi tribuatur, me magnopere gavisurum i 
affirm^bam tibi, si illud beneficium mihi tribueretur, magnO' 
pere me gavisurum ; affirms tibi, me^ si hoc beneficium imJU 
tributum sit (or fuerit), qttamcunque possim gratiam tibi re- 
iaturum ; affirmabam tibi, si illud beneficium mihi tributum 
esset (or fuisset\ quamcunque possem gratiam me tibi rela- 

[§ ^^^J I^ ^^ future has gone b^ore, and the construc- 
tion of the sentence requires the subjunctive, the partici^ 
future active is employed for this purpose, with the appro- 
priate tense of the verb esse. This paraphrased conjugati(»] 
(conjugatio paraphrastica), as it is called, properly expresses 
an intended action ; but the subjunctives with sim and essem 
are used also as regular subjunctives of the future, the id«i 
of intention passing over into that oi futurity; e.g. Non dtdnti 
quin rediturus sit, I do not doubt that he will return ; nm 
dubitabam quin rediturus esset, I did not doubt that he wouM 
return. The perfects rediturus fuerim and rediturus fuissem 
retain their original meaning, implying intention ; e.g,nm 
dubito quin rediturus fuerit, I do not doubt that he has had 
the intention to return. If we want simply to express fo* 
turity, we must use the circumlocution with futurum sit an^ 
futurum esset; e. g. nescio num futurum sit, ut eras hoc ^ 
tempore jam redierit, and nesciebam num futurum esset, m 
postridie eo ipso tempore jam redisset This same circnmlo' 
cution must be employed in the passive, since the participle 
future passive implies necessity, and cannot be used in th« 
sense of a simple future ; e. g. non dubito, quin futurum sil 
Ut laudetur, I do not doubt that he will be praised ; muU 
non dubitabant, quin futurum esset, ut Caesar a Pompot 
mnceretur^ that Caesax would \^ coTL<\aered by Pompey. 


• [§ *9S'] 6. This conjugatio periphrcutica, which is 
formed by means of the participle future active and the 
auxiliary verb esse, is peculiar to the Latin language, and 
is used to express an intended action, or, in the case of 
intransitive verbs, a state or condition which is to come 
to pass. It has its six tenses like the ordinary conjuga- 
tion. The realization depends either on the will of the 
subject or on that of others, or upon circumstances. In the 
first case we say in English, " I intend," or " am on the point 
of," and in the others, "I am to " (be, or do a thing), i, e. 
others wish that I should do it ; e. g. scripturus sum, I in- 
tend writing, or am to write ; scripturus eravn, I intended 
writing, or was to write ; scripturus fui^ I have been intend- 
ing to write, &c. 

L§ *^^'] ^* ^^® participle future passive in ndusy or the 
participle of necessity {participium necessitatis), in combina- 
tion with the tenses of the verb esse, forms another distinct 
conjugation denoting future necessity and not future suffer- 
ing, for epistola scribenda est, for example, does not signify 
" the letter is about 1^ be written," which is expressed by the 
simple future epistola scribetur, but " the letter must be writ- 
ten," there being either an internal or external necessity for 
its being written, either of which is expressed in English by 
" the letter is to be written." This conjugation may accord- 
ingly be regarded as the passive of the conjugatio periphras- 
Hca. The tenses are the same as those of the auxiliary verb 
esse, and in so far do not differ from the general rule. 

[§ 500.] 8. The perfect indicative, both active and passive, 
has in Latin, besides its signification of an action terminated 
at the present time, that of an aorist, that is, it is used to 
relate events of the past, which are simply conceived as facts, 
without any regard to their being terminated or not termi- 
nated, in respect to each other ; e. g. Itaque Caesar armis 
rem gerere constituit, exercitum Jinibus Italiae admovit, Ru' 
hiconem transiit, Romam et aerarium occupavit, Pompejum 
cedentem persecutus est, eumque in campis Pharsalicis devicit. 
In English the imperfect (or more correctly called the pre- 
terite) is used as an aorist to relate events of the past, and 
hence we translate the above passage: — Caesar resolved 
to use armed force, he advanced with his army to the 
frontiers of Italy, passed the Rubicon, took possession of 
Home and the treasury, pursued Pompey, and defeated him 
in the plain of Fharsalus. But the Latin imperfect is never 


used in tiiis sense ; it always expresses an incomplete or can' 

tinuing action or condition in past time, the ancient correct 

rule being perfecto procedity imperfecto insistit oratio. 

[§ ^^-] A^o^e. In Latin, as in many modern languages, the pruent 
tense is often used instead of the aorist of the past, when the writer or 
speaker in his imagination transfers himself to the past, which thus 
becomes to him present, as it were. Narrators by this figure frequently 
render their descriptions very animated ; but in r^ard to dependent 
sentences, they often regard such a present as a regular perfect, and 
accordingly use the imperfect or pluperfect in the dependent sentence 
>rhich foUows. 

[§ 502.] 9. The peculiar character of the Latin imperfect 
therefore is to express a repeated action, manners, customs, 
fmd institutions, which are described as continuing at 
some given period in past time, and completely answers to 
the English compound tense, "I was writing," "he was 

Socrates dicere solebat (or dicebat), omnes in eo, quod scireni, 

satis esse eloquentes, 
Anseres Romae publice alebantur in Capitolio. 

[§ ^^'l ^^' "^^ perfect subjunctiik has not this mean- 
ing of an aorist, but is always used to express a terminated 
action with reference to the present time, and thus completely 
answers to the perfect in English. The imperfect subjunctive^ 
on the other hand, in historical narratives has the aorist &&a&Q 
of the perfect indicative, when past events are mentioned 
without reference to the action or condition being continued 
or not. 

Noie. This difference is easily perceived ; e.g. pverdetectodeeidittUtent 
fregerit, "the boy has fallen from tlie roof, so that he has broken his legi" 
is not a narrative but the statement of an event completed at the preseut 
time ; but puer de tecto decidiU vt crus frangeret^ ** the boy fell from tlie 
roof, so that he broke his leg,*' is a real historical narrative, f<»r the p^- 
feet decidit is here used in its aorist sense, and the imperfect subjunctint 
supplies its place in the dependent clause. 

A comparison with the English language thus leads to this 
conclusion, that the perfect and imperl'ect subjunctive are 
used in Latin in the same sense as in English ; but the pe^ 
feet indicative in Latin, as an historical tense, answers to the 
English imperfect, and the Latin imperfect indicative to the 
English paraphrased tense " I was " with a participle. 
Mtdier tarn vekementer lapidem de tecto defecitf ut re^ 

(Pyrrhi) caput et galeam perfringeret, 

■ [§ 505.] II. The duration and completion of an acti<Hi ia 

USfi OF THE TEXS&S. 217 

reference to another are expressed in Latin more accurately 
than in English, bj the imperfect and pluperfect When one 
action must be completed before another can begin, the for- 
mer is invariably expressed by the pluperfect ; e. g. quum 
domum intrasset, quum in forum venisset, animadvertit ; 
quum amicum conspexisset, dixit, &c., ''when he had entered 
file house, he perceived." We are less accurate in saying 
"when I entered the house, I perceived," or "I entered the 
house, and perceived." But this cannot be done in Latin, 
and the pluperfect is used wherever the relation of the actions 
requires it. 

Lysander quum per speculatores comperisset, vulgum Athe-' 
niensium in terram exisse navesque paene inanes relictas, 
tempus rei gerendae non dimisit, 

[§ £06.] But in narratives the conjunction dum (while, 
as) is generally joined with the present indicative ; and the 
conjunctions postquam, ubi, ubi primum, ut, ut primum, 
quum primum, simul ac, simul atque, all of which are 
equivalent to the English '' as soon as," are generally joined 
with the historical perfect, and not with the pluperfect, as 
might be expected from the succession of the actions indi- 
cated by these conjunctions. 

JDum ea Romani parant consultantque, jam Saguntum sum" 
ma vi oppugnabatur, 

Unus ex captivis domum abiit, quod fallaci reditu in castra 
jurejurando se exsolvisset. Quod ubi innotuit relatumque 
ad senatum est, omnes censuerunt comprehendendum et 
custodibus publice datis deducendum ad Hannibalem esse. 

[§ 509.1 12. In the use of the two futures the Latin lan- 
guage is likewise more accurate than the English. For when 
a future action is spoken of, either in the future or in the 
imperative (or in the subjunctive used imperatively), and 
another is joined with it, which has not yet come to pass, 
the latter also is put in the future if the actions are conceived 
as continuing together, and in the future perfect, if the one 
must be completed before the other can begin. This is per- 
fectly in accordance with the ideas express^ by these tenses; 
but it must be specially mentioned, because in English we 
often use the present instead of the future, especially in the 
case of the verbs " I can " and " I will ;" e. g. faciam si po* 
terOf I shall do it, if I can ; facito hoc, ubi voles, do it whea 



you will ; because owing to the awkwardness of the future 
perfect, we frequently supply its place either by the simple 
future or by the present ; e. g. ut sementem feceris^ ita metes, 
as you sow, so will you reap. 

AdoUscentes quum relaxare animos et dare se jucunditati 
volent, caveant intemperantiam, meminerint verecundiae, 

De Carthagine vereri non ante desinam, quam iUam excisam 
esse cognovero. 

[§ 512.] 13. The tenses of the indicative may be con- 
nected in any way which the intention of the speaker may 
require ; e. g. " I am writing now, but this time yesterday I 
took a walk;" "lAwow the person whom jowunll see to- 
morrow." But in dependent clauses, that is, in the sub- 
junctive, similar tenses alone can be connected with one 
another, that is, the tenses of the present (present and 
perfect) and the tenses of the past (imperfect and pluperfect). 
In the rules respecting the succession of tenses, or the depend- 
ence of sentences upon one another, everything depends 
upon time, for the present time is suited only to the present, 
and the past only to the past; the relation of an action 
depending only upon itself, is never doubtful. Hence we 
have only to remember, that the perfect naturally, and in 
the subjunctive always, expresses present time, and that 

The Present and Perfect are followed by a Present and 
Perfect, and 
■ The Imperfect and Pluperfect by an Imperfect and Plu- 
perfect ; 
E. g. scio quid agas and scio quid egeris; audivi quid agas 
and audivi quid egeris ; but sciebam quid ageres, and sciebam 
quid egisses; audiveram quid ageres, and avdiveram quid 

[§ 513.] This simple rule respecting the succession of 
tenses becomes somewhat difficult through the double sig- 
nification of the perfect indicative. In the above rule it was 
treated only as the present of a completed action (in which 
sense it is equivalent to the English perfect) ; but as it is at 
the same time an aorist of the past (see § 500.), it is also 
connected with the tenses of past time, viz. with the im- 
perfect and pluperfect. The above rule, therefore, must be 
edmpleted by the following addition : — 


The historical perfect is followed by the imperfect and 

£. g. Audivi quid ageres and audivi quid egisses. The 
two meanings of the perfect and their influence upon the 
tense of the dependent verb may be seen in the following 
examples : — 

Verves SicUiam per triennium ita vexavit ac perdidit, ut ea 
restitui in antiquum statum nullo modo possit, says Cicero 
with reference to the actual state of Sicily. 

Conon quum patriam obsideri audisset, non quaesivit, ubi 
ipse tuto viverety sed unde praesidio posset esse civibus 
suis, says Nepos in speaking of past events. 

[§ 516.] The futures are similar to the tenses of the 
present, for only that which is past stands apart and by itself. 
Hence, a future is followed by a present or a perfect, e, g. 
max intelligam, quantum me antes or amaveris, but not 
quantum me amares or amasses. The same is the case with 
the future perfect : si cognovero, quemadmodum te geras or 
te gesseris. But as the four subjunctives of the conjugatio 
periphrastica (formed by the future participle and esse) are 
regarded as subjunctives of the futures, these paraphrased 
tenses may be dependent upon preterites, and a mutual 
dependence exists between the presents and ftitures, but 
only a partial one between the preterites and futures, since 
the futures only may depend upon preterites, but not vice 
versa ; e. g . ignorabam quid dicturus esset, but not discam 
quid heri foA^eres for discam quid herifeceris. 

The complete rule respecting the succession of tenses, 
therefore, is this : the tenses of the present and future, i. e. 
the present, perfect (in its proper sense), and the two futures 
are followed by the tenses of the present, i. e. by the present 
and the perfect subjunctive ; and the tenses of the past, i. e» 
the imperfect, pluperfect, and the historical perfect, are fol- 
, lowed by the tenses of the past, i. e. by the imperfect and 
pluperfect subjunctive. 






[§ 517.] 1. The indicative is used in every proposition the 
substance of which is expressed absolutely and as a fact, 
e. g. I go, thou wrotest, he believed. 

Hence the indicative is employed even in the expression 
of conditions and suppositions with the particles si, nisi, etsi 
and etiamsi, if an event is supposed actually to take place, or 
(with nisi) not to take place. 

Mors aut plane negligenda est, si omnino extinguit animum^ 
aut etiam optanda, si aliquo eum deditcit, uhi sit Jutunu 

Sifeceris id, quod ostendis, magnam hahebo gratiam, si non 
feceris, ignoscam. 

Adhuc certe, nisi ego insanio, stulte omnia et incautejiunt 

Ista Veritas, etiamsi jucunda non est, mihi tamen grata est 

[§518.] Note I, The following peculiarities deserve to be noticed as 
diflTering from the English. 

The yerhs oportet, necette est, deheo, convenit, possttm, licet, and par, faf% 
tuquum, justum, consentaneum est, or aequiue, melius^ vtitiitt, optabilius eM, 
are put in the indicative of a preterite (imperf., pluperf., and the bis- 
torical perfect), where we should expect the imperfect or pluperfWt 
subjunctive. The imperfect indicative in this case expresses things which 
fure not, but the time for which is not yet passed ; and the perfect and 
pluperfect indicative things which have not been, but the time for which 
is passed ; e. g. Ad mortem te duct jam pridem oportebat, i, e. thy executioa 
was necessary and is still so ; hence it ouffht to take place. 

[§ 4«i.] Note 2. The Latins commonly use the indicative after many 
general and relative expressions, some fact being implied. This is the 
case after pronouns and relative adverbs which are either doubted or 
have the suffix cunque: quitquts, quicunque, utut, utcunque, And others; 
e. g. Utcunque aese rea habet, tua est culpa, however this may be, the * 
fault is thine : quicunque is eat, whoever he rolty be. . . 

[§ fi**-] Note 3. In the same way sentences connected by aive — tice 
commonTy have the verb in the indicative ; e. g. sive taeebia, aive loqttere. 
wihiperinde eat; aive verum est, aive falsum, mihi quidem ita renwUiatum 


CHAP. Lxxvm. 


[§ 623.] 1. The subjunctive is used in general, when a pro-» 
position is stated, not as a fact, but merely as a conception 
of the mind. 

Noie, The subjunctive is only a particular form which is given to a 
proposition ; its substance does not come into consideration. Hence ** I 
believe," ** I suspect,** are expressed by the indicative, although these words 
indicate only certain conceptions, but my belief and suspicion are stated as 
real acts. When, on the other hand, I say " I should believe,** ** I should 
think,** the acts of believing and thinking ar^ represented as mere con- 
ceptions, which perhaps do not exist at all, or even cannot exist. Hence 
the Latins always use the subjunctive when a sentence is to express an 
intention either that something is to be effected or prevented, for the 
actions here exist only as conceptions ; e. g. pecuniam homini do, ut me 
defentlatf ne me acctuet. The English language, which has no subjunctive* 
avails itself of a variety of auxiliary verbs to express the nature of the 
subjunctive, as may, might, eouid, tkotdd, would, 

[§t 624,] 2, We must here first notice the difference be- 
tween the four tenses of the subjunctive in hypothetical or 
conditional sentences, both in that part of the sentence 
containing the condition (protasis, beginning with the con- 
junctions si, nisiy etsiy edamsi, tdmetst), and in the one con- 
taining the inference or conclusion (apoddsis). The present 
and perfect subjunctive are used when a condition is to be 
expressed together with the suggestion that it does exist or 
may exist; but the imperfect and pluperfect subjunctive are 
used when a condition is expressed together with the sug- 
gestion that it did not or could not exist ; and the imperfect 
in this case implies present time as in English ; e. g. si velit, 
♦* if he wishes," or *' should wish," implying that he either 
actually wishes or at least may wish : in the consequent 
member of the proposition (the apodosis), the present or per- 
fect subjunctive or indicative may stand ; but si vellet, "if he 
wished," implies that he does not or cannot wish, and here 
the apodosis requires the imperfect or pluperfect subjunctive. 
The subjunctive without si may have the same meaning, e. g. 
facerem, " I should do," implying that I do not or cannot do; 
vellem, " I should wish," implying that I might have a wish, 
but that in fact I do not wish, seeing that it would be of u<^^ 

L 3 


avail. Velim and cupiam thus do not much difier from volo 
and cupio. 

The imperfect and pluperfect subjunctive therefore are 
necessary in hypothetical sentences ; but the present and 
perfect subj unctive differ only slightly from the indicative, 
and their use cannot be fixed by grammatical rules. The 
indicative gives to a sentence the form of reality; wbereaa 
the subjunctive represents it as a mere conception, which 
however may at the same time be a reality; e.g. etiamsi 
te non laudo or laudabo^ tamen, &c., even if I do not or 
shall not praise thee, — the reaHty is admitted ; etiamsi te 
non laudem or laudaverim, if (perhaps) I should not praise 
thee, or should not have praised thee, — the possibility is 
conceived. The use of the present and perfect subjunctive 
in these cases arises in some measui^e from the circumstance 
that an indefinite person is addressed in Latin by the second 
person singular, but only in the subjunctive ; hence the sub- 
junctive is used in such cases even where the indicative 
would be necessary, if a definite person were addressed. It 
must further be observed that these two subjunctives supply 
the place of the subjunctive of the two futures. Conap. § 496. 

The following may serve as examples of both cased : -^ 

Si NeptunuSy quod Theseo promiserat, nonfecisset, Theseus 

Jilio Hippolyto non esset orbatus, 
pies dejiciaty si velim numerarey quibus bonis male evenerity 

nee minus si commemoremy quibus hnprobis optime. 
Si gladium quis apud te sana mente deposuent, repetat tn- 

saniens : reddere peccatum sity officium non reddere, 
MemoHa minuituvy nisi eam exerceaSy aut si sis natura tar- 


Note. The above rule respecting the difference of the subjunotiTeS) is 
obserred also in hypothetical sentences, if the leading verb is in the pre- 
sent ; but if an historical tense precedes, the rule respectii^ the succession 
of tenses (| 512. ) again comes into operation, and the distinction between 
things possible and not possible is not expressed. 

[§ ^^27.] 3. Hence the present subjunctive is used also in 
indepeaident propositions to soften an assertion or statement, 
and without any essential difference from the present indica- 
tive or the future. We generally express the same by " I 
may" or *a might" (the subjunctive as a potential mood) ; 
e.g. Forsitan quaeratis ; nemo istud tibi concedat ; quis dn- 
Otteef velim (nolimy malim) sic existimcs. 


The perfect subjunctive may likewise be used in the sense 
of a softened perfect indicative ; e. g.forsitan temere feeerim^ 
I may perhaps have acted inconsiderately ; but the perfect 
subjunctive, when used independently, generally has the 
meaning of a softened future, and in so far is equivalent to 
the present subjunctive. 

Q^id tideatur ei magnum in rehus humanis, cut aetemitas 
' omnis totiusque mundi nota sit magnitudo ? 
Hoc sine ulla dubitatione conjirmaverim^ eloquentiam rem 

esse omnium difficillimam. 
Tu vero Platonem nee nimis valde unquam, nee nimis saepe 

NU ego contulerim jucundo santis amtco. 

[§ 529.] 4. The subjunctive is further used in indepen- 
dent sentences to express a wish or desire (optative). In the 
second and third persons of the present (to some extent also 
of the perfect) it supplies the place of the imperative ; e. g. 
dicas equivalent to die, loqtmre to loquere, especially when 
the person is indefinite ; further dicat,faciat, loquatur. The 
present subjunctive is used in the first person to express an 
assurance ; e. g. moriar, inteream, peream ; and in the plural 
a request, which may be addressed to ourselves as well as 
others ; e. g. eamus, moriamur, nunc revertamur adproposi* 
turn ! let us go ! let us die ! let us return ! The imperfect 
and pluperfect are used to express wishes belonging to the 
past time, when a thing ought to have been or to have been 
done ; e. g. diceret, dixisset, he should have said. 

Connected with this optative is the use of the subjunctive 
(called in this case concessivus), to express a concession or 
admission, both with and without the conjunctions ut and 
licet ; e. g. dicat, he may say ; diceret, he might say ; dixerit, 
he may have said ; and so on through aU the tenses. 

The negative with these subjunctives (optative and con- 
cessive) is usually not non but ne ; e. g. n^ dicas, ne dicat^ 
ne dixeris (this negative way is the most common case of 
the perfect subjunct. being used in the sense of the present); 
further, ne vivam, ne desperemtis, ne fuerit, equivalent to 
licet non fuerit. 

Meminertmus, etiam adversus irtfimos justitiam esse servan* 

Nihil incommodo valetudinis tuae/eceris. 
Enms, non quod opus est, sed quod necesse est 

L 4 


Donis impii ne placare audeant deos ; Flatonem audUtnt, 
qui vetat dubitare, qua sit mente ftUurus deusy cum vir 
nemo bonus ab improbo se donari velit, 
Naturam expellas Jurca, tamen usque recurret 
Ne sit summum malum dolor, malum certe est 

[§ 530.] 5. Lastly, the subjunctive is used, in all its tenser 
in independent sentences to express a doubtful question con- 
taining a negative sense (conjuncHvtis dubitativus) ; e. g. quo 
earn? whither shall I go? qito iremf whither should I go? 
quo eas ? whither wilt thou go ? quo ires f whither would'st 
ihou go ? quo iverim f whither was I to have gone ? gtio trif- 
sem ? whither should I have gone ? The answer implied in 
all these cases is " nowhere;" for in questions to which w^ 
expect ^ affirmative answer, the indicative is used. 

Cur non confitear, quod necesse est ? 

Cum tempestate pugnem periculose poHus, quam iUi obtem' 

perem et paream ? 
Valerius quotidie cantabat : erat enim scenicus : quidfaceret 

aliud f 

[§ ^^-] ^* Dependent sentences in which an intention or 
purpose or a direction towards the future is expressed, take 
the subjunctive. The conjunctions ut, ne, quo, qutn, qiuh 
minus serve to connect such sentences with others, and con- 
sequently govern the subjunctive, the tenses of which must 
be chosen as required by the tense of the verb in the leading 
clause. (See above, § 512, foil.) 

a) Ut or uti (that or in order that) refers either to some- 
thing future which is the intention, object, result or effect of 
another action (which is often expressed in English by " in 
order to," or simply " to " with the infinitive), or when used 
after the words sic, ita, tam, talis, tantus, ejusmodi, 8cc., it 
expresses a quality or the nature of a thing in the form of a 
result. The English conjunction " that," which introduces 
clauses supplying the place either of a nominative or accu- 
sative, cannot be rendered by ut, as " it is a consolation for 
the subjects that the king is a just man," equivalent to " the 
king's justice is a consolation," &c. ; or " I know that the king 
is just," equivalent to " I know the king's justice," 

Esse oportet ut vivas, non vivere ut edas. 
Pylades Orestem se esse dixit, ut pro Ulo necareiur. 
Nemo tam malus est, ut videri velit 
Sol effidt ut omnia fioreant. 


[§ 632.] b) Ne (in order that not, or, lest) is used only to- 
express a negative intention or intended effect ; e. g. cura ne 
denuo in morbum incidas, or haec vitae ratio effecit, ne denuo 
in morbum inciderem, Ut non is used, on the other hand, 
when an effect is to be expressed without an intention, that 
18, a simple result or consequence, and when a quality is to 
be determined, in which case the adverbs ita, sic, tarn are 
either expressed or understood ; e. g. tum forte aegrotabam, 
ut ad nuptias tuas venire non possem ; i. e. in consequence 
of my illness, but no intention is expressed. Ut non is 
further used when the negation does not refer to the whole 
clause, but only to a part of it or to a particular word : 
e. g. dedi tibi pecuniam, ut emeres non vinum, sedpanem. 

Nemo prudens punity ut ait PkUOj quia peccatum est, sed ne 

Nihil affitiSy inquit Arria, potestis enim efficere, ut male mo^ 

riar ; ne moriar, non potestis. 

[§ 533.] It is a peculiarity of the Latin language to treat 
the verbs metuo, timeo, vereor, as implying an intention. 
They are therefore followed by ne, when anything is to be 
prevented, or when it is wished that something should not 
happen ; e. g. metuo, ne frustra laborem susceperis ; and 
by ut, when it is wished that something should take place ; 
e. g. vereor, ut mature venias. These same verbs are fol- 
lowed by the infinitive when they express only a state of 
mind, without implying any wish either the one way or the 
other ; e. g. metuo mantis admovere, vereor dicere ; but vereor 
tit apte dicam, 

Vereor, ne, dum minuere velim laborem, augeam, 
Adulatores, si quern laudant, vereri se dicunt, ut illius facta 
verbis consequi possint 

[§ ^^'l Note, Neve (or neUf composed of ne and ve) signifies *< or in 
order that not," or ** and in order that not,** and is therefore not to be 
confounded with neque (or nee). It stands to ne in the same relation 
that neque does to non, 

[§ 536.] c) Quo is properly the ablative of the relative 
pronoun, and stands for ut eo (§ 567.), " in order that," op 
" that by this means." But it is commonly joined only with 
comparatives. Non quo answers to the English, " not that," 
or "not as if " (instead of which, however, we may also say 
9ion quod), and non quin to '^ not as if not." The apodosi'« 

i 5 


following after such a sentence b^ins with sed quod or 9ed 
quia and the indicative or with tU and the subjunctiYe* 

A^er non semel aratur, sed novatur et iteratur, quo meUores 

fetus possit et grandiores edere, 
JJegem brevem esse oportet, quofacUius ab imperitis teneatur. 
Ad te litteras dedi, non quo haberem magnopere^ quod sen- 

berem, sed ut loquerer tecum absens. 

[§ 538.] d) Quin is used after negative sentences and 
doubtful questions with quis and quid, which differ only in 
form from affirmative propositions with nemo and nihUf 
first, for qui non, quae non, quod non, and secondly for 
ut non (" that not " or " without " when followed by a 
participle). Quin, equivalent to a relative pronoun with now, 
IS used especially after the expressions nemo, nuUuSy nihil, 
vix, aegre — est, reperitur, invenitur ; the use of quin i(X 
ut non cannot be Umited to particular expressions, but we 
must especially observe the phrase facere non possum quin, 
and in the passive voice, ^eri non potest quin, where the 
double negative renders the affirmative meaning more em- 

j^ihil tarn difficile est, quin quaerendo investigari possiL 
Nunquam tam male est Siculis, quin aUquid facete et com- 
mode dicant. 
Faeere non potui, quin tibi et senterUiam et volufUatem de- 
clararem meam, 

[§ 540.] Fxom this we must distinguish the use of quin 
after non dn^ito, non est dubium, non ambigo (I doubt not), 
and many^other expressions containing a negation; as non 
abest; nihil, paulum, non multum abest; non, vix, aegreabs- 
tineo ; tenere me, or temperari mihi non possum ; non impe' 
die, non recuso, nihil praetermitto, and the like. For in these 
cases the negative contained in quin is superfluous, and is 
only a sort of continuation of the preceding non ; hence it is 
generally not expressed in English, quin being rendered by 
" that," or by " to " with an infinitive. E. g. non dubito quin 
domi sit, I have no doubt, (that) he is at home ; nulla mora 
fuit, quin decemerent beUum, they did not hesitate to decree 
war. Hence, as quin in this case is only a form of expres- 
sion, non is superadded, if the dependent clause is to have 
a really negative meaning. Thus we find not unfreqtiently, 
at least, non dubito quin non, which is easily explained by 
transJating non dubito quin\x^ '*l^idvfcTr< e. g. non dMo 


gain offendonem negligenUae vitare atque effugere non pos* 
«tv», I believe that I cannot escape the charge of negligence. 
XHix file Graedae nusquam optat, ut Ajacis similes haheat 

decern^ sed ut Nestoris ; quod si acciderii, non dubitat quin 

brevi Troja sitperitura. 
Num dvhitas quin specimen naturae capi deceat ex optima 

qvMque natura f Cic. Tusc. i. 14. 
Quis igitur dubitety quin in virtute divitiae sint f 
Ego nihil praetermisi, quantum Jacerepotui, quin Pompejum 

a Caesaris conjunctione avocarem. 
Infesta contio vix inhiberi potuit, quin protinus suo more 

saxa in Polemonem jaceret 

Note. When dubito and non dubito signify ♦* I scruple " or " hesitate,'* 
and the clause following contains the same subject, they are generally 
followed by the infinitive ; e. g. non dubito respondere. 

Quin, in accordance with its formation from 9111 (the ablat. of qni., quit) 
and non, also signifies **why not?** and in this sense it is joined with the 
indicative or imperative, as ^wn diets, or quin dicstatim, well say it at once. 

[§ 643.] e) Quominus (for ut eo minus, in order that not) 
is used only after verbs expressing a hindrance, where also 
ne, and if a negative precedes, quin may be used. The 
principal verbs of this kind are : — deterrere, impedire, inter' 
cedere, obsistere, obstare, officere, prohibere, recusare^ repugn 
nare ; but there are several other expressions which convey 
the same meaning, e. g. stat or Jit per me, I am the cause ; 
non pugno, nihil moror, non contineo me, &c. 

Cimon nunquam in hortis custodem imposuii, ne quis im^ 
pediretur, quominus ejus rebus, quwus quisque vellet, 

Parmenio, quum audisset, venenum a Philippo medico regi 
parari, deterrere eum voluit epistola scripta, quominusf 
medicamentum biberet, quod medicus dare constitueret 

[§ 545.] 7. The subjunctive is used in clauses which are 
intix)duced into others, after relative pronouns and con- 
junctions, when those propositions express the thoughts or 
words of another person. (In many cases they are the 
thoughts or words of the speaker himself, but he then speaks 
of hmiself as of a third person.) To make this general rule 
more clear, we shall explain the various cases in which 
such clauses are inserted. 

a) Clauses inserted in the construction of the accusative 
with the infinitive, when they are to express the thoughts 
or words of the person spoken of, or when they fona «sv 

L 6 


essential part of the statement implied in the accusat. with 
the infinitive. 


Socrates dicere solebaty omnes in eo^ quod scireniy satis esse 

Mas est Athenis latidari in conHone eos, qui sint in proellis 

Quid potest esse tarn apertum^ tamque perspicuum^ quum 

coelum suspeximuSy coelestiaque contemplati sumus, quam 

esse aliquod numen praestantissimae menOSy quo haec 


[§ ^^O ^) Clauses introduced into a proposition which 
is expressed by the subjunctive, are likewise in the sub- 
junctive, when they are to be considered as an essential part 
of the leading proposition, being included in the purpose, 
request, precept or command of a person, or (with fd) in the 
supposed circumstances, e. g. Bex imperavit, ut, quae beUo 
opus essenty pararentur. 

JSo simus animo, ut nihil in maUs ducamus, quod sit vel a 
deo immortaliy vel a natura constitutum, 

Memoria erat tanta (Hortensius) quantam in nullo cogno- 
visse me arbitror, ut, quae secum commentatus esset, ea 
sine scripto verbis eisdem redderety quibus coqitavisset. 

[§549.] c) Lastly, when a proposition containing the 
statement of a fact, and therefore expressed by the indicative, 
has another dependent upon it or added to it (by a con- 
junction or a relative pronoun), the dependent clause i.'^ 
expressed by the subjunctive, provided the substance of it 
is alleged as the sentiment or the words of the person spoken 
of, and not of the speaker himself. Thus the proposition : 
Noctu ambulabat in publico Themistocles, quod somnunt 
capere Tion posset suggests, that Themistocles himself gave 
this reason for his walking at night. But I, the writer of 
the proposition, may express the reason as my own remai-k, 
and in this case the indicative poterat is required, as well as 

Socrates accusatus esty quod corrumperet juventuiem et 

novas supersHtiones induceret. 
Aristides nonne ob earn causam expulsus est patriuy quod. 

praeter modum Justus esset? 

Note 1 . The clause beginning with quod in the second of these »• 
mmples coataiDS the reasons alleged b^ \,V\e VLCcusets of Socrates ; and the 



aufajunettve in the last example indicates that the reason there stated was 
alleged by the Athenians themselves, according to the well-known story, 
and it remains uncertain whether Aristides was really so just ; but this 
uncertainty would not exist if the indicative had been used. 

[ § 550.] T^ote 2. When a clause thus appended or inserted contains the 
aientinient of the subject of the leading sentence, or his own words, all 
references to him are expressed by the reflective pronoun nu, «t5t, «e, and 
by the possessive «uics ; e. g. necessitate coadus domino navis qui sit nperit, 
multa poUicenSf si se conservasset / fraJter in somnis me rogavit ut, qtioniain 
sibi vivo non subvenissem, mortem suam ne inuitam esse pcUerer. 

[§ £52.] 8. All sentences which contain an indirect ques- 
tion^ that is, which state* the subject of a direct question in a 
manner which makes them dependent upon some other verb, 
have the verb in the subjunctive mood. An indirect ques- 
tion, not to mention the verb "to ask" itself, generally 
depends upon verbs and expressions which usually require 
the accusative with the infinitive. 

All the words which are used in direct questions are also 
used in introducing indirect or dependent questions, viz. 
quis, quid; qui, quae, quod; quoU qualis, quantus, quam, 
vbi, unde, quare, cur, uter, quo (whither?), quomodo, utrum, 
an, ne (the suffix), num. 

Saepe ne utile quidem est scire, quidfutarum sit^ 
Qualis sit animus, ipse animus nescit. 
Incertum est, quo te loco mors expectet, 
Tarquinius Superbus Prisci Tarquinii regis Jilius neposne 
fuerit, parum liquet. 

[§ ^^'l NoU, With regard to disjunctive or double questions, both 
direct and indirect, expressed by " whether — or,** it must be observed 
that the English ** or *' is never translated by aut or oe/, but by an or by 
the suffix ne. The first question is introduced by utrtan, or likewi«ie 
by ne, or has no interrogative particle at all. Hence ther^are four forms 
of such double questions : — 

1 . utrum {utrumne) — an 

2. — an (aniM) 

3. the suffix ne — an 

4. — the suffix ne. 

The English ** or not ** in the second part, which is u*.ed without ft- 
verb, unless the one preceding be understood, is expressed in Latin by 
cnnon or necne, the latter occurring only in indirect questions. 

[§ ^^'l 9* Relative pronouns and relative adverbs re-, 
quire the subjunctive (besides the cases already mentioned 
in § 549.) when the connection of the propositions is based 
upon a conception, that is, when the clause introduced by 


the relative does not merely contain some additional feature, 
but is connected with the preceding clause in such a manner 
as to express either a consequence, an inherent quality, or a 
cause, a motive and purpose. 

E. g. Miies, quern metus mortis non perturbaret, a soldier whom fear of 
death could not disturb. Here the clause introduced by the relative 
pronoun contains an inherent quality of the tnilet, which may at the same 
time be expressed as a consequence : — of such a character, that death 
could not frighten him. Let us take another case : O iniserum tenemy qui 
mortem contemnendam esse in tarn hnga aetate non viderit : here the clause 
qui — viderit does not contain a mere additional characteristic or quality, 
but rather the cause, why I call the old man wretched. 

Subjunctives of this kind are expressed in English in 
different ways, as " a soldier not to be disturbed by fear of 
death," " O wretched old man, not to have learnt," &c. The 
particular cases in which a relative introduces clauses with 
the subjunctive, are: — 

[§ 566.] a) When one of the demonstratives is, hie, iU^^ 
talis, tanttiSy ejtismodi, hujusmodi, or tam with an adjective 
precedes, and is modified or qualified by a sentence which 
follows. Here the relative pronoun may be resolved by ut, 
so that citjus is equivalent to ut mei, tui, sui, illitis, ejus ; cui 
to ut mihi, tihi, ei, sibi, and so on through all the cases of 
the singular and plural. 

Qui potest temperantiam latidare is, qui sumtnum bonum in 

voluptnte ponat ! 
Non sumus ii, quibus nihil verum esse videatur, sed ii, qui 

omnibus veris falsa quondam adjuncta esse dicamus. 
Nulla gens tam fera, nemo omnium tam immanis est, cujus 

mentem non imbuerit deorum opinio, 

[§ 558.] The relative pronoun Is sometimes used with the 
subjunctive, without a demonstrative preceding it, provided 
it be understood. 

Nunc dicis, quod ad rem pertineat. 

Nonne satius est mutum esse, quam quod nemo intelUgat 
dicer e f 

[§ 560.]] In like manner the subjunctive is used with 
comparatives after quam qui (through all its cases), for here 
too the degree is defined and mod^ed by a clause imply- 
ing an innate quality and a consequence, so that quam qui 
Is equivalent to quam ut, wbicli in ^ct sometimes occurs. 


Major sum quam cut ponsU fortuna nocerCy days !Niobe in 
her madness. 

[§ 561.] b) After indefinite and general expressions (both 
amnnative and negative) the relative with the subjunctive 
introduces the clause containing the circumstances which 
characterize the class indefinitely referred to. Such eX" 
pressions are esty sunt, reperiuniur, inveniuntur, existunt, 
exoriuniur (sciL komines); the general negatives nemo, 
nuUuSy nihU est; the negative indefinite questions guts estf 
quid est? qui, quae, quod (as interrogative adjectives), 
quotus, quisque, quantum estf &c. In all these cases a 
demonstrative may be understood before the relative. 

Sunt qui censeant, una animum et corpus ocdderCy ani- 

mumque in corpore extingui, 
Nihil est, quod tarn miseros faciat, quam impietas et scelus. 
Quotus enim quisque est, cui sapientia omnibus omnium di* 

vitiis praeponenda videatur f 
Quae latebra est, in quam non intret metus mortis ? 
Quid dulcius quam habere, quicum omnia audeas sic hqui 

ut tecum f 

[§ 664,] c) When the clause introduced by the relative 
contains the reason of what precedes, the verb is put in the 
subjunctive. The connection between such sentences may 
also be expressed by " because " or " since," instead of the 
relative : — 

O fortunate adolescens, qui tuae virtutis Homerum praeconem 

inveneris ! 
Caniniusfuit mirijica vigHantia, qui suo toto constdatu som- 

num non viderit. 
Quem ardorem studii censetis fuisse in Archimede, qui, dum 

in pulvere quaedam describit attentius, nepatriam quidem 

captam esse senserit! 

[§ 567.] d) When the clause introduced by the relative 
expresses the intention and object of the action of the pre- 
ceding clause, the relative is followed by the subjunctive. 
The relative in this case is equivalent to ut. 

Sunt autem muUi, qui eripiunt aliis, quod cdiis largiantur. 
Populus Romanus sibi tribunos creavit, per quos contra se- 

natum et consuUs tutus esse posset. 
Super tabemaculum regis, unde ah omnibus conspici posset, 

imago solis crystallo inclusafulgebat. 


[§ £68.] e) After the adjectives dignus, indigmis, apttis, 
and idonetts, the relatives are used with the subjunctive, as 
dignus est, indignus est, qui laudetur, 

Voluptas non est digna^ ad qtiam sapiens respidat 

[§ 569.] f) Lastly we must here notice the circumstance 
that in a nari*ative the imperfect and pluperfect subjunctive 
are sometimes used after relative pronouns and adverbs, when 
actions of repeated occurrence are spoken of. The indicative 
however occurs in these cases, even more frequently than 
the subjunctive. 

Nemo Pyrrhum, qua ttdisset impetum, sustinere valuit, 

[§ ^71.] 10. It has already been remarked tbat all con- 
junctions, and more especially those which indicate a cause, 
require the subjunctive, when they introduce sentences con- 
taining the thoughts or words of another person. It there- 
fore DOW remains to speak of those conjunctions which 
require the subjunctive on account of their peculiar signifi- 

The particles expressing a wish, utinam, ut, and O si, go- 
vern the subjunctive, because the wish exists only as a 
conception of the mind ; but there is this difference in regard 
to the tenses, that the present and perfect are used of wisho9) 
which are conceived as possible, and the imperfect and plu- 
perfect of those which are to be described as not in accord- 
ance with reality. The English, " Oh, would that not " 
should properly be expressed in Latin only by utinam we, 
but utinam non is frequently used instead of it. 

[§ 572.] Quasi {aeque, perinde, non secus), ac si, tarn- 
quam si, velut si, or tamquam and velut alone, all of which 
signify " as if," ** as though," always introduce a clause 
which contains only a conception of the mind, and are con- 
sequently used with the subjunctive. The tense depends 
upon that of the leading verb : Sic cogitandum est, tamquam 
aliquis in pectus intimum iitspicere possit, 

Dummodo (if only, if but), for which dum or modo is 
also used alone, governs the subjunctive because it expresses 
an intention or a purpose conceived by the mind; when 
joined with a negative, it h^QomeB dummxido ne, dum ne, modo 
ne ; e. g. muUi omnia recta et honesta negligunt, dummodo 
potentiam conseqicantur. 

[§ 573.] Ut, in the sense of " even if," or " although,'' 
expresses a supposition merely «s a conception, and ac- 


copdinglj governs the subjunctive. It takes the negative 
non ; the same however maj be expressed by ne with the 
concessive subjunctive. So also nedum or nedum ut, not to 
mention that. 

Ut desint vires, tamen est laudanda voluntas.* 
Optimis temporibus clarissimi atque amplissimi viri vim 
tribunidam sustinere non potuerunt : nedum his temporibus 
sine judieiorum remediis salvi esse possimus, 

[§ 574.] Quamvis, as distinct from quamquam, is oflten 
ns^ in the sense of quantumvis and quamlibet, i. e. ^^ how- 
ever much," with the subjunctive. Zicc^ (although), properly 
a verb which has become a conjunction, has the same mean- 
ing and construction as quamvis. 

Licet strenuum metum putes esse, velocior tamen spes est. 

[§ ^^^O '^^® particles of time dum, donee and quoad have 
the indicative, when they are used in the sense of quamdiu 
or " as long as ; " in the sense of " until," they may have 
either mood ; the indicative, if a thing is expressed as a fact, 
and the subjunctive, if it is merely conceived as a thing which 
may possibly be realised, or if at the same time a purpose is 
implied in the clause, 

Lacedaemoniorum gens fortis fuit, dum Lycurgi leges ri- 

Iratis aut subtrahendi sunt ii, in quos impetum conantur 

facere, dum se ipsi colligant, aut rogandi orandique sunt, 

ut, si quam habent ulciscendi vim, differant in tempus 

aliud, dum defervescat ira. 

[§ 576.] Antequam and priusquam in narratives are 
generally used with the imperfect and pluperfect subjunctive, 
if there is some connection between the preceding and tiie 
subsequent action (but if the simple priority of one action to 
xinother is expressed, the indicative is used) ; e. g. discede 
antequam rex veniat ; discessit antequam rex veniret. 

[§ 577.] 1 1 , With regard to quum, there is this difference, 
that quum causale governs the subjimctive, and quum te7/i' 
porale by itself requires the indicative, for quum is properly a 
relative adverb of time, corresponding to the demonstrative 
adverb tum, as in tum — quunu then — when> If therefore 
nothing further is to be expressed, it is joined with the in- 
dicative. But when quum expresses the relation of cause 


and effect, it governs the subjunctive, e. g. quum seianif 
quum scirem, quum intellexerim, quum intellesnssemy i. e. as 
I know, as I knew, as I have learnt, as I had learnt — I will 
do this or that. When it has the meaning of " though " or 
" although," it is likewise joined only with the subjunctive, 
e. g. Phocion fuit perpetuo pauper^ quum ditissimus esse 

[§ ^^^O ^ 2, narrative however quum temporale is joined 
with the imperfect and pluperfect subjunctive, because in a 
continuous narrative, a preceding event is always conceived 
and represented as the cause of a subsequent one ; e. g. 
Caesar, quum Pompejum aptid Pharsalum vicisset, in Asiam 
trajedt : here we perceive a combination of time and cause, 
which is expressed by the subjunctive. This is always the 
case in historical narratives, although if we consider only 
the relation of time or- priority, we might believe the in- 
dicative, also to be correct. Examples are extremely nu- 
merous. See § 505. 

[§ ^^^O ^^^ when quum is a pure particle of time, that 
is, when it does not occur in a narrative, and when no rela- 
tion of cause and effect is to be expressed, it may be joined 
with all the tenses of the indicative, even with the imperfect 
and pluperfect, in the sense of eo tempore quum, or turn 
quum, which expressions, in fact, often occur. 

Qui nan defendit injuriam, neque propulsat a suis, quum 

potest, injuste facit 
Sed da operam, ut vcUeas, et, si valehis, quum recte navigari 

poterit, tum naviges, 
Verres eonfecto itinere, quum ad aliquod oppidum venerat 

(an action often repeated), eadem lectica usque in cubicu- 

lum deferebatur. 

[§ 680.] 12. The following must be observed as pecu- 
liarities m the use of quum temporale: 1. Quum is joined 
with the perfect or imperfect indicative to express simul- 
taneous occurrences which are indicated in English by 
"while." This simultaneousness is marked more empha- 
tically by adding interea or interim. The perfect in this 
case is used in historical narratives, and the imperfect in 
descriptions. 2. Quum is joined with all tenses of the indi- 
cative, and more especially with the present to express the 
decided beginning of an action, in which case it does not 
introduce a protasis, but ratbieT ^tl ^^odosis. It is commonly 


preceded by adverbs, as jam^ nonduniy vix, aegre, or quum 
Itself is joined with repente or subito, 

Catulus, quum ex vobis qudereret, si in uno Cn. Pompejo 

. omnia poneretis, si quid eo factum esset, in quo spem essetis 
haJbituri: cepit magnum suae virtutis fructum ac dignitatis^ 
quum omnesprope una voce^ in eo ipso vos spem habituros 
esse, dixistis. 

Caedebatur virgis in medio foro Messanae civis Romanus^ 
JudiceSy quum interea nuUus gemitus, nulla vox alia istius 
miseri inter dohrem crepitumque plagarum atidiebatur, 
nisi haec : civis Romanics sum» 

Evokzrat jam e conspectu fere fugiens quadriremis, quum 
eUamtum ceterae naves uno in loco moliebantur. 

Jam in conspectu, sed extra teli jactam utraque acies erai, 
quum priores Persae inconditum et trucem sustulere cla^ 

Jamque, qui Dardum vehebant equi, confossi hastis et dolore 
efferati, jugum quatere et regem curru excutere coeperant, 
quum ille, veritus ne vivus veniret in hostium potestatem, 
desility et in equum, qui ad hoc sequebatur, imponitur. 



[§ 583.] 1. The imperative, both in the active and passive, 
has two forms — the imperative present and the imperative 
future. (See § 151.) Both express a command, but also a 
wish, an advice or exhortation. The difference in the mean- 
ing of the two imperatives is this : — 

The imperative present expresses that something is to be 
done directly or at once ; as lege, read I morere, die ! or that 
a thing which exists at present is to continue to exist, as 

The imperative future puts the command in connection, 
with some other action, and expresses that something is to 
be done in future, when, or as soon as, something else has 
taken place. It is however not necessary that the other ac- 
tion should be expressed in words, but in many cases it is 
supplied by the mind. 


Quum valetudini fuae consulueris, turn constdito navigationii 
Prius audite paueis ; quod cum dixerOy si placuerit, Jacitotc, 
Cras petito : dabitur ; nunc abL 

[§ 584.] 2. Hence the imperative future is properly used 
iu contracts, laws, aud wills, inasmuch as it is stipulated in 
them that things are to be done after a certain time ; further, 
in precepts and rules of conduct, that is, to express actions 
which are to be repeated as often as the occasion may occur. 

Regio imperio duo sunto, iique consules appellantor, militiae 
summum jus habento, nemini parento, illis solus populi 
suprema lex esto, 

Ignoscito saepe alteri, nunquam tibi, 

[§ 685.] 3. With the imperative the English "not** must 
be rendered by ne and " nor " by neve, but not by non or 

Hominem mortuum (inquit lex in duodecim tabulis) in urbe 
ne sepelito neve urito, 

[§ ^^^O ^« ^^^ following forms are used instead of both 
tenses of the imperative : — 

a) The future, which however takes the negative non, if 
anything is forbidden ; e. g. fades, or non fades hoc, 

b) The third person of the present subjunctive, both in an 
affirmative and negative (ne) command, is even more fre- 
quently used than the imperative. 

c) The second person of the perfect subjunctive, usually 
with a negative (wc), as ne,di$eris, nemini dixeris, 

5. The affirmative imperative is paraphrased by cvra (or 
purato) ut, fac ut, or fac alone with the subjunctive.; e. g. 
cura ut quam primum venias,fadte ut recordemini,fac animo 
forti mag7ioqu€ sis. The negative imperative is paraphrased 
by fac He, cave ne, or commonly by cave alone (without ne), 
with the present or perfect subjunctive : cave putes, cave 
dixeris ; but especially by noli with the infinitive : noli pu- 
tare, nolite (nolitote) existimare. 

Quod dubitas, nefeceris. 

Magnum fac animum habeas et spem bonam. 




|5 53a1 1. The infinitive expresses the action or condition 
Implied in the verb in the form of an abstract generality, 
without specifying either person, number, or time ; it merely 
indicates the relations of an action, that is, whether it is in 
progress or completed. Scribere, to write, expresses the 
action as in progress ; scripsisse, to have written, as com- 
pleted. To what time the action thus described belongs, is 
determined by the verb on which the infinitive depends. 

Noie. The one of these infinitives is usually called the present and the 
other the perfect infinitive. The former name is incorrect, for it is not the 
present time that is expressed by scribere, since, besides volo scribere^ we 
may say, {heri) vohham scribere, vidueram scribere, and (eras') volam scribere ; 
but the action is described only as in progress. The infinitives should 
therefore rather be called infinitivus rei infectae and infinitivus rei perfectae. 
If, however, we compare the two infinitives with the tenses of the verb, 
we are naturally struck by the resemblance between scribere and scribo, 
and between scripsisse and scripsi • although, with regard to the relation 
of the action, the imperfect scribebam, and the pluperfect scripseram have 
the same claim as scribo and scripsi. Hence the first infinitive is also 
called infinitivus praesentis et imperfecti, and the other infinitivus perfecti 
et plusquamperfecti ; but neither of these designations comprises the whole 
of their signification. 

[§ 691.] 2. In the passive voice there are also two infini- 
tives, the one to express the progress of a state of suffering, 
and the other the completed state of suffering. The one is 
called the infinitive present, and the other the infinitive per- 
fect ; the former is simple, latidari, to be praised ; the second 
is formed by a combination of the participle perfect with the 
verb esse, as laudatus esse, or in the accusative laudatum 
esse, to have been praised ; the participle of course takes the 
number and gender of the object to which it refers. 

[§ 593.] 3. Besides these infinitives expressing an action 
or a state in progress and completed, there is, both in the 
active and passive, an infinitive of future time (infinitivus 
futuri), which denotes an action or condition as continued. 
It is formed in the active by a combination of the participle 
future active with esse, as laudaturum esse ; and in the pas- 
sive by a combination of the supine in um with iri, as lau' 


datum iri. The former, owing to its participle, maj take 
different genders and numbers, the latter admits of no such 
change ; e. g. Retis videbatur damnatum iri ; homines arbi- 
trantur se benefices visum iri. 

Note. The future participle in una properly expresses an intention 
or desire ; and in thb sense it takes the infinitives esse and fwtsey as 
lamdaturum esse, to intend praising ; laudaturum fuitte, to have intended 
praising; gcio te scripturum JuUse, I know that you have bad the intention 
to write. The infinitive of an action that had once been intended («eni»- 
turum fuute) is further used, especially in the 8^>odosis of hypothetioed 
sentences belonging to the past, where in direct speech the pluperfi^ 
subjunctive would be used, as etiamsi obtemperasaet auspiciis, idem eoen- 
turumfuisse puto. Laudandvm esse cannot be used as an infinit. fiit. pass., 
for the participles in dus denote necessity. 

[§ 504.] 4. Besides this a circumlocution may be em- 
ployed for the infinitive of future time, by means oiftiturum 
esse or fore followed by ut with the subjunctive. Here, too, 
the difference between an action continued and an action 
completed in future time may be expressed : the former by 
the present and imperfect, and the latter by the perfect and 
pluperfect of the subjimctive. The choice of one of these 
four subjimctive tenses depends upon that of the leading 
verb ; e. g. credo fore ut epistolam scribcts, and credebam 
fore ut epistolam scriberes, both expressing a continued ac- 
tion in future time ; but credo fore ut epistolam scripserisj 
and credebam fore ut epistolam scripsisses, expressing a com- 
pleted action in future time. And so also in the passive : 
credo fore ut epistola scribatur, and credebam fore ut epis' 
tola scriberetur, both expressing a continued state of future 
suffering ; but in order to express a completed state in future 
time, we avail ourselves in the passive of the participle per- 
fect scriptus, which was wanting in the active ; hence credo 
and credebam epistolam scriptam fore. This circumlocution 
by means of futurum esse or fore ut is necessary when the 
verb has no supine or participle future active, which is the 
case with many intransitives. Hence we cannot say other- 
wise, for example, than spero futurum esse (Jore) ut sapias^ 
ut te hujus rei poeniteat, ut brevi omnibus his incommodis 
medeare. But it is also used in many other cases, and in 
the passive this form occurs almost more frequently than the 
infinitive formed by the supine with iri. 

Video te velle in caelum migrare^ et spero fore ut contingat 
id nobis. 


Non eram nescius, fore ut hie noster labor in ijarias repre^ 

hensiones incurreret 
Ptohmaeus mathematicus Othom persuaserat, fore ut in im^ 

perium ascisceretur, 

[§ 507.] 5. The infinitive may be regarded as a verbal sub- 
sts^tiye of the neuter gender, with two cases — the nomina- 
tive and accusatiye ; differing from other substantives of the 
same kind in this respect that it governs the case which it 
requires as a real verb, and at the same time expresses the 
complete or incomplete state of an action. The infinitive 
must be considered as the nominative, when it is the subject 
of a sentence, that is, when anything is declared of it ; e. g. 
invidere nan cadit in sapientem, where invidere is equivalent 
to invidia ; virtus est vitium fugere^ i. e. fuga vitii ; est ars 
difficilis recte rempublicam regere, i. e. recta gnhematio rei" 
publicae; ignoscere amico humanum est. The infinitive must 
be considered as the accusative, when it is the object of a 
transitive verb, such as volo^ cupio, audeo, conor facere or 
dicere aliquid, just as we say cupio aliquam rem^ nescio 
mentiri^ didici vera dicere. 

Majus dedecus est parta amittere quam omnino non para-r 

Didicisse fideliter artes emollit mores, nee sinit esseferos. 
Vincere scis, Hannibal, victoria uti nescis, 

[§599.] 6. When the infinitive has its own subject joined 
to it, it is put in the accusative. 

Note, An exception here presents itself in the historical infinitive 
(^infinitivus historicus), to which the subject is joined in the nomina^ 
live. The historical infinitive is a peculiar mode of using the present 
infinitive in a narrative instead of the imperfect indicative, when actions 
or conditions are to be described in a lively and animated manner, as 
PhUippus inopinantibut advenit. Quem quvm adesse refugientes ex agrit 
quidam pavidi nuntiassent, trepidare Damocritus ceterique duces : et erat 
forte meridianum tempusy quo fleriqv^ graves cibo sopiti jacehant : excitare 
igiiur cdii alios, jtAere arma capere, alios dimittere ad revocandos, qui paJati 
per agros praedabantur, 

[§ 600.] This is the construction of the accusative with 
the infinitive, which like the infinitive alone is used in two 
ways, either as the subject or as the object of a proposition, 
The accusative with the infinitive is the subject, wherever, if 
we would or could use a substantive in its place, it would be 
in the nominative. So it is especially when a substantive ov 


adjectiYe is added as a predicate by means of est^ erat, fuit^ 
&c., as justum, aequum, verisimile, consentaneum, apertum 
^st, necesse est and opus est, or an impersonal verb, as appo" 
ret, constat, convenit, decet, licet, oportet, or the third person 
singular of the passive, as intelligitur, perspicitur, and the 
like ; e. g. Victorem parcere victis aequum est, it is fair 
that the conqueror should spare the conquered, i. e. the cle- 
mency of the conqueror towards the conquered is fair. 

Hoc quidem apparet, nos ad agendum esse natos. 
Constat profecto ad salutem civium inventas esse leges* 
Legem brevem esse oportet, quo /acilius ab imperitis fe- 

Note. It is therefore incorrect to say that this accusative with the 
iniinitive is dependent on verum, contUU, &c ; for the accusative with the 
Infinitive is the nominative or governing case. 

[§ 602.] 7. The accusative with the infinitive is the ob- 
ject, after verbs which have a sentence for their direct object, 
i. e. after those which denote an action of our external or 
internal faculties or a declaration (verba sentiendi et decla- 
randi). The principal verbs of this kind are : audio, video, 
sentio, animadverto, cognosco, intelligo, percipio, disco, scio, 
credo, arbitror, puto, opinor, duco, stattio, memini, recordor, 
obliviscor; dico, trado, prodo, scribo, refero, nuntio, confir" 
7M>, nego, ostendo, demonstro, perhibeo, promitto, poUiceor, 
spondeo, and several others denoting feeling, knowing, think' 
ing, or saying. These and other verbs of the same kind, 
instead of being followed by a dependent clause with a 
conjunction (that, quod), require the infinitive, and the sub- 
ject of the dependent clause is put in the accusative. (In 
English the two clauses are sometimes put in juxtaposition 
without any sign of dependence or connection, e. g. he feels 
that he is unhappy, or he feels he is unhappy.) 

Sentit animus, se sua vi, non aliena, moveri. 

Ego ne utilem quidem arbitror esse nobis futurarum rerum 

Pompfjos, celebrem Campaniae urbem, desedisse terrae motu 



[§ 603*] Note I. The propositions which are in direct dependence 
upon the ahove-mentioned verbs are put in the accusative with the infini- 
tive ; the clauses inserted in such a proposition are, according to circum- 
stances, either in the indicative or the subjunctive, and in the latter mort 
eqfeeJally when they are inseparably connected with the propontiM 


fXpressed bj the accus. with the infinitiTe, containing 'either the words Of 
sentiments of the person spoken oC (See § 54^.) 

• [§ ^^O "^^ following remarks must be especially observed : 1.) The 
personal pronouns which are expressed in the other moods only in caser 
of their having the emphasis, are always expressed with the infinitive. 2.) 
The reflective pronoun se, as well as the possessive suus, is employed when 
reference is made in the dependent clause to the subject of the leading 
aae ; and in explanatory clauses, when any thing is stated as the sen- 
timent of the subject. (§ 550.) We say, e. g. Caesar se turn sui eommodi 
causa arma cepisse dicebat, but an explanatory clause cannot always take 
these pronouns, as Caesar^ quum eum nonnuRi injustitiae accuscarent, or 
Caesar^ quod ejus causa a plerisque damnabatury se non sui commodi causa 
arma cepisse dicebat ; but when the explanatory clause contains the sen- 
timent of the subject, we use se and suus, e. g. Caesar, quod suum Jus d 
sejuxtu laesum esset, or postquam nihil sibi ac suis postulatis tributum esset, 
M€ non sua sed ipsius reipubiicae causa arma cepisse dicebat. 

[§ ^^"l This rule that the personal pronouns must be expressed (in 
the accus.) with the infinitive must be particularly attended to with re- 
gard to the verbs ** to promise ** and " to hope,** since in English they are 
.usually joined with the infinite present without any pronoun. In Latin 
the pronouns are not only expressed, but the infinitive which follows is 
^hat of the future, e. g. promisit se venturum, daturum esse, spero hoc me 
assecuturum (with the omission of esse, as is very frequently the case with 
Ihis infinitive and that of the perfect passive). 

[§ 606.] Note 2. When the use of an infinitive active would bring 
two accusatives together, one of the subject and the other of the object, 
and an ambiguity would be likely to arise, it is the rule to prefer the 
passive construction, by which the accusat. of the object becomes the sub- 
ject, and the other is avoided or explained by the preposition ab or per : 
Ne fando quidem auditum est, crocodilum aut ibim aui felem violatum esse 
ab Aegyptio, If we were to say crocodilum violasse Aegyptium, there would 
certainly be a great ambiguity. 

. [§ ^7.1 8. The accusative of the subject in the construc- 
tion of the accusative with the infinitive after the verbs 
xienoting saying, showing^ and believing (dicere, tradere, nar^ 
rare, nuntiare, prodere, ostendere, credere, existimare, and 
some others of the same meaning), is regarded also as an 
accusative of the object, governed by those verbs, and hence 
the passive construction also is admissible, by which the ac- 
cusative becomes the nominative. This is the case especially 
when the subject of those verbs is indefinite, as dicunt (they 
or people say) me virum prohum esse, or dicor vir probtts 
esse, and so through all persons and tenses : diceris, dicitur 
vir probus esse ; dicimur, dicimini, dicuntur viri probi esse 
or /ecisse» The same is frequently the case with the verbs 
jubercy vetare and prohibere, so that the passive of these 
verbs are used personally, as vetamur, prohibemur hoc fa- 
-cere, ahire Juasus sum, consules jubentur exercxtuia %crOt>eT&« 


Farther, instead of the impersonal videtur (it appears) wilii 
the accusat. with the infinit, it is more common to say per- 
sonally videor, videriSy videtur^ videmur^ videmini^ tnaeniur 
with the infinitive, as videor errasscy it appears that I haye 
erred ; videor deceptus esse^ it appears that I haye been de- 

Xanihippey Socratis pkilosophi uxor, morosa admodumfuUie 

fertuT etjurgiosa, 
Segnante Tarquinio Superbo Sybarim et Crotonem Ih^Aa* 

goras venisse reperitur, 
Aihenis actor movere affectus vetabatur, 

[§ 608.] 9. The snbject cannot be expressed with the 
infinitive, when it is an indefinite person, for the Romans 
had no word to express the English *^ one " (French on)y and 
hence we say ignoscere amico humanum esty to forgive a 
friend is humane, or it is humane that one (or we) sjiould 
foigive a friend. 

But even in this case the verb esse and tiiose denoting '^to 
appear," "to be considered" or "called" require the predi- 
cate, if it be declinable, to agree with the non-expressed sub- 
ject in the accusative, e. g. ignoscere amico humanum est, 
recordantem benejiciorum ah eo acceptoruniy it is humane 
that one should forgive a friend, remembering the benefit 
received of him. 

Conientum suis rebus esse maximae sunt certissimaeqve di' 

Licet opera prodesse multisy beneficia petententy commendan* 

tern fnagistratibuSy vigilantem pro re aUerius. 
Atticus maximum existimavit guaestuniy memaremgraiumque 

Magnis in laudibus totaferefuit Graecid victorem Ot^fmpiae 


[§ 600.] 10. The accusative with the infinitive son^etimee 
stands apparently quite ind^>endent, but is to be explained 
by an ellipsis of credibUe esif verumne est? This is tbe 
case in exclamations, and, wh^i the interrogative particle 
{ne) is annexed, in interrogations expressive of indig^iatioDi 
e. g. Juno in Virgil {Aen, L 37.) exdaima, Mene ineepio dt' 
sisiere victam^ Nee posse Italia Teucrorum avertere regem! 
But it must be observed tb&t «k clause witiii ut may also be 
iiaed to expresa a quea&oiL mlik \a^\sffltfii«i»Vi^^\wJbL case 


ve have to supply fieri potest? e. g. vietamne %U quisquam 
victrici pcUriae praeferatf is it possible that any one should 

[§ 610.] 11. The verbs, / can, shall, hasten, adventure, 
am accustomed, and others of the same Idnd, are followed in 
Latin as in English by the mere infinitive and not by a pro- 
position. When they are joined with esse, haberi, judicari, 
wderi, &c., the predicate is put in the nominative, e. g. solet 
iristis videri, aude sapiens esse, debes esse diligens. 

But the verbs volo, nolo, malo ; 'eupio, opto, studeo, adnut 
of a twofold construction : the mere infimtive is used after 
them, when the subject remains the same, and when they 
are followed by esse or any of the above-mentioned verbs, 
the predicate is in the nominative; but the accusat. with 
the infinit. is used, when the subject is changed, or wh^ 
the pronoun of the same person is repeated. On the o^e 
han^ therefore, we say volo eruditus fieri, and on the other 
volo te eruditum fieri, and volo me eruditum fieri. Hence 
it is indifferent whether I say disdpulum me haberi volo, non 
doctorem, or discipulus haberi volo, non doctor; principem 
se esse maluit quam videri, or prineeps esse maluit quam 
videru (Comp. § 613.) 

Volo is esse, quern tu me esse voluistu 
Qui eget mtdtis, gratum se videri studeat, 

[§ 613.] 12. There are many Latin verbs which, according 
to our notions, seem to require a proposition for their direct 
object, that is, the accusative with the infinitive, but which, 
nevertheless, are followed in Latin by ut with the subjunc- 
tive, either exclusively, or admit the construction of the^ 
accusat. with the infinit. besides. This arises from the cir- 
cumstance that such propositions may be or more properly 
must be conceived as expressing a design, purpose, effect, or 
result of the leading proposition which is indicated by ut (or 

a) The verbs patior and sino are generally followed by the 
infinitive, and more rarely by ut; the verbs opto, concede, 
permttto, which have a more forci^ble meaning, may have 
either the infinitive, or ut; posco, postulo, fiagito and cogo 
Jiave more frequently ut than the infinitive. 

JPhaethon optavit ut in currum patris toUeretur (instead of 
toUi or se tollt). 

K 8 

244> £.ATm GRAMMAR. 

lUud natura non patitur, ut aliorum spoliis nostras facul'^ 

tates, copiaSy opes augeamus. 
Augtistus dominum se appellari ne a liheris quidem aut ne'\ 

potibus suis passus est 

[§ ^^^0 ^) The verbs of resolving and endeavouring to 
do or prevent a thing are followed by ut and ne, when the 
dependent clause has a subject of its own, but when the samOv 
subject remains they are generally followed by the infinitive 
(i. e. the nominat. with the infinit.), though ut is found in 
this case also. Verbs of this kind are : statuoy constituo, de^. 
cemOy tento, paro, meditor, euro, nitor, contendo, and the 
phrases consilium capio, in animum induco, or animum in- 
duco* Hence, we may say constitui domi manere, as well 
as constitui ut domi manerem ; but we can say only constitui 
utfilius meus tecum habitaret, Ut is used almost exclusively- 
after the expressions operam do, I exert myself; id {hoc, illud) 
ago, I endeavour or exert myself; nihil antiquius habeo or 
duco, quam, nothing is of more importance to me ; and videre 
in the sense of curare* 

Qui sapientes appellari volunty inducant animum divitiaSy 

honoresy opes contemnere, eaquCy quae his contraria sunty 

pro nihilo ducere. 
Debes explicare omnia vitia Jiliiy quibus incenstis parens 

potuerit animum inducere, ut naturam ipsam vinceret, ut 

amorem ilium penitus insitum ejiceret ex animOy w< 

denique patrem esse sese oblivisceretur, 
Omne animal se ipsum diligity ac simul ut ortum est id agity 

ut se conservet, 
Videndum est igitur, ut ea liberalitate utamur, quae prosit 

amicisy noceat nemini, 

[§ 615.] c) The verbs rogo, orOy praecor, petOy moneo, 
admoneOy commoneoy hortor, adhortory cohortor, exhortor, 
suadeOy persuadeOy impello, perpello, excitOy incitOy impero, 
and some others, are followed by ut or ne in both cases, 
when the subject remains the same, and when it is changed,^ 
and by the infinitive only by way of exception. The com- 
plete accusat. with the infinit. occurs with some of them only 
when their meaning is different, as with moneo and admoneo 
in the sense of " I remind " a person that a thing is, not is to 
3e; with persuadeo in the sense of " I convince.** But, on 
the other hand^ even such, vexba »a nuutao, dico^ %criho^ are 

JNFmiTITE . MOOP. 243 

followed by iit, when the meaning is " I anilbmice, say, or 
write with the intention that," &c. 

Illtid te oro et hortor^ ut in extrema parte muneris tui dili* 

gentissimus sis, 
Moneo obtestorque^ ut kos, qui tibi genere propinqui sunt^ 
\ caros habeas^ neu malis alienos adjungere^ quam sanguine 

conjunctos retinere, 
'Themistocles persuasit populo, ut pecunid publica, quae ex 
' metallis rediret, classis centum navium aedi/icaretur, 
Tibi persuade^ praeter culpam et peccatum homini accidere 
. nihil posse, quod sit korribile aut pertimescendum, 

[§ ^^^-J Note, The verbs of commanding, as imperare, mandate^ prae- 
tcribere, edicere (to issue a command), legem dare, decemere, are followe4 
by lit according to the above rule. Jubere and vetare alone form an ez^ 
ception, being construed with theaccusat. with the infinit., but attention 
roust be paid as to whether the infinit. active or passive is to be used > 
e. g. militem occidi juasit, he ordered the soldier to be put to death ; eum 
abire jussit, he ordered him to depart ; vetuit castra vallo muniriy and 
vetuit legatos ah opere discedere. 

[§ 618.] d) The verbs of effecting, \iz»Jacio, effido, petr 
fido, impetro, and consequor, are never construed with the 
^ifinitive or the accMisative with the infinitive, but with ut 
or ne ; since the relation of dependence upon these verbs is 
regarded in Latin as that of an intended result. Hence arisen 
a frequent circumlocution by means oifacere ut to express a 
real fact, and instead of dimisit milites, we accordingly fin4 
fecit ut dimitteret milites* 

Epaminondas perfecit, ut auxilio sociorum Lacedaemonii 

[§ efzo.] . 13. Hence it not unfrequently happens in nar- 
ratives, that the verbs of begging, commanding, admonishing, 
&c. are first followed by ut or ne and the subjunctive, and 
afterwards by the accusative with the infinitive, only the 
words or sentiments of the subject of the narrative being re- 
corded. For the purpose of explanation, we supply from the 
preceding verb the general idea of thinking or saying, which 
is implied in the leading verb ; e. g. Caesar exercitui imperavit, 
ne injussu suo concurreret : se, quum id fieri vellet, vexilla 
signum daturum. 

His (colonis Athen.) consulentibus nominatim Pythia prae- 
cepit, ut Miliiadem sibi imperaiorem sumeretit : %A «^ J^c^- 
^eu^, incepta prosper a futura. 

M 3 


[§ 621.] 14. Lastly, ut is used, and not tlie accnsaliye 
with the infinitive (which would here be the accusatiTe of 
the subject): — 

a) After the expressions denoting "it happens :*'^<(y?m 
non potest), acddit, incidity contingit (chiefly of desirable 
things), evenity usu venity occurrit and est (it is the case or 
happens, and hence also after esto, be it that). 

b) After the words denoting " it remains," or " it follows:" 
futurumy extremumy prape, proximum, and reiiqutim est, re- 

tinguitur, sequitur, restat, and superest; sometimes also (xece- 
dit ut (" to this must be added that," where, however, quod 
is more common). 

Fieri autem potest, ut rede quis sentiat, et id, quod seniit, 

polite eloqui non possit. 
Persaepe evenit, ut utilitcts cum honestate certet. 
Amicis quomam satisfeci, reliquum est, ut egomet mihi con- 


[§ 624.] 15. The verbs denoting willingness and permis- 
sion, which may take ut instead of the accusative with the 
infinitive {volo, nolo, malo, sino, permitto and licet) ; those 
Which denote asking, advising, reminding (especially postulof 
peto, rogo, oro, precor, hortor, suadeo, censeo, moneo, admo^ 
neo), which are generally construed only with ut, and some 
others of a similar kind, as euro, decemo, mando, jubeo, may 
idso be followed by the subjunctive alone, without uL To 
these we must add the two imperatives fcLc (in its periphras-> 
tic sense " take care that") which usuaUy tsJkes ut, and c<xve, 
which usually takes ne ; for they too are frequently joined 
with the subjunctive alone. 

MaU) te sapiens hostis metuat, quam siuUi cives laudent. 
Summa nuUtum alacritate,jubentium quocunque veUetduce- 

ret, oratio excepta est. 
Quod pUrumque in atroci negotio solet, senatus decrevit, 

darent operam constdes, ne quid respublica detrimenti ea- 


[§ 095.] Note, Opottet and neoene est may likewise be foHowed either 
by the accusative with the infinitive, or by the subjunctive alone ; e. g4 
l^ea oportet brevei aint; virtut neetste ett vUium aspermiur atqua oderiU 

Opus est generally takes the infinitive ; vt occurs very rarely. 

[§ 626.] 16. The infinitiye Mid ^^ «Jt^^3«a^Gl>l^^?^V^^LtJle 
niutive, according to § 691., s^tv^ Vi T«^x^!e«oX^.YKs^- 


lion as a single thought, so that it resembles an abstract noun* 
Quo<f with a tense of the indicatiye or subjunctiye, on the 
other hand, represents a proposition simplj as' a fact. This 
is obviously the case, e. g. when in replying to a person, we 
take up and repeat a previous remark of his. It is frequently 
indifferent whether we express a proposition by the accusa- 
tive with the infinitive, or by quod, as, for example, in those 
cases where the predicate " it is agreeable " or " disagree- 
able," " it is pleasant ** or " unpleasant," follows the propo- 
sition. ' But the infinitive is always more properly made the 
subject, when the predicate expresses an abstract idea ; but 
when it implies a fact, the proposition is more properly in- 
troduced by qtwdy to which is frequently joined a demonstra- 
tive pronoun hoc, id, illud, in order to mark its character as 
a fact still more emphatically. 

Inter causas mahrum nostrorum est, quod vivimus ad exem* 

Supra belli Latini metum id quoque a^ces^erat, quod triginta 

jam conjurasse populos satis constabat 
Ex tota laude Reguli illud est adndratione dignum, quod 

captivos Poenorum retinendos censuit^ 

[§ 627.] Note, The use of quod in repeating a previous expression or 
proposition of a person for the purpose of answering it occurs most fre- 
quently in letters : and quod in this case may be rendered in English by 
•* with regard to,'* or " as regards ;** e. g. Quod scribis te velle scire, qui sit 
rei publicae status : summa dissensio est. Quod mihi de JUia gratularis : 
agnosco humanitatem tuam, 

[§ 628.] 17. A purely objective proposition is expressed 
by quod only when it depends upon the very general tran- 
sitive verbs addere (mostly in the imperative adde hue) and 
facer e joined with an adverb, as bene fads quod me mones, 

Hippocrates, clarus arte medicinae, videtur honestissime 
fecisse, quod quosdam errores suos, ne posteri errarent, 
confessus est, 

[§ 629.] But after the verbs denoting a feeling of pain 
or joy, and the outward expression of these fed^ngs, viz. 
gaudeo, detector, angor, doleo, graviter fero, succenseo, 
poenitet, miror, admiror, ghrior, gratuhr, gratias ago, 
queror, indignor, and others of a similar meaning, we may 
either use quod in the sense of " because," or " of " or 
" at the fact that," or the accusative mlVi ^i!s\fc \x!&KiDc^^* 
Whether quod is to be joined m\\i ^Saa VaSaRaiow^ ^^ 

M 4 


subjunctive, must be determined bj the general rules cori-i 
cerning these moods : the indicatiye expresses a fact, and 
the subjunctive a conception. 

Meum factum probari abs te triumpho gaudio. 

Quod spiratiSy quod vocem mittitisy quod formas hominum 

habetiSy indignantur. 
Vetus illud Catonis admodum scitum esty qui mirari se ajebat^ 

quod non rideret haruspexy haruspicem cum vidisset 

[§ 630.] 18. Quod is used exclusively in explanatory or 
periphrastic propositions, which refer to a preceding demon* 
strative pronoun {hoc, id, illudy istud), unless this pronoun 
be added in the nominative or accusative, as a pleonasm to 
verbs governing the accusative with the infinitive. Hence 
this rule finds its certain application only when the demon- 
strative pronoun is in some other case, or dependent upon a 

Mihi quidem videntur homines hac re maxima beluis praeS' 

tarcy qiLod loqui possunt 
Socrates apud Platonem hoc Periclem ceteris praestitiss^ 

oratoribus dicit, quod is Anaxagorae fuerit auditor. 



£§ 631.] 1. The Participle expresses the action or condition 
of the verb in the form of an adjective, governing the case 
of the verb, and at the same time marking the complete or 
incomplete state of the action or condition. In Latin, as in 
English, this form of the verb is very defective, for it has, 
in the active, one participle to express an action still going 
on, as scribenSy writing ; and, in the passive, one to express 
the completed state of suffering, as scriptusy written ; con- 
sequently, there is no participle of a completed action (for 
which we say having written)^ nor of a state of suffering still 
. going on. The Latin deponent \a iVe oiA^ VvaA. «C '^erb which 
-has the participles complete, its ^^m^r^ iotm \i9i^\xi% ^si. 


active meaning : imitans, imitating, and imitatus, one who 
has imitated. 

Tq these, however, we must add two participles, one in 
the active and the other in the passive, which express the 
action or suffering as not yet begun, that is, as something 
which is to take place in future, whence they are called par- 
ticiples of the future. The participle future active properly 
expresses the intention to perform an action, as scripturus, 
one who intends or has to write, but has also the significa- 
tion of simple futurity, " one who is about to write." The 
participle future passive expresses in the nominative the 
necessity that something should be done or suffered, as 
epistola scribenda, a letter which must be written, and not 
one that will be written. In the other cases it serves 
to supply the very sensible want of a participle present pas- 
sive, expressing a state of suffering going on. But of this 
hereafter, § 652, foil. 

[§ 632.] Note. The want of the participle of a completed action in 
the active is often felt very sensibly, for neither circumlocution nor the 
change into the passive form (e. g. victoria partSf after he had gained the 
victory) always conveys exactly what is meant. But the perfect partif 
ciples of deponents are a very convenient means of supplying this want, 
as their number is not small, and it is always easy to find some deponent 
which is synonymous with an active ; in the case just mentioned we may 
say victoriam adeptus^ assecutusj or cmisecutus. 

On the other liand, the Latin writers use many perfect participles of 
deponents in a passive sense, along with the proper active one ; asjuratuSf 
pransus, coenatus ; and ccuaus, ffavisus, aolitus, fisuSy confisus, which are de- 
rived from semi-deponents, (§148.)." 

[§ 635.] 2. Participles are employed in Latin more fre- 
quently than in English, not only to express the verb in 
explanatory clauses, which are connected by a relative pro- 
noun with a noun of the leading sentence ; but clauses which 
are introduced by means of particles of time (e. g. as^ when^ 
although^ since), may be expressed by participles, provided 
their subject occurs in the leading sentence. 

Est enim lex nihil aliud, nisi recta et a numine deorum tracta 

ratio, imperans honesta, prohibens contraria. 
Curio, ad focum sedenti, magnum auri pondus Samnites 

quum attulissent, repudiati ab eo sunt, 
Diont/sius tyrannus, Syracusis expulsus, Corinthi pueros 

Dionysius, cultros metuens tonsorioSy candenti car^ou^ ^^fc^ 

adurebat capillum. 

M 5 


Bisus interdum Ua repente erumpU, ut eum cupienies Unert 

[§ 637.] 3. Substantives expressing the action of the 
verb ; e. g. the building, instituting, writing, hearing, are 
expressed by the participles perfect and future passive, the 
Latin language not always having substantives of this kind 
(at least they are not in common use). There is of course 
this difference, that the perfect participle is employed when 
the action is to be represented as completed, and ihe future 
participle, when it is conceived as still incomplete. (Respect- 
ing the participle future passive, see § 649.) Thifi is done in 
all the cases of such participles, and even when they are 
governed by the prepositions ad, ante, ob, post, propter, ab, 
and ex ; e. g. ha£ litter ae recitatae magnum luctum fecerunty 
the reading of this letter ; Tarentum captum, the taking of 
Tarentum ; receptus Hannibal, the reception of Hannibal ; 
ob receptum ffannibalem, on account of the reception of 
Hannibal ; sibi quisque caesi regis expetebat decus, l^e glory 
of having killed, or of killing the king (for both expressions 
are here equivident). 

Scipio propter Africam domitam Africanus appetlaius est 
Thebae et ante Epaminondam natum et post tjus interiium 

perpetuo alieno paruerunt imperio, (So also post Christum 

natum, ab urbe condita, &c.) 

[§ 639.] 4. The participle future active is used especially 
with verbs of motion (such as go, send, &c.) to express a pur- 
pose, which we indicate in English by the particle " to ; the 
conjunction ut, or a relative pronoun with the subjunctive, 
however, is very commonly used in Latin instead of the 

Hannibal in Etruriam ducit, earn quoque gentem aut vi aut 
voluntate adjuncturtis, 

[§ 640.1 5. In the cases hitherto consideifed the participle 
supplies the place of an inserted clause, the subject of which 
is a noun contained in the leading proposition. If, howevet, 
a new subject is introduced, it is put with the participle in 
the ablative, independent of the leading proposition. This 
construction is called the ablative absolute. (AUaiivus 
adsolutus or consequenticte,^ A ^VimW c»\i«tcuction is aoind- 
timea used in English, as ^^liie eo\]\<^ leucAi^^^ W\aA^ts«^ 


country any longer, his influence being too great for the 
republic ; " but it is more common to express such sentences 
by the conjunctions " as " "when," or by a verbal substantive 
with a preposition, e. g. Cyro rBgnante^ in the reign of 
Cyrus ; Cyro mortuo or occiso, after the death or fall of 
Cyrus, or after Cyrus had been killed. 

Pythagoras quum Tarquinio Superbo regnante in Italiam 
venisset, magnam illam Graeciam quum honore disciplinaey 
turn etiam auctoritate tenuiL 

L, Valerii virtute, regibus exterminatiSy libertas in re publica 
constituta est 

[§ 642.] 6. An ablative absolute may also be used instead 
of the other particles " when," " since," "while," " although," 
which were mentioned in § 635. (Some writers even ret^jn 
the conjunctions qtuimquam and quamvis with the ablat. 

Reltuitante natura, irritus labor est 

Eclipses nan ubique cemuntur, aliquando propter nubiloy 

saepitis globo terrae obstante* 
Haud scio an^ pietate adversiis deos sublata^ fides etiam et 

societas generis humani et una excellentissima virtus jus- 

titia tollatur, 
Mticitis solus in castra Porsenae venity eumque interficere, 

proposita sibi morte, conatus est, 

[§ 644.1 7» Instead of a participle certain substantives 
also may DC used, which express the action of a verb, as dux, 
comes, adjutor, and adjutrix, auctor, testis, judex, interpres, 
magister, praeceptor, and magistra, praeceptrix ; e. g. duce 
natura in the sense of ducente natura, tmder the guidance 
of nature ; comite fortuna^ i. e. comitante fortuna ; judice 
Polybio, according to the judgment of Polybius. So also 
official titles, as consul, praetor, imperator, rex, generally 
only to denote time, as Cicerone constUe, in the consulship of 

Magis auctoribus (on the advice of the Magi) Xerxes infiam* 

masse templa Graeciae dicitur. 
Sapientia enim est una, quae maestitiam pellat ex animis, 

guaenos exhorrescere metu non sinat: qua praeceptrice in 

tranquillitate vivi potest,omni cupiditatum ardore restincto, 
O quam facile erat orbis imperium occupare^ aut mi^i^ R^^ 

manis miUHbuSf aut^ me rege, Romauis! 

n 6 ' 

352 LATE! GKAmrAR. 

£§ e-isS] As the Latins hare no participle of esse in cur- 
rent Use, an adjectiTe slone must sometimes supply the place 
of a participle ; e. g. deo propitio, when God is gracioua ; 
sertmo eoeioy tupera kieme, me ignara, Hits canscUs. 

RomanL Hannibale n'ro, munquam se sine insidus futuros 

O^rims Jii XUom Cloditis expeditus, nulla rhedd^ ntdUs 

impediMteniiSy muJiis Graeeis camiiibus. 

\§i 647.] 8. The simj^ ablatire of the participle perfect 
passire sometimes supplies the place of the whole construction 
of the ablatire absolute, the proposition following being con- 
sidered as a noun of the neuter gender, and as the subject of 
the participle, e. g. Hannibal, cognito insidias siln parariy 
fi^a salmie-m qwaesivity equiTalent to cogniiis insidiis sibi 
paratis, Hiis use howcTcr is confined to a few participles, 
as audii&y cognito^ comperto (in a passive sense), explorato, 
despeFXitOy nttntiatOy edicto, 

Alexandery audiio Dareum appropinquare cttm exercittiy oh* 
nam irt eonsiiimi. 

£§ 649.] 9. The participle future passive has in the 
nominative (and in the construction of the accusative with 
the infinitive, in the accusative also) the signification of ne- 
cessit^y and less frequently that of possibility : laudandus, 
one who must be praised, or ought to be praised. The 
person by whom a thing must be done is expressed with tbi^ 
participle by the dative, and not by the preposition ab. 

The neuter of this participle, joined with a tense of esse, 
retains the signification of necessity, as audendum esty mori- 
endum est, amnibus kominibus moriendum est, we must 
venture, we must die, &c. Kthe verb is transitive, the par- 
ticiple is made to agree with the subject in gender and 
number ; e* g. rirtms laudanda est, virtue must be praised, or 
we must praise virtue ; amnes captici Decidendi sunt, all the 
prisoners must be put to death, or we must put to death, &c.; 
katc via tibi ineunda {ingredienda) est, you must take this 
road, or this road must be taken by you. 

Qmmm sho cuique judicio sit utendum, difficUe factu est^ pu 

id sentire semper, quod tu velis. 
JM^jttsUia in omnibus rebus plurimum nalet: kaec praecipe 
cobtHda est nobiSy kaec snaper cLdK£beada« 


' £§ 652.] 10. In the remaining cases this participle usuallji 
supplies the place of the participle present passive, that is, it 
has the meaning of a continued passive state ; e. g. occupattu 
sum in Uteris scribendis, in letters which are being written ; 
peritus rei publicae regendae. A reference to future time 
also may be implied, but this arises from the connection, and 
not from the participle itself ; e. g. consilium libertatis recu^ 
perandae ; missus erat ad naves comparandas. For the rest 
see the chapter on the Gerund. 

[§ ^^'*'] !!• This participle should properly be formed 
only from active transitive verbs, but it is formed also from 
deponents which have a transitive meaning; e, g. in imi' 
tando hoc scriptore^ i. e. if this writer is imitated. Of in- 
transitive verbs, however, only the neuter of this participle 
is used with est, erat, &c. : quiescendum est, dormiendum 
est, eundum est. 

CHAP. Lxxxn. 


r§ 655.] 1. The Gerund is in form nothing else than thd 
tour oblique cases of the neuter of the participle future pas- 
sive. It governs the caise of its verb, and with regard to 
its signification it supplies the place of a declinable infi- 
nitive present active, and is a verbal substantive, just as in 
English the present participle is used as a verbal substantive. 
Thus we find : illud ' ediscendo scribendoque commune est, 
this is common to learning by heart and writing ; amicitia 
dicta est ab amando, 

[§ 656.] 2. The relation of the gerund to the real parti- 
ciple future passive is this: as the gerund has an active 
meaning, e. g. consilium scribendi, the design of writing or 
to write, it may have an accusative as its object, as consilium 
scribendi epistolam, and this construction may, without any 
change of meaning, be changed into the passive : consilium 
scribendae epistolae, the design of a letter to be written, or 
that a letter should be written. The accusative la l\5k?aa» 
changed into the case i^. which, the g<et\5L\A ^V>q^ "^NijNa* 


change into the passive may take place wherever no ambi- 
guity is likely to arise, i. e. wherever the gender is distin- 
guishable ; hence it generally does not take place, when the 
accusative dependent upon the gerund is the neuter of a 
pronoun or adjective; e.g. studium illud efficiendiy cttpido 
plura cognoscendi, not iUius ejfficiendi, or plurium cognos- 
cendorum^ because it would be impossible to see whether 
the genitives illius and plurium are masculine or neuter. 
Hence it is better to say lex appellata est a suum cuique tri- 
buendd, than a suo cuique tribuendo. But independently of 
this reason, the change of the active construction into the pas- 
sive with the participle future is sometimes avoided, even 
where no ambiguity would arise. 

S§ 659.] 3. The particular cases in which the gerund, 
, under the limitations above mentioned, the participle 
future passive are used, are the following : — 

a) The genitive of the gerund is used after substantives 
and after relative adjectives. (See § 436.) In English, sub- 
stantives and relative adjectives are followed either by " of" 
with the participle present, or by " to " with the infinitive ; 
e. g. ars dicendi, the art of speaking ; discendi cupidus, de- 
sirous to learn. Such substantives, among many others, are : 
ars, causa, consilium, constietudoy cupiditas, facultas, occasio, 
potestas, speSy studium, voluntas. The ablatives causa and 
gratia are also joined with the genitive of the gerund: e. g. 
discendi causa, for the sake or purpose of learning ; quidam 
canes venandi gratia comparantur, 

Beate vivendi cupiditate incensi omnes sumus, 

Parsimonia est scientia vitandi sumptus supervacuaSy aut ars 

refamiliari moderate utendi, 
JEpaminondas studiosus erat audiendu 

b) If the verb governs the accusative, the passive construc- 
tion with the participle future is commonly preferred. 

Quis ignorat Gallos usque ad hanc diem retinere illam im- 
manem ac barbaram consuetudinem hominum immolan- 

Inita sunt a Catilina ejusqtte sociis consilia urbis delendae, 
civium trucidandorum, nominis Romani extinguendL 

Timotheus rei militaris (belli gerendi) fuit perituSf neque 
mintis civitatis regendae. 

f 4^660.] i^at€. The rule respecting t\ke «i^gtessmKEft. <s^ ^* \!w!«Q«n^ 


with the noun in gender andnumber is apparently violafedin the gaaiivred 
the personal pronouns : for meif tuif mi, nostril vettri, even when feminina, 
are joined with the neuter form of the participle ; for these genitives are 
properly derived from the neuters metan, iuumj suum, nostrumy vestrum. 
Hence we say : da mihi copiam tut placandtj both in speaking to a man 
and to a woman ; Aacc dixi vettri adhortandi causa, 

[§ 664.] 4. The dative of the gerund is used after adjec- 
tives which govern this case (§ 409.), especially after utilis^ 
inutilis, noxius^ par, aptus, idoneus, and after substantives 
and verbs denoting a purpose or design. In this sense, how- 
ever, it is more common to use (zd with the accusative of the 
gerund, or a clause with uL The expressions which from 
their meaning are most frequently joined with the dative of 
the gerund, are : studere, intentum esse, tempus impenderCy 
tempus consumere or insumere, operam dare, sufficere, satis 
esse, deesse and esse in the sense "serving for," "being ade- 
quate to." The participle future passive, as was remarked 
above, is used when the verb governs an accusative. 

Aqua nitrosd utilis est bibendo. 

Brutus quum studere revocandis in urbem regibus liberos 

suos comperisset, securi eos percussit. 
Tiberius quasi Jirmandae valetudini in Campaniam conces* 


[§ 666.] 5. The accusative of the gerund is invariably 
dependent upon prepositions, most frequently upon ad (to), 
or inter (during or amidst), but sometimes also upon ante, 
circa, and ob ; and in this case the change into the passive 
construction with the participle future, takes place almost 
invariably when the gerund governs an accusative. 

Mores puerorum se inter ludendum simplicius detegunt 
Musicen natura ipsa nobis videtur ad tolerandos facilitts la" 
bores velut muneri dedisse. 

Note. The beginner must particularly attend to the use of the genmd 
(without a noun) with inters which is equivalent to our ** during "or 
** amidst ;" e. g. inter eundum, inter bibenduTu, inter ambtdandum, inter 

[§667.] 6. The ablative of the gerund is used :-^ a) 
WiQiOut a preposition, as an ablativus instrumenti, b) With 
the prepositions ab, de, ex, and in. In the first case the 
construction is commonly, and in the latt^T ^Vw«^^, ^:2casNJi^ 
•into the pAsaivOf when the gerund goNexn^ ^ov ^iic^^'^L^siA^Qk:^^^ 


Hominis mens discendo alitur et cogitando, ' 

Superstitione tollenda non tollitur religio, 

Fortitudo in laboribus periculisque subeundis cernitur^ tern* 
perantia in praetermittendis voluptatibus, prtidentia in 
delectu bonorum et malorum, justitia in suo cuique tri" 
buendon . 



[§ 668.] 1. The two Supines are, in form, cases of a verbal 
substantive of the fourth declension, but thej govern the case 
of their verb. 

2. The supine in um is used with verbs which express 
ibotion to a place ; e. g. ire, prqficisci^ contendere^ pergere, 
festinare, venire^ mittere, trajicere : and it indicates the ob- 
ject ; e. g. cubitum ire, to go to sleep : exploratum, /rumen- 
tatum^ pabulatum mittere, oratum obsecratumque venire. 
The same meaning is implied in the expression alicui nup- 
pum dare, to give a woman in marriage. But the Latin 
writers in general prefer using the gerund in the accusat. 
with ctd, or in the genit. with causa, or the participle future 
active, instead of the supine. 

Philippus Argis a Pausania, quum spectatum ludos iret, 
juxta theatrum occisus est. (The same may be expressed 
by ad spectandos ludos, ludos spectandi causa, ludorum 
spectandorum causa, ludos spectaturus, or ut ludos spec- 
tar et) 

[§ ^^^O 3' '^^ supine in u is used after the substantive* 
fas, nefas, and opv^s, and after the adjectives good or bad, 
agreeable or disagreeable, worthy or unworthy, ea^y or diffi- 
cult, and some others of similar meaning. Of the adjectives 
which are joined with this supine, the following occur most 
trequeniXj : honestus, turpis, jucundus, facilis, incredibilis, 
0nemorabilis^ utilis, dignus and indigntis. But the number 
of supines in u actually in uae is ^erj ^sswiSiL, wl^^ ^ito:si^ 


limited to the following : diciUy auditu^ cognitUy facta, t»- 
ventu, memoratUy to which we may add natu (by birth, ac- 
cording to age), which occurs in the expressions grandis^ 
majovy minor, rndximus, and minimus natu. 

Pleraque dictu quam re sunt fadliora. 
Quid est tarn jucundum cognitu atque avditu, quam sapien^ 
tibus sententiis gravibusque verbis ornata oratio ? 



The words of a language consist of long and short syllables. 
In measuring syllables the time consumed in pronouncing a 
short syllable is taken as a standard, and this portion of time 
is called mora, A long syllable takes two morae^ and is 
therefore, in this respect, equal to two short syllables. Which 
syllables, in the Latin language, are considered short, and 
which long, has been shown in Chap. HI. From the com- 
bination of syllables of a certain quantity arise what are 
called Feet (pedes), of which there are four of two syllables, 
eight of three syllables, sixteen of four syllables, thirty-two 
of five syllables, &c., since the respective number of syl- 
lables admits of so many variations. For the sake of brevity, 
specific names have been given to those feet which consist 
of two, three, and four syllables : — 

a) of two syllables : 

sj \j Pyrrhichius ; bone, pater, lege, 

Spondeus ; audax, constans, virtus, 

v/ - Iambus ; potens, patres, legunt 

- sj Trochaeus, or Choreus ; laettis, fortis, gaudet 

b) Of three syllables : 

\j sj sj Tribrachys ; domine, dubius, legere. 

- - - Molossus ; mirari, libertas, legerunt, 
\j Dactylus ; improbus, omnia, legerat. 

Amphibrachys ; amare, peritus, legebat 
sj ^j - Anapaestus ; bonitas, meditans, legerent, 
v/ - - Bacchius ; dolores, amavi, legebant. 

- w - Amphimacer, Creticus ; fecerant, legerant, cogitans, 

- - */ Paiimbacchlus, Antib wictoaa \ praecVxTua^ 'pecco^ 


— \j 
\j — \j 


c) Of four syllables : 
s* yj s, sj Proceleusmaticus ; celerUer, memoria, relegere, 

- - - - Dispondeus 5 praeceptores, interrumpunty perlege* 


^ ^ lonicus a minori ; (zdolescefis, generosl^ adamari* 

. _ ^ ^ lonicus a majori ; sentenHa, mutahiUs^ perlegerat 
^ ^ . ^ Ditrochaeus, Dichoreus ; eduoatOTj infideliSy eru^ 

^ _ ^ . Diiambus ; amoenitas, renuntians, supervenis. 
^ . _ ^ Antispastus ; verecuridus, ahundabit, perillustria* 

- v/ K/ - Choriambus ; impatienSy credulitaSy eximios. 

- sj yj yj Paeon primus ; credibilis, historia, aMonitus, 
o - w w ■ secundus ; modestia, amabiliSy idonetis. 

^ ^ . ^ tertius ; pueriliSy opulentus, medtcamen. 

o K/ w - ""^ — quartus ; celeritas, misericorSy refugiens. 

^ Epitritus primus ; laborandoy reformldanty salu* 


- ^ • secundus ; administranSy imperatrixy com- 


— — — tertius ; auctoritaSy inUUigenSy dissentiens, 
" ■ quartus ; assentatoTy infinUuSy ncUuralis. 

2. These feet are imited with one another by Rhythm ; 
that is, the uniformity of the duration of time, in the raising 
and sinking of the voice, or Arsis {^) and Thesis. 

3. The Arsis is either equal to the Thesis, or twice as 
long, as will be seen in the difference of the two feet, the 
Dactyl and the Trochee, £ ^ ^ and i, ^, the Arsis (marked 
thus ^) being combined with the long syllable. The same 
proportion exists when the Thesis precedes the Arsis 
in the Anapaest and Iambus ^ ^ £ and ^ i. The first 
species, in which the Arsis forms the beginning, is called the 
descending Rhythm; the other in whi^ the Thesis forms 
the beginning, the ascending. 

4. The Iambic verse usually consists of the combination of 
six Iambi, whence it is called in Latin senariusy and in 
Greek trimeter, two imited feet being termed a metrum (or 
dipodia). Its metre is this : — 

/ /I / / I 

/ / 

M — U — 

but the last syllable of all verses is ancei^^ «cA\3cka\si^^'5^ 
of a senarius, therefore, may be aPyrrbiwi \ ^ V 


Pure Iambic feet, however, would become monotonous, 
and hence a tribrachys inay be employed in every plac^ 
except the last, the long syllable being resolved into two 
shorts ; or, secondly, a Spondee may be substituted for the 
Iambus in all places except the kst, and the Spondee again 
niay be resolved into a Dactyl or Anapaest. The last foot 
alouQ is thus preserved pure. But in reciting Iambic verses 
it is necessary to read according to the Iambic rhythm, 
that is, in such a manner as to place the ictus on the 
second half of the foot, and if this half consists of two syl- 
lables, upon the first of them, for two syllables cannot be 
equally raised by the ictus. Hence the Tribrachys in Iam- 
bics is read ^ ^^, the Spondee _ £, the Dactyl _ ^^, and 
the Anapaest according to its own peculiar rhythm. 

5. We shall subjoin, as an example, the first fable of 
Phaedrus, divided according to Dipodiae ; every Arsis is in- 
dicated by the ictus. (Respecting the elisions, see § 8.) 

Ad rivum eun\dem Vupiis et d\gntis venerant 
Siti compul\si : s^upSrior \ stahdt luptis 

Longeque infe^rt\or dgnus. Tunc \ fauce improba 

Latro incitd\tuSy jurgit \ causam intulit. 

Cur, inqtdt, tur\bulentam fe\cisti mihi 

Istdm bihen\ti ? Ldniger \ contrd timens : 

Qui possum^ quae\so, f^ dcere quod \ quererU^ lupef 

A te decur\rit dd meos \ havstus liquor, 

Mepulsus il\le veritd\iis viribus 

Ante hos sex men\ses wfalcy ait, di\xisti mihi, 
Respdndit d\gnus: e'quidem nd\tus ndn eram. 
Pater herciiU' tu\u^, inquit^ m'dle\dixit mihi, 

Atque itd corre\ptum Ydcerat in\justd nece, 

6. The dactylic verse most commonly employed is the 
dactylic hexameter, also called the heroic verse, being used 
principally in heroic epics, after the example of Hd^er. 

It consists of six feet or dactyls, the last of whica however 
is shortened by one syllable. In the first four places, a 
spondee may stand,. but it rarely occurs in the fifth, because 
such a verse (called spondiacus) would sound rather heavy. 

The scheme therefore stands tkw^; 

• APPENDIX. 261 

7. In this verse we have to pay particular attention td 
its incision or caesura, A caesura is the interruption of the 
thythm by the end of a word* For, as in reading we make 'a 
pause at the end of a word-, in order to be understood, there 
ftrifees a sort of opposition between the sense and the rhythm, 
which is removed in good reading by making a short pause 
on account of the sense, but taking up at the same time the 
interrupted rhythm. An hexameter may have many caes'urae, 
e.g. ' 

Donee erisfelix, multos numerabis amicoSf 

where the end of the words is throughout at variance with 
the end of the feet ; but one caesura in the middle of the 
line is necessary, in order .to divide the verse, which would 
otherwise be too long, into two halves. It occurs either in 
the third foot after the arsis, and is called penthemimeres 
(irevSriijUijLeprig), because five half feet have preceded it ; or in 
the fourth, likewise after the arsis, and is called hephthe' 
mimeres (ecpdrjuifieprig). The former is by far the most fre- 
quent, e.g. in the following verses of Ovid, where all the 
caesurae are penthemimeres, with the exception of one. 

Silva vetus stabat, \\ nulla violata securi. 
Est specus in medio, || virgis ac vimine densus^ 
Efficiens humilem || lapidum compagibus arcumy 
TJberibus fecundus aquis> \\ Hoc conditus antro 
Martins anguis erat, || cristis praesignis et aura, 
Igne micant oculi, || corpus tumet omne veneno, 
Tresque vibrant linguae, || triplici stant ordine dentes. 

In determining the principal caesura of an hexameter, we are 
assisted by the punctuation, which the poets usually make to 
coincide with the principal caesura, if it does not coincide 
with the end of the verse. 

8. Next to the hexameter, the pentameter is the most 
common dactylic verse. It has its name from the five com- 
plete feet which it appears to contain, for of the six dactyls, 
the third and sixth are imperfect and consist only of two 
halves each. 


There is always a caesura after the third Arsis, and the paiise 
there consists of two Morae. In the second half of the verse, 
the place of the dactyls cannot be supplied by spondees as in 
the first This verse is employed most frequently with an 
hexameter preceding it, and th9S9 twQ verses together are 
called a distich, e. g. 

ArUbus ingenuiSy | quarum tUn maxima. cura est, 
Pectora moUescunty \ asperitasque/ugit 


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